The story

Factory Food


Factory owners were responsible for providing their pauper apprentices with food. Sarah Carpenter was a child worker at Cressbrook Mill: "Our common food was oatcake. It was thick and coarse. This oatcake was put into cans. Boiled milk and water was poured into it. This was our breakfast and supper. Our dinner was potato pie with boiled bacon it, a bit here and a bit there, so thick with fat we could scarce eat it, though we were hungry enough to eat anything. Tea we never saw, nor butter. We had cheese and brown bread once a year. We were only allowed three meals a day though we got up at five in the morning and worked till nine at night."

In most textile mills the children had to eat their meals while still working. This meant that the food tended to get covered with the dust from the cloth. As Matthew Crabtree pointed out: "I began work at Cook's of Dewsbury when I was eight years old. We had to eat our food in the mill. It was frequently covered by flues from the wool; and in that case they had to be blown off with the mouth, and picked off with the fingers, before it could be eaten."

Abraham Whitehead was a cloth merchant from Holmfirth who joined the campaign for factory legislation. He told a parliamentary committee in 1832: "The youngest age at which children are employed is never under five, but some are employed between five and six, in woollen-mills, as piecers.... I have frequently seen them going to work between five and six in the morning.... They get their breakfast as they eat; they eat and work; there is generally a pot of water porridge, with a little treacle in it, placed at the end of the machine."

John Birley complained about the quality of the food: "Our regular time was from five in the morning till nine or ten at night; and on Saturday, till eleven, and often twelve o'clock at night, and then we were sent to clean the machinery on the Sunday. No time was allowed for breakfast and no sitting for dinner and no time for tea. We went to the mill at five o'clock and worked till about eight or nine when they brought us our breakfast, which consisted of water-porridge, with oatcake in it and onions to flavour it. Dinner consisted of Derbyshire oatcakes cut into four pieces, and ranged into two stacks. One was buttered and the other treacled. By the side of the oatcake were cans of milk. We drank the milk and with the oatcake in our hand, we went back to work without sitting down."

Robert Blincoe argued that food in the mill was not as good as that he had been given in St. Pancras Workhouse:"The young strangers were conducted into a spacious room with long, narrow tables, and wooden benches. They were ordered to sit down at these tables - the boys and girls apart. The supper set before them consisted of milk-porridge, of a very blue complexion! The bread was partly made of rye, very black, and so soft, they could scarcely swallow it, as it stuck to their teeth... There was no cloth laid on the tables, to which the newcomers had been accustomed in the workhouse - no plates, nor knives, nor forks. At a signal given, the apprentices rushed to this door, and each, as he made way, received his portion, and withdrew to his place at the table. Blincoe was startled, seeing the boys pull out the fore-part of their shirts, and holding it up with both hands, received the hot boiled potatoes allotted for their supper. The girls, less indecently, held up their dirty, greasy aprons, that were saturated with grease and dirt, and having received their allowance, scampered off as hard as they could, to their respective places, where, with a keen appetite, each apprentice devoured her allowance, and seemed anxiously to look about for more. Next, the hungry crew ran to the tables of the newcomers, and voraciously devoured every crust of bread and every drop of porridge they had left."

Our regular time was from five in the morning till nine or ten at night; and on Saturday, till eleven, and often twelve o'clock at night, and then we were sent to clean the machinery on the Sunday. We drank the milk and with the oatcake in our hand, we went back to work without sitting down.

I began work at Cook's of Dewsbury when I was eight years old. It was frequently covered by flues from the wool; and in that case they had to be blown off with the mouth, and picked off with the fingers, before it could be eaten.

Our common food was oatcake. We were only allowed three meals a day though we got up at five in the morning and worked till nine at night.

The young strangers were conducted into a spacious room with long, narrow tables, and wooden benches. The supper set before them consisted of milk-porridge, of a very blue complexion! The bread was partly made of rye, very black, and so soft, they could scarcely swallow it, as it stuck to their teeth. Where is our roast beef and plum-pudding, he said to himself.

The apprentices from the mill arrived. The boys had nothing on but a shirt and trousers. Their coarse shirts were entirely open at the neck, and their hair looked as if a comb had seldom, if ever, been applied! The girls, like the boys, destitute of shoes and stockings. On their first entrance, some of the old apprentices took a view of the strangers; but the great bulk first looked for their supper, which consisted of new potatoes, distributed at a hatch door, that opened into the common room from the kitchen.

There was no cloth laid on the tables, to which the newcomers had been accustomed in the workhouse - no plates, nor knives, nor forks. Next, the hungry crew ran to the tables of the newcomers, and voraciously devoured every crust of bread and every drop of porridge they had left.


General Foods

General Foods Corporation was a company whose direct predecessor was established in the United States by Charles William Post as the Postum Cereal Company in 1895. The name General Foods was adopted in 1929, after several corporate acquisitions, by Marjorie Post after she inherited the established cereal business from her father C.W. In November 1985, General Foods was acquired by Philip Morris Companies (now Altria Group, Inc.) for $5.6 billion, the largest non-oil acquisition to that time. In December 1988, Philip Morris acquired Kraft, Inc., and, in 1990, combined the two food companies as Kraft General Foods (KGF). "General Foods" was dropped from the corporate name in 1995 a line of caffeinated hot beverage mixes continued to carry the General Foods International name until 2010.


Factory Food

No country has embraced the movement toward commercialized, prepackaged food as much as the United States.

Americans eat 31 percent more packaged food than fresh food, and they consume more packaged food per person than their counterparts in nearly all other countries. A sizable part of the American diet is ready-to-eat meals, like frozen pizzas and microwave dinners, and sweet or salty snack foods.

"Americans tend to graze rather than sit down and eat a full meal, so the food is tailored for convenience," said Mark Gehlhar, who has studied global food consumer preferences at the Economic Research Service of the Agriculture Department. "And Americans do not seem to be as discerning about quality."

T. Colin Campbell, a nutritionist at Cornell University, said that "there is a lot of money tied up in the industry because it is profitable for companies to make these foods." He added that "Processed foods contain large amounts of fat, salt and sugar, and Americans have become addicted to them."

But epidemiologic studies have shown that diets with higher levels of fat, salt and sugar lead to higher rates of heart disease, diabetes and obesity.

The Japanese eat a large amount of packaged frozen seafood, but it undergoes very little processing and has few chemical additives. Some Europeans eat a similar amount of packaged food per capita as Americans, but much of it is bakery bread and dairy products, rather than things like frozen toaster pastries and artificial nondairy creamer.


Scallops

In 1912 Louis Maillard was the first to describe the chemical reactions in grilled, sautéed, and baked foods that make them so delicious and, we know now, a little unhealthy.

“There wasn’t much of what you could call flavor chemistry before Maillard,” remarks historian Alan Rocke. “In the 1800s the German chemist Justus von Liebig published ideas about the importance of protein extracts of beef, and a lawyer, Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, published heavily cited anecdotal ponderings on taste, but Maillard was the first to tackle serious food chemistry.”

The Maillard reaction proceeds through three thorny, intricate steps, which can each produce hundreds of different products. In addition, most foods have many different kinds of amino acids and sugars, creating a cornucopia of possible participants in the reaction.

Not until 1953 did the chemistry community get a handle on how all these flavor compounds could be produced, says food chemist Vincenzo Fogliano. That year a chemist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, John E. Hodge, established a mechanism for the Maillard reaction. “Maillard discovered the reaction, but Hodge understood it,” Fogliano says.

Normally the Maillard reaction is described with appetizing adjectives, and rightly so.

Fortuitously, developments in gas chromatography and protein mass spectrometry that same decade permitted food scientists to measure Maillard products in food, notes Floros. From that point the food industry had the tools to control the chemistry of cooking amino acids and sugars, both to orchestrate the production of pleasing flavors and odors and to avoid the offensive ones. However, this task is complicated by the fact that the Maillard reaction can produce thousands of different molecules with even slight changes to temperature, moisture levels, or pH, says food chemist Thomas Hofmann.

Sometimes a Maillard product will be universally pleasant, such as the 2,3-butanedione found in popcorn and grilled steak. Other times a product that is desirable in some dishes is less welcome in others, Hofmann explains. For example, the compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline gives crusty bread and basmati rice a pleasant odor and flavor but produces a strange aftertaste when found in ultra-high-temperature pasteurized milk. Maillard reactions can also change the texture and consistency of proteins in food, making yogurt more gelatinous or cheese softer and creamier, says food chemist Thomas Henle. Then there are the negative products, such as the loss of vitamin C and B1 in Maillard reactions during cooking, states food scientist Cathy Davies. And there’s the production of acrylamide.

When Tareke and Törnqvis, the toxicologists in Sweden, were asked to examine the exposure of the sick construction workers to acrylamide, they did what any reputable scientists would do: they compared the levels of acrylamide in the sick workers to those in the general population. To their surprise they found unexpectedly high levels of acrylamide in the control group. Tareke was also simultaneously comparing acrylamide levels in wild animals and domesticated pets for her doctoral work, and to her further surprise found high levels in pets.

Given that a major difference between wild and domesticated animals is the amount of processed food they consume, Törnqvis and Tareke suspected that the acrylamide in the human controls might be attributable to their eating highly processed food. In 2002 they showed that processed food, especially potato chips but also common baked bread, did in fact contain acrylamide. Facing public outcry, food-industry associations banded together to fund research on exactly how the Maillard reaction led to acrylamide production and how it might be thwarted. One of the most promising techniques developed for acrylamide prevention is using an enzyme called asparaginase to break down the amino acid asparagine, says food scientist Monica Anese. Because acrylamide is created when asparagine reacts with sugar, removing the amino acid at the outset decreases acrylamide levels in the final foodstuff. Another strategy, she says, is to lower cooking temperature since acrylamide is produced under high heat. The downside is less browning of cookies and bread, an unpopular option with consumers.

For Real?


Q&A: Inside the World's Largest Indoor Farm

A Japanese company's futuristic approach to farming could revolutionize how we grow our food.

An abandoned Sony factory in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, has been transformed into what could very well be the farm of the future.

Shigeharu Shimamura, a plant physiologist and CEO of Mirai, has constructed the world's largest indoor farm—25,000 square feet of futuristic garden beds nurtured by 17,500 LED lights in a bacteria-free, pesticide-free environment. The result? About 10,000 heads of fresh lettuce harvested each day.

The unique "plant factory" is so efficient that it cuts food waste from the 30 to 40 percent typically seen for lettuce grown outdoors to less than 3 percent for their coreless lettuce. (Related: "Stop Wasting Food in the West and Feed the World.")

National Geographic spoke with Shimamura recently about the innovative food factory and indoor farms as a potential solution to the global food crisis.

What was the inspiration for this business venture?

Japan has had an interest in research and development in the field of farming in a factory setting for about 40 to 50 years now.

Our company built a plant factory at a location devastated by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in 2011 because of the general concern in Japan about the declining rate of domestic vegetable supply, and how we might remedy the problem of the heavy dependence on imports.

The reason we chose this particular location is because we wanted to prove that vegetables can be produced anywhere now. Second, we wanted to help restart the economic development in this disaster area. And last, looking into the future, if we could succeed there, we could also see a possibility of exporting the technology we developed all over the world. (Related: "Inside the Looming Food Crisis.")

What impact could your plant factory have on the future of food production and as a remedy for food shortages?

Currently we have a world population of 7 to 7.2 billion. Among them, about 800 to 900 million people are suffering from starvation, or close to it. People around the world are all wondering how we can produce more food to mitigate this grave situation.

We know that water plays a big role in this, and the technology Mirai developed uses less than one percent of the water commonly used to grow vegetables—so we can conserve water by growing vegetables in a factory environment and use the water to produce more grains elsewhere.

Using this method, if we can build plant factories all over the world, we can support the food production to feed the entire world's population. This is what we are really aiming for.

How do you manage to use so little water?

With the conventional method of farming, a lot of water is wasted seeping through the soil as well as evaporating into the air. In an enclosed environment of a factory, we don't lose water down the soil. That is one way.

We can also collect the moisture the plant itself emits into the air. The water collected is recycled this is similar to how our Earth works. The moisture released from living things on Earth collects, forms clouds, and drops back down to Earth as rain. This is the recycling system of our planet. Our factory works just like that. Water is collected, filtered, and recycled in an enclosed space.

Your lighting system was specially designed by GE Japan. What's unique about these lights?

The lighting we are talking about is LED [light-emitting diode], and it is very suitable for plant growth. The light from the particular product GE Japan developed for us promotes photosynthesis as well as cell division. What's unique about this lighting system we have now is that it can provide multiple types of light that not only encourage photosynthesis and cell growth, but also provide all other aspects necessary for plant growth.

Here is an example: If we only use the type of light that encourages photosynthesis, plants will grow too big, too fast—this causes crowding and then not enough light will reach the whole plant. The particular kind of lighting product we use now will also emit a type of light capable of penetrating the plant so every part of the plant can absorb the light.

With 10,000 heads of lettuce, how labor intensive is it to harvest the produce? Do you use robots?

I'd say it is only half automated. Machines do some work, but the picking part is done manually. In the future, though, I expect an emergence of harvesting robots. For example, a robot that can transplant seedlings, or for cutting and harvesting, or transporting harvested produce to be packaged.

You already have a few small-scale versions of the plant factory elsewhere in the world, and you're planning two more large factories in Hong Kong and Russia. Can you tell me a little bit more about these facilities?

We are building a factory in Hong Kong as we speak. We will be producing 5,000 heads of lettuce a day there. The reason we are there is because most of the vegetables consumed there come from outside Hong Kong. People are very concerned about food safety, and they want domestically produced, safe food.

The interest in Russia may have something to do with our company's success in Mongolia, where we have two smaller factories: one in the south Gobi desert and one in Ulaanbaatar. There the climate is so severe that they can't grow any vegetables outdoors during the cold season, so they import them mostly from Europe—a long distance away, especially for people who live in the far eastern part of the country. They wanted to be able to grow vegetables domestically. Our plant factory in Russia will produce 10,000 heads of lettuce next spring once it starts the operation. (Related: "Is Your Country Food Independent?")

What are some of the challenges in creating these indoor farms elsewhere in the world?

There are two big challenges. In order to build a plant factory, we need certain infrastructure in place, such as electricity and water supply. A dependable supply of electricity and water is essential right from the start. We consulted with GE Japan on this we talked about the possibility of building a factory where electric generators are already in place.

Another big factor is the availability of telecommunication infrastructure. In Japan, we do a lot of training as well as overseeing of the operation remotely online, so having a dependable Internet connection and other telecommunication infrastructure is also critical.

Right now you're focusing on growing lettuce and leafy greens. Can this system be adapted to other produce like tomatoes, potatoes, or fruit?

I believe that, at least technically, we can produce almost any kind of plant in a factory. But what makes most economic sense is to produce fast-growing vegetables that can be sent to the market quickly. That means leaf vegetables for us now. In the future, though, we would like to expand to a wider variety of produce. It's not just vegetables we are thinking about, though. The factory can also produce medicinal plants. I believe that there is a very good possibility we will be involved in a variety of products soon.

When it comes to solving food-supply issues in the future, what can we learn from this project?

What is important here is that the success of this project depended not only on the technology, but also on the accumulated knowledge of farming practices. Mirai, our company, had the knowledge of how to grow vegetables in a factory setting, but we needed the technology to make it work.

As we face world shortages of both water and food, plant factory operations will not only stay but expand worldwide. The merging of our expertise is essential in expanding our operation to other places in the world.


Food History

Through programs, research, and collections the Smithsonian Food History project at the National Museum of American History invites communities near and far to come to the table. By learning more about American food history, today’s museum visitors will understand the role they play in shaping how and what America eats.

Food programs are based in the rich food history content at the museum and include a diverse menu of programs and demonstrations that bring visitors together for relevant discussions that start with history and expand to the present and future of American food. Activities include free daytime programs for visitors, regular After Hours events that mix historic topics with delicious food and drink, and the annual Smithsonian Food History Weekend. The National Museum of American History is committed to examining the impact of food, drink, and agriculture on American History.

To learn more, explore collections below, programs and research in the menu, and sign up for our food history email newsletter. Cheers!


Goya Brooklyn, 1970

As the Hispanic population grew in New York and throughout the United States, Goya’s product line and facilities expanded as well. The company relocated from Lower Manhattan to Brooklyn in 1958, until it established its current headquarters in New Jersey in 1974. In 2005, Goya launched a 10-year strategic plan and invested $500 million in a global expansion, designed to reach new consumers and strengthen the Goya brand worldwide. From 2014 - 2016, Goya opened five new state-of-the-art manufacturing and distribution centers in Texas, California, Georgia and New Jersey to meet consumer demands for Goya products. In total, the company now boasts 26 facilities throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic and Spain, and employs over 4,000 worldwide.


The credit for America’s greatest inventions is often a matter of controversy. The telephone: Alexander Graham Bell or Elisha Gray? The radio: Guglielmo Marconi or Nicola Tesla? The airplane: Gustave Whitehead or the Wright Brothers? Add to that illustrious list: the potato . read more

When Congress passed the Volstead Act in 1920, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages in the United States, the law nearly decimated the alcohol industry. But it helped give the nascent ice cream business a sweet boost. Between 1919 and 1929, federal tax . read more


LCB Food Safety joins the group. This acquisition marks a significant new stage in the development of the group, providing access to new markets thanks to its high value-added products based around Ultradiffusion®, an Innovative and unique technology.

Created in 1963, LCB Food Safety is the world leader in Dry Aerial Surface Disinfection.

LCB Food Safety acts as a food safety expert and develops solutions which reduce waste, improving animal well-being while optimizing competitiveness in the value chain, from farm to fork.


The Nestlé company history

Our history begins in 1866, with the foundation of the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company. Henri Nestlé develops a breakthrough infant food in 1867, and in 1905 the company he founded merges with Anglo-Swiss, to form what is now known as the Nestlé Group. During this period cities grow and railways and steamships bring down commodity costs, spurring international trade in consumer goods.

Highlights

Nestlé’s founder, German-born pharmacist Henri Nestlé, launches his ‘farine lactée’ (‘flour with milk’) in Vevey, Switzerland. It combines cow’s milk, wheat flour and sugar, and Nestlé develops it for consumption by infants who cannot be breastfed, to tackle high mortality rates. Around this time he starts using the now iconic ‘Nest’ logo.

Henri Nestlé sells his company and factory in Vevey to three local businessmen. They employ chemists and skilled workers to help expand production and sales.

Fierce competition develops between Nestlé and Anglo-Swiss, when both companies start selling rival versions of the other’s original products: condensed milk and infant cereal. Both firms expand sales and production abroad.

1882-1902

Nestlé begins selling chocolate for the first time when it takes over export sales for Peter & Kohler. The Nestlé company also plays a role in the development of milk chocolate from 1875, when it supplies his Vevey neighbour Daniel Peter with condensed milk, which Peter uses to develop the first such commercial product in the 1880s.

In 1905, Nestlé & Anglo Swiss has more than 20 factories, and starts using overseas subsidiaries to establish a sales network that spans Africa, Asia, Latin America and Australia. As World War One approaches, the firm benefits from the period of prosperity known as the Belle Époque or ‘Beautiful Age’, and becomes a global dairy company.

Highlight

Anglo-Swiss and Nestlé merge to form the Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss Milk Company. The company has two head offices, in Vevey and Cham, and opens a third office in London to drive dairy export sales. Over several years the company expands its range to include unsweetened condensed milk and sterilised milk.

The outbreak of war in 1914 leads to increased demand for condensed milk and chocolate, but a shortage of raw materials and limits on cross-border trade hamper production for Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss. To solve this problem, the company acquires processing facilities in the US and Australia, and by the end of the war it has 40 factories.

Highlights

War breaks out across Europe and disrupts production for the company, but hostilities also drive demand for Nestlé dairy products, in the form of large government contracts.

Condensed milk is long-lasting and easy to transport, which makes it popular with armed forces. For example, in 1915 the British Army starts issuing Nestlé canned milk to soldiers in their emergency rations. Strong demand for the product means that the company’s milk refineries are working flat out.

Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss acquires Norwegian dairy company Egron, which has patented a spray-drying process for producing milk powder – a product its new owner starts selling.

1917-1918

Milk shortages in Switzerland mean that Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss has to surrender fresh milk supplies to help people in towns and cities. To meet demand for condensed milk from the warring nations, the company buys US refineries and signs supply agreements with Australian companies, which it later acquires.

After the war military demand for canned milk declines, causing a major crisis for Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss in 1921. The company recovers, but is rocked again by the Wall Street Crash in 1929, which reduces consumer purchasing power. However, the era carries many positives: the company’s management corps is professionalised, research is centralised and pioneering products such as Nescafé coffee are launched.

Highlights

1921-1922

Falling prices and high stock levels lead to the first, and only ever, financial loss for Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss in 1921. Banker Louis Dapples joins as Crisis Manager, and encourages the company to appoint professional managers for the first time. Administration is centralised, and research is consolidated at one laboratory in Vevey, Switzerland.

The company buys Switzerland’s largest chocolate company Peter-Cailler-Kohler, the origins of which date back to 1819 when François Louis Cailler creates one of the country’s first chocolate brands Cailler. Chocolate now becomes an integral part of the Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss business.

Malted chocolate drink Milo is launched in Australia, and its success means it is later exported for sale in other markets. The company continues to develop baby and infant foods in this inter-war period, and launches Pelargon in 1934, a full-milk powder for babies enriched with lactic acid bacteria, to improve its digestibility. Read more: Meet the Milo supermen who inspired our super brand

A competitive market for chocolate in Switzerland encourages Nestlé-Peter-Cailler-Kohler to innovate by launching Galak white chocolate and Rayon, a chocolate with honey and air bubbles, the next year. Vitamins are a major selling point for healthy products in the 1930s, and Nestlé launches vitamin supplement Nestrovit in 1936.

Nescafé is launched as a ‘powdered extract of pure coffee’ that retains coffee’s natural flavour, but can be prepared by simply adding hot water. The product is the brainchild of Max Morgenthaler, who begins work on it in 1929, when the Brazilian government asks Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss to find an outlet for its huge coffee surplus. Read more: What did we do when the bank called? Invented Nescafé

The outbreak of World War Two in 1939 affects virtually every market, but Nestlé & Anglo-Swiss continues to operate in difficult circumstances, supplying both civilians and armed forces. In 1947, the company adds Maggi soups and seasonings to its product range, and adopts the name Nestlé Alimentana.

Highlights

1942-1945

Nestlé & Anglo Swiss merges with Swiss company Alimentana, which produces Maggi soups, bouillons and seasonings, and is renamed Nestlé Alimentana. Alimentana’s history dates back to 1884, when Julius Maggi developed a protein-rich dried soup to tackle malnutrition. Read more: Julius Maggi had his finger on the pulse

Highlights

Nestlé infant cereal has been available since 1948 as a powdered product, but it is now rebranded as Cerelac. Originally only sold as a bouillon cube, Maggi seasoning brand Fondor is launched as a powder. Packaged in a convenient shaker, it can now be used as a condiment in the dining room, as well as in the kitchen.

Canned ravioli is launched under the Maggi brand. Its huge success prompts Nestlé to launch more canned, prepared foods, which become a new growth segment. Read more: Julius Maggi had his finger on the pulse

Acquisitions enable Nestlé to enter fast-growing new areas such as frozen foods, and to expand its traditional businesses in milk, coffee and canned foods. In the 1970s the company diversifies into pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. It starts to attract criticism from activist groups that allege its marketing of infant food is unethical. Nestlé later becomes one the first companies to apply the WHO code on breast-milk substitutes across its business.

Highlights

With increasing numbers of households buying freezers, demand for ice cream is rising. Nestlé buys German producer Jopa and French manufacture Heudebert-Gervais to capitalise on this growth, and adds Swiss brand Frisco in 1962. The company also buys UK canned foods company Crosse & Blackwell.

Nestlé buys the Findus frozen food brand from Swedish manufacturer Marabou, and extends the brand to international markets. Findus is one of the first companies to sell frozen foods in Europe, from 1945.

Chilled dairy products are increasingly popular, Nestlé buys French yogurt producer Chambourcy. In the early 1970s the latter launches the Sveltesse range of yoghurts, aimed at health- and weight-conscious consumers.

Nestlé enters mineral waters by buying a stake in French waters brand Vittel.

Keen to bolster its canned foods and frozen portfolio in Anglo-Saxon markets, Nestlé takes over the US frozen foods company Stouffer Corporation, and buys canned foods producer Libby, McNeill & Libby in 1976.

For the first time, Nestlé diversifies beyond food and drink, becoming a minority shareholder in global cosmetics company L’Oréal.


Watch the video: Large Amount Food Making in Food Factory. 음식 공장의 대량 생산 몰아보기 (November 2021).