The story

Museo Casa de Hidalgo


Museo Casa de Hidalgo, which is housed in a large late eighteenth-century building, was the dwelling place of Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

History of Museo Casa de Hidalgo

The Creole priest, who lived in the town of Dolores in the early nineteenth century, is widely viewed as the ‘Father of Independence’ in Mexico. The house has now been turned into a museum devoted to his life.

In 1810, Hidalgo y Costilla was living in the small parish of Dolores. The priest had been rector of the prestigious college of San Nicolás in Valladolid (now Morelia), but he had had fallen foul of the Royal authorities, both for his interest in Enlightenment ideas and due to his distinctly non-celibate personal life. Hidalgo y Costilla, who lived openly with the mother of his two children, was subsequently assigned by his bishop to Dolores near Querétaro, where he worked among Indians and mestizos (people of mixed Indian and Spanish origin).

In 1810, in the wake of Napoleon’s invasion of Spain and the fragmentation of Royal authority across Spanish America, Hidalgo y Costilla joined a conspiracy of wealthy creoles to set up a revolutionary junta.

On the night of 15 September 1810, he and some of his fellow conspirators, warned by messengers from Querétaro that their intention to raise a rebellion against the Spanish had been discovered, decided to bring the plan forward. At dawn on 16 September, Hidalgo, tolling the church bell, addressed his parishioners from the church balcony, calling for a general uprising against the Spanish. His speech ended in the ‘Grito de Independencia’ (Cry of Independence): ‘¡Méxicanos, Viva Mexico!’ (Mexicans! Long live Mexico!). He issued his cry in the name of Fernando VII (the Spanish monarch deposed by Napoleon) and the Virgin of Guadalupe.

Hidalgo’s Independence rebellion, whose goals included the abolition of the Indian tribute, was markedly different from other risings across Spanish America because it came from outside the Creole elite. Although he was executed by the Royalists in March 1811, before Mexican Independence from Spain became a reality, he now occupies a legendary position in the Mexican collective imagination. At midnight on 15 September, his cry is repeated every year by the president in Mexico City and by politicians all over the country, as the starting point for Independence Day celebrations; 16 September also remains the one day of the year when the bell in Dolores Hidalgo´s parish church is rung.

Museo Casa de Hidalgo today

Among then museum’s exhibits are numerous written tributes from different writers and groups to Mexico’s ‘Father of Independence’. The museum also contains copies of correspondence written, sent and received by Hidalgo, including the priest’s letter of excommunication from the Inquisition, which was issued less than a month after he uttered his ‘Cry of Independence’. Visitors can also see Hidalgo’s priestly cassocks, a banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe, and the first declaration of the abolition of slavery.

It’s been likened to a national shrine, and the museum can get busy at weekends – particularly on Sundays, when entrance is free. Closed Mondays.

Getting to Museo Casa de Hidalgo

Located in the small town of Dolores Hidalgo in the state of Guanajauato, the museum is a good aspect of a day trip from the nearby towns of San Miguel de Allende or Guanajuato (both are about an hour away). Buses stop in the town regularly, and the museum is located in the centre. It’s easily walkable from anywhere else in Dolores Hidalgo.


Hidalgo

Named for the revolutionary leader Miguel Hidalgo, the state is fiercely independent: The Mexican Revolution lasted longer in this state than in any other. Today, Hidalgo relies on extensive silver, gold and mineral deposits to fuel its economy. La Huasteca, a fertile lowland region covering the northern part of the state, produces some of Hidalgo’s chief crops, including sugarcane, corn, oats, barley, wheat, beans, chilies, coffee and fruits.

Early History
Throughout the pre-Columbian era, the Hidalgo region was predominantly under the influence of the city of Teotihuacán (in the modern state of Mexico) and, to a lesser degree, the Tajín culture (centered near Veracruz). After the collapse of Teotihuacán in the 8th and 9th centuries, the city of Tula (or Tollán) in Hidalgo emerged as the capital of the Toltec Empire. According to legend, a Toltec chief named Mixc༺tl led his tribe into Hidalgo from the northwest. His son, Topiltzin, founded Tula in southern Hidalgo around 950 A.D. Conflicts broke out between those who worshipped the peaceful Quetzalc༺tl and those who followed the warlike god Tezcatlipoca. Topiltzin, an adherent of Quetzalc༺tl, was expelled from the city around 987. He is believed to have set sail from the Gulf Coast in a raft, vowing to return one day. Many legends arose about his journeys.

Did you know? The Reloj Monumental (monumental clock), built in 1904, is Pachuca&aposs central clock tower. Its bell was crafted by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry, the same company that made the Liberty Bell and London&aposs Big Ben.

During the height of Tula’s power, between 900 and 1100, the city encompassed some 13 square kilometers (five square miles) with around 60,000 inhabitants. By mid-12th century, Tula collapsed due to internal strife, and the survivors spread out to settle lands as far away as Yucatán. In 1156, the Otomí and Chichimeca Indians occupied Tula, calling it Namenhí(place of many people). They, in turn, fell to the Mexica and were incorporated into the Aztec Empire by Moctezuma Ilhuicamina in the 15th century.

Middle History
In his quest to conquer the Aztec empire, the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés entered Hidalgo in 1520. The following year he besieged and destroyed the nearby Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán, establishing Spanish authority in the region. By mid-century, Spanish settlers introduced to the area cattle, new crops and the Catholic faith preached by Franciscan missionaries.

Beginning in 1552, rich silver deposits were discovered in the vicinity of Pachuca and Real del Monte, spurring a new wave of Spanish settlement. A few years later Bartolomé de Medina perfected the amalgamation method of extracting silver using mercury and copper plates, which rapidly became the dominant technique in the Americas. As mining activity escalated, the settlers increasingly relied on encomiendas, royal grants authorizing individual Spaniards to require labor from a specified number of native inhabitants placed under their authority. In 1717 the Spanish crown abolished the encomienda system, confirming the decision with additional decrees in 1720 and 1721. In practice, however, many Spaniards ignored the decrees and continued to force the indigenous population to work the mines.

The many rich mines around Pachuca made it the center of activity during Hidalgo’s colonial period, and much later it would become the state’s capital. Its name is thought to have come from the Náhuatl word Patlachiuhacan, meaning place of silver and gold.

Recent History
In the early 19th century Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a priest in the town of Dolores, Guanajuato, began to advocate Mexican independence from Spain, rallying the state’s patriots and parish priests in support of the cause. In 1810, he raised an army of more than six thousand men and led them to several victories. Although Father Hidalgo was later captured and executed by royal troops, his movement continued, leading to Mexico’s independence in 1821. The state of Hidalgo was later named in his honor.

In 1861 President Benito Juárez suspended payments on Mexico’s foreign debts the French responded by invading the country the following year, occupying it from 1863 to 1867. After the French were finally expelled and the Mexican Republic restored, Hidalgo became a separate state in 1869, taking its name from the hero of Mexican independence, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

Although political conflict did not disappear, the presidency of Porfirio D໚z (1877-1880 and 1884-1911) brought a period of relative stability, with government policies focused on modernizing the nation’s railways, roads and communications. However, opposition mounted to D໚z’s autocratic methods, and in 1910 the Mexican Revolution broke out under the leadership of Francisco I. Madero. The following year, Madero’s followers occupied Pachuca, Hidalgo’s capital, and engaged D໚z’s troops in battles throughout the state. After D໚z abdicated and left the country in May 1911, Madero was elected President.

In 1917 a new federal constitution put political and economic restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church in response to claims that the church had abused its power. Conflict between the government and the church seethed during the 1920s and eventually erupted into a struggle known as the Cristero War. The fighting claimed 90,000 lives before it was finally resolved by negotiations that relaxed some restrictions on the church. The most important provision allowed the clergy to regain control of their land and buildings, although the facilities technically remained federal property.


Museo Casa de Hidalgo - History

Importancia

El 2 de febrero de 1792 don Miguel Hidalgo renunció a sus cargos de rector, tesorero y catedrático de teología en el colegio de San Nicolás de Valladolid, y marchó a Colima a servir el curato. Hidalgo atendió esa parroquia, entonces comprendida en la Independencia de Michoacán, del 10 de marzo al 26 de noviembre del mismo año.

La orden de dejar Colima y de trasladarse de nuevo a Valladolid, provenía del obispo fray Antonio de San Miguel. Éste, conocedor del carácter y talento de Hidalgo, le mandó encargarse del curato de la Villa de San Felipe. La razón era que el obispado de Michoacán tenía ya en su poder todas las parroquias de franciscanos, excepto la de San Felipe. Con la convicción de que Hidalgo resolvería los avatares, el virrey, conde de Revillagigedo, lo nombró cura propio, vicario y juez eclesiástico de San Felipe.

Hidalgo recibió la parroquia el 24 de enero de 1793. Compró casa en la calle principal de la Alcantarilla, a poca distancia del templo. Así, esta amplia casa fue habitada por el cura Hidalgo y su familia durante su estancia como párroco de San Felipe de 1793 a 1803.

Después de la salida de Hidalgo de San Felipe, el inmueble continuó siendo habitación, a excepción de algún periodo de 1928 en que se estableció una escuela de artes y oficios.

En 1957 por decreto presidencial de don Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, se expropió una parte de la casa de Hidalgo por considerar su conservación de utilidad pública y se le declaró Monumento Histórico Nacional. En 1959 debido al mal estado del inmueble, la Dirección General de Bienes Inmuebles de la Secretaría del Patrimonio Nacional la entregó en custodia a la Dirección de Monumentos Coloniales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia para su reconstrucción.

De este modo, a partir de 1963 se dio inicio a las obras de restauración para que fungiera como museo. La casa de Hidalgo o &ldquoLa Francia Chiquita&rdquo, abrió sus puertas en 1969 cuando se dio término al empedrado del patio central que recrea un jardín a la usanza de las casonas de la época.


Descripción del inmueble

El museo Histórico Casa de hidalgo, Mejor conocido como la &ldquoFrancia Chiquita&rdquo es un ejemplo de la arquitectura civil relevante del siglo XVIII. Se accedía a ella a través de un amplio zaguán con un portal inmediato que daba paso a un patio cuadrangular rodeado de habitaciones. Atrás quedaban las áreas de servicio y la huerta. Actualmente el edificio se encuentra dividido transversalmente de la calle a la huerta, ocupando el museo el área del lado izquierdo. La otra parte es de propiedad particular.

Esta edificación forma parte del conjunto de recintos de valor histórico que integran la Ruta de la Independencia, y que fueron renovados por el Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH-Conaculta) con motivo del Bicentenario del inicio de la gesta de 1810.


Temáticas tratadas en el Museo Histórico Casa de Hidalgo (La Francia Chiquita)

El discurso del museo es un punto de reflexión dentro de la historia de la independencia, se trata de un inmueble novohispano del siglo XVIII, conservado por el INAH y difunde la historia de la estancia, durante once años, de Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla en San Felipe, Guanajuato. La temática se divide en los siguientes temas:

San Felipe: Fundación de un lugar en la ruta de la plata

La fundación de San Felipe se remonta a 1552 cuando los españoles, obedientes de la política defensiva del virrey Luis de Velasco contra los chichimecas, establecieron allí un presidio o fuerte. Diez años más tarde, en 1562, el poblado recibió el título de villa de españoles e indios. Fue entonces cuando la villa de San Felipe quedó inscrita en la Alcaldía Mayor de San Miguel el Grande, perteneciente al Obispado de Michoacán recibió grandes extensiones de tierra -cinco leguas en total- y se convirtió, en tan sólo diez años, en el principal punto ofensivo y defensivo del camino que unía a la ciudad de México con Zacatecas.

Arribo y estancia de Miguel Hidalgo en San Felipe

En diciembre de 1792 el cura Miguel Hidalgo fue designado - por órdenes del obispo fray Antonio de San Miguel - vicario, cura propio y juez eclesiástico de la parroquia dedicada al apóstol a quien el poblado debe el nombre de San Felipe. El cambio a esta parroquia representaba estar cerca de su familia y propiedades mayores beneficios económicos, además de un mejor ingreso. Esta casa, construida en el siglo XVIII y adquirida por el propio Hidalgo para habitarla junto con algunos de sus familiares durante su gestión de casi once años, constituye un ejemplo típico de arquitectura civil de la época: amplia entrada, patio cuadrangular rodeado de habitaciones con puertas independientes, área de servicio y huerta.

En busca de un futuro en el Bajío: Párroco de indios y españoles


En San Felipe sus obligaciones eran oficiar misa, administrar sacramentos y ejercer como juez eclesiástico debía supervisar a los vicarios de su parroquia, examinar a los curas, otorgar y recoger cédulas de confesión y vigilar las buenas costumbres entre los pobladores. Su trato amable y &ldquodicharachero&rdquo le ganó la simpatía de muchos pobladores que a la postre se unieron al ejército insurgente al tañer las campanas de Dolores.

La Francia Chiquita

La casa de Hidalgo se distinguió por ser un centro de intensa vida cultural en el que se promovía el libre intercambio de ideas. Allí se reunían vecinos y amigos que venían de otras villas para participar en tertulias y bailes, escuchar música y ver representaciones de obras francesas traducidas al español y dirigidas por el propio Hidalgo. No es difícil imaginar que todo ese pensamiento francés estuviera presente en las largas conversaciones de las tertulias y que, seguramente, dicho despliegue cultural hizo que las autoridades españolas lo interpretaran como algo peligroso, sobre todo tomando en cuenta que los asistentes llamaban a la casa &ldquola Francia Chiquita&rdquo por el clima liberal e intelectual que en ésta se respiraba.

Molière: Música y escenografía en casa

Dos artes apasionaron a Hidalgo: el teatro y la música, en especial las obras de origen francés. Así, en esta casa, sus visitantes asistían a tertulias, al juego de barajas, a la discusión de asuntos de trascendencia mundial a bailar, escuchar música, ver o participar en puestas teatrales. Un gran universo cabía en otro pequeño donde concurrían amigos, trabajadores, dignidades eclesiásticas y civiles, familias y vecinos.

Servicios disponibles en el Museo Histórico Casa de Hidalgo (La Francia Chiquita)

La visita incluye el acceso a la ambientación del huerto novohispano.

Martes a sábado de 9 a 18 horas.
Domingos de 8 a 17 horas.

Costo de acceso

Encargado del Museo Histórico Casa de Hidalgo (La Francia Chiquita)
Sr. Enrique Martínez.


Antigua y bella casona de finales del siglo XVIII, con un encantador patio en cuyo alrededor se disponen las habitaciones de la que fuera la morada de Miguel Hidalgo durante su estancia en esta población. El cura Hidalgo habitó en esta casa hasta el año de 1810 y en ese entonces se le conocía como Casa del Diezmo.

Durante la Guerra de Independencia la casa fue ocupada por diversos bandos y se dice, saqueada en varias ocasiones.

Fue declarada Monumento Nacional en el año de 1863 por Benito Juárez.

Se conviritó en museo en 1946: En los aposentos se recreó el ambiente y el mobiliario de la época como escenario para exhibir algunos de los objetos personales del prócer y documentos de la guerra de Independencia. En el museo se resguardan vestimentas sacerdotales un estandarte de la Virgen de Guadalupe, el primer bando de abolición de la esclavitud y una urna funeraria con los restos de Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

Dirección: Calle Morelos Núm. 1 esquina con Puebla. Colonia Centro.

Teléfono: (418) 182 0171

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Chihuahua City, Pancho Villa and Parral de Hidalgo

Chihuahua, the state capital, is not a particularly tourist-oriented town but it is virtually inevitable that travelers seeking to explore the inner recesses of the state spend a night or two here as part of their itinerary. The city was officially founded at the start of the eighteenth century and its historic buildings stand scattered around the busy downtown area.

Click for interactive map

Paid for, in part, by a special tax on silver, the richly decorated, eighteenth century, triple-naved stone cathedral exemplifies the baroque, albeit it with numerous later additions and alterations. The cathedral organ was brought from Germany, while the kiosk and sculptures in the adjacent Plaza de Armas (or Plaza de la Constitución) originated in Italy.

Also on the Plaza de Armas is Chihuahua’s city hall. Occupying centre stage in its conference room is this building’s claim to fame: the largest conference table in the world, according to a Ripley’s “Believe or not” column.

Five blocks away, where Juárez meets Calle 5a is the Museo Casa de Juárez. This building functioned as the National Palace for two years during the French Invasion and was Juárez’s official residence during 1864.

Two more blocks brings us to the north side of Plaza Hidalgo, with the state government palace (Capitol) and its murals by Aarón Piña Mora depicting the state’s history. This building, originally the site of a monastery, needed substantial repairs after being damaged by fire in the 1940s. A plaque and the Altar de la Patria in the central patio mark the spot where Father Miguel Hidalgo and his fellow Independence “liberationists” Allende, Aldama and Jiménez, were executed by firing squad in 1811.

Across the plaza, the Federal Palace (built at the start of this century) incorporates into its structure the much older tower containing the prison cell where Hidalgo was held for 98 days (and, according to the tourist guides, fed on bread and water) prior to his execution. The night before he was executed, Hidalgo, a gentleman to the end, inscribed a poem on his cell wall, thanking his guard and warden for being so kind to him.

The Regional Museum (Quinta Gameros) on Calle 4a (4th Street) and Paseo Bolívar, by Parque Lerdo, is one of Mexico’s finest examples of Art-Nouveau. Constructed between 1907-11 on the orders of Manuel Gameros, a mine engineer, it now houses exhibits on archaeology and history.

At Reforma 5 is the Popular Art Museum (Museo de Arte Popular), a modern building with exhibits detailing the life and customs of the Tarahumar Indian people, as well as a small “artesanias” shop selling handmade craft items.

Having “done the downtown”, city tours inevitably conclude by depositing visitors at the doorway to the museum commemorating Pancho Villa. Even if your visit to Chihuahua allows too little time to fully tour the city, at least try to see this building and its contents.

PANCHO VILLA’S MANSION

Strangely, the Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución) at Calle 10 Norte #3014 is now owned by the Mexican army! Villa’s former 50-room mansion was turned into a museum by his widow, Luz Corral de Villa, who lived here proudly showing it off to visitors until her death in 1981. Many people still refer to it as Quinta Luz or La Casa de Villa. Despite having insufficient signs or information, this museum is, quite rightly, a must-see on most visitors’ agendas. Now standing in silent homage to “El General”, the great man’s personal mementos and furnishings, which once echoed to the sounds of his boisterous gatherings and wild parties, today hover in the background while, drawn by ghoulish magnetism, visitors cluster in the courtyard, counting the holes in his bullet-riddled Dodge roadster.

ROUTES SOUTH

When you’ve had your fill of Chihuahua city, two alternative routes lead to Hidalgo del Parral. These two routes can be combined into a natural circular route, especially for those arriving in Chihuahua from the north.

The faster route uses 38 kilometers of the Cuauhtemoc highway, then branches off south (state highway 25) via Satevó and Valle de Zaragoza. Further east is a less direct and slower route, which affords more sight-seeing possibilities. This second route is along toll-route 45D (with exits to several small towns) south to Jiménez, and then highway 48 west to Hidalgo del Parral.

We’ll travel this latter route. Shortly after leaving Chihuahua, a side road climbs 7 km up into the hills to Aquiles Serdán, a small, neat mining community with a fine eighteenth century church boasting lovely stonework, and a gilded retablo, dedicated to Santa Eulalia de Mérida. Cobblestone and dirt streets separate single-storey pastel houses dotted about the hillside. A newer building houses a small library-cum-museum with a modest display of gemstones and mining memorabilia. The minerals of Santa Eulalia were among the earliest mining discoveries in the region and one mine was already operating as long ago as 1703.

Continuing south, a web of highways and sideroads is centered on the busy agricultural supply centre of Delicias, a largely undistinguished, relatively modern town surrounded by irrigated green fields of corn, grapes, cotton and peanuts. The inhabitants of Delicias celebrate a Grape Fair in early August and a Cotton Fair in late September each year.

South of Delicias, to the west of the highway, is the important mining area of Naica. Here caverns hide selenite crystals. Selenite is a variety of gypsum, the number one ingredient in the bane of students’ lives – blackboard chalk! Here at Naica, crystals grow to more than a meter in length in underground cavities with names like “Cave of the Swords”. Held during meditation, selenite crystals are said to enhance sex drive and fertility and relieve stress.

Back on highway 45D, Ciudad Camargo, an agricultural centre, was named for Ignacio Camargo (1782-1811), another of Mexico’s independence heroes. This town was the birthplace, in 1896, of David Alfaro Siqueiros, Mexico’s famous revolutionary muralist.

Our route diverges from highway 45D at Jiménez, a noisy bustling commercial centre with lots of stores. Perhaps its most interesting building is its turn-of-the-century wrought-iron market structure.

THE CITY OF HIDALGO DEL PARRAL

Founded in 1631, as the Real de San José (Saint Joseph) de Parral, this is one of the most interesting old towns in northern Mexico. Hidalgo del Parral gained its wealth from mines like La Prieta and La Palmilla and the town still houses important historical archives.

The ruins of the fort on Cerro de la Cruz are said to date from the period (1862-7) when French troops occupied the town. At that time, Parral with its picturesque, narrow steep streets and beautifully decorated stone mansions became a truly cosmopolitan city. The town’s somewhat unbalanced coat-of-arms shows a winding river (the Parral) crossed by bridges that look like a cross between real bridges and stylized metal ingots.

WALKING TOUR OF THE CENTER

Let’s walk through central Parral, starting from the main plaza and parish church of San José. In the plaza, the town’s benevolent founder Juan Rangel de Viesma is portrayed, clad in helmet, clutching an ore nugget in one hand, and a mining hammer in the other. Overlooking the plaza is the La Prieta mine.

A short distance along Avenida Maclovio Herrera is the entrance to the municipal cemetery, complete with Villa’s tomb. Mystery still surrounds the fate of Villa’s mortal remains. While they were supposedly dug up and ceremoniously transported to Mexico City for re-interment alongside others of the nation’s Illustrious Men, local folklore insists that Villa’s remains still lie buried here, the local mayor having previously moved Villas’s bones a few meters from their original site, replacing them with the less illustrious bones of some anonymous commoner. Villa is reported to have said that he would never be left alone even in death and events clearly proved him right.

A road up the small hill to the north winds past the modern (1953) Temple of Fátima, before ending at the entrance to the Prieto mine. When mining efforts in the late 1940s finally paid off, the Temple of Fátima was built out of chunks of ore – gold, silver, lead, zinc, antimony, copper, manganese. Instead of pews, the congregation sits on short square pillar stools resembling claim boundary markers. Ore pieces sparkle in the walls and pillars. Sadly, this church is not always left open.

Back in the bottom of the valley and continuing west along the main street, now called Avenida Hidalgo, we pass the lovely two-storey, stone-built Casa Stallforth mansion and Antiguo Hotel Hidalgo. Across the street is the Parral Cathedral, squashed into a narrow space and correspondingly disproportioned.

Continuing along Hidalgo, to the left, just before the bridge, are two more superb buildings. The two-storey Casa Griesen with its balustrade is closer to Avenida Juarez. Then comes the Palacio Alvarado, constructed between 1899 and 1903. The tortured-looking face over the Palacio’s door is said to represent an Italian miner at work. Alvarado was founder of La Palmilla mine and supposedly became sufficiently wealthy to offer to pay off Mexico’s foreign debt at the start of this century.

Across the bridge, on the right, is the Library and Museo Francisco Villa with photos, newspapers clippings depicting the Revolutionary Hero. Parral was the base from 1910 of much of Villa’s activity and this is the building outside which he was assassinated on July 20, 1923, while on a trip to town from his retirement residence in Canutillo.

VILLA’S HACIENDA

About an hour’s drive south of Parral, highway 45 crosses the stateline into Durango. Just over the border is the ex-hacienda of Canutillo, awarded to Villa (a native of Durango) in 1920 by the government when he retired from fighting. Villa’s former residence houses a small, somewhat unimpressive collection of posters and artwork portraying the early stages of the Mexican Revolution. The collection’s official title, “Museo Grafico de la Revolución Mexicana” or “The Graphical Museum of the Mexican Revolution” is, frankly, more impressive than its content. However, the three kilometer drive in to Canutillo past rural scenes little changed from Villa’s time affords a refreshing change of pace from the speed of the highway. Finding the custodian of the museum (who holds the key to the interior) may take a few minutes but will give you time to look inside the village church with its gilded retablo and capture something of the quintessentially unchanging nature of parts of rural Mexico.

From Canutillo, it is another 360 km to the city of Durango. While fast, this is a route with very few tourist services and you are not advised to set out for Durango unless you are confident of arriving before dark.


Dolores Hidalgo

Dolores Hidalgo is a small colonial town of 60,000 inhabitants in the state of Guanajuato in Central Mexico. The full name of this town is Dolores Hidalgo, Cuna de la Independencia Nacional (Cradle of the National Independence).

The importance of this town lies in the fact that this was the starting point of the fight for Mexican independence from the Spanish empire in 1810, led by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. The quiet atmosphere in this town makes it really charming and the absence of tourist crowds could make it a highlight in your trip.

  • 21.15693 -100.93413 1Tourist Office ( Oficina de Turismo ), Plaza Principal 11, 2nd floor , ☏ +52 412 182 1164 . M-F 10:00-17:00 . Provides free sightseeing maps.

To reach Dolores Hidalgo you should be able to get a bus from Guanajuato, San Miguel de Allende or León all of them are around one hour away. Taking a bus from Querétaro is also an option. From Mexico City you need to take a bus to any of the before mentioned cities and then to Dolores. The bus station for 21.15507 -100.93636 1 Grupo Flecha Amarilla which includes Primera Plus and Coordinados is on Calle Hidalgo 26, north of the Rio Dolores. The other station for 21.1561 -100.937 2 Pegasso & Autovias is at Calle Yucatan 13e, on the corner of Calle Yucatan and Chiapas, one block north and one block west from Flecha Amarilla along Calle Tobasco/Chiapas.

The town is really small, everything is within walking distance.

  • 21.15823 -100.91675 1Independence Statue ( Monumento a los Insurgentes ) ( by the town's entrance ).
  • 21.15751 -100.93455 2Plaza Principal . The main square, where a statue of Hidalgo overlooks the parish church.
  • 21.15856 -100.93397 3Parish Church of our Lady of Sorrows ( Parroquia Nuestra Señora de Dolores ), Plaza Principal S/N , ☏ +52 418 182 0652 . Daily 08:00-20:00 .
  • 21.15852 -100.93537 4Museo de La Independencia Antigua Cárcel ( Museum of National Independence ), Zacatecas, 6 ( next to the main square ), ☏ +52 418 182 0193 x150 . M-Sa 09:00-17:00, Su 09:00-15:00 . M$15 (pesos) (adults), M$7.50 (students/teachers/seniors), free (children under 12), free on Sundays M$10 (camera permit) . ( updated May 2016 )
  • 21.15771 -100.93514 5Casa de Visitas , Plaza Principal 25 ( off of the main square ). An 18th-century mansion, now is a guest house for VIPs. Ask the guard to let you in and see inside.
  • 21.15642 -100.93586 6Museo Casa de Hidalgo , Calle Morelos 1 ( Hidalgo and Morelos streets ), ☏ +52 418 182 0171 . T-Sa 10:00-17:45, Su 09:00-16:45 . This was the place where priest Hidalgo lived. Shortly after the rebellion started, the Spanish arrived to Dolores and burned the original house. Most of the original furniture were lost but a they did a very well done replica of this national hero home. Interesting is a plaque in one of the outside walls dedicated by Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg during the French occupation. M$49 (adults), free (students/teachers/seniors/children under 13) free on Sundays .

Every night there's a re-creation of the famous cry for freedom at the main square with light and sound effects.

Dolores is famous for its Talavera Ceramic (pottery) items such as tiles, vases, pots, etc. Experts say is one of the best places to buy this kind of goods.

Next to the parish, there are several stalls selling small cacti, local liquors such as honey liquor or cacti liquor, and other local crafts. Buying from them will make their day.

Dolores is famous for its exotic ice cream flavors. Try them at the main square, there are two vendors, offering strange flavors such as Mole (chili and chocolate sauce), Beer, Strawberries and Cream, Avocado, etc. Each ice cream or "Nieve" in Spanish is around M$15.

  • 21.15707 -100.93504 1Café La Taberna , Plaza Principal 18, 2nd floor , ☏ +52 418 182 0055 . Daily 12:00-24:00 .
  • El Caporal Plaza Principal 5
  • 21.16249 -100.93843 2Carnitas Vicente , Avenida Norte 65 , ☏ +52 418 182 7017 . Daily 08:00-16:00 . Inexpensive and casual.
  • 21.15739 -100.9331 3El Carruaje Restaurante , Guanajuato 5 , ☏ +52 418 181 0648 . Daily 08:00-22:00 . Has live music in the evening.
  • 21.15705 -100.93495 4Restaurant Bar Plaza , Plaza Principal 17B , ☏ +52 418 182 0259 . Daily 08:00-22:00 .

In Dolores there are clubs and bars that you can go to just ask taxi cab drivers and they would take you anywhere. The most famous are 21.1568 -100.9213 1 Gruperrona and Cabina de Cesar.

  • 21.15928 -100.93421 1Hotel CasaMia, San Luis Potosí 9 , ☏ +52 418 182 2560 .
  • 21.15596 -100.93575 2Hotel Hidalgo, Calle Hidalgo 15 , ☏ +52 418 182 2683 , toll-free: +52 800 523 6254 , fax : +52 418 182 0477 .
  • 21.2298 -101.0272 3Haciendas Las Trancas. Centuries-old ex-hacienda. Ten suites with beautiful views of the Sierra Madres, each with Internet, satellite TV, propane fireplace, terrace, private bath. Additional beds and linens can sleep up to 30 people total. Wi-Fi throughout the porches and gardens. The hacienda is huge (approximately 40 rooms). Includes all meals, use of horses, heated pool/Jacuzzi, 17 piece Cybex Gym. Spa services available.

Dolores is a safe place by Mexican standards. Overall, people are nice and willing to help if you need directions.


Casa del Hidalgo

La Casa del Hidalgo es un edificio de la localidad española de Alcázar de San Juan, en la provincia de Ciudad Real. Cuenta con el estatus de Bien de Interés Patrimonial.

El inmueble se ubica en la calle del Cautivo de la localidad ciudadrealeña de Alcázar de San Juan, en Castilla-La Mancha. «Casa del Hidalgo» es la denominación dada recientemente al inmueble en el proceso de reconversión del edificio como museo y centro de interpretación dedicado a la forma de vida de los hidalgos manchegos. Su nombre antiguo era el de Casa del Rey, ya que fue la residencia del gobernador de la Real Fábrica de Pólvora que existía en Alcázar de San Juan desde el siglo XVI . También estuvo destinada a habitación del coronel director de la Fábrica de Salitres, cuando la citada fábrica estuvo a cargo del cuerpo de artillería en 1850. Unos años después, en 1863, por la supresión de la fábrica del Salitre de Alcázar, se vendió la casa en subasta pública, siendo su propietario a principios del siglo XX Julián Olivares, hasta que a principios de este siglo XXI la adquiere el Ayuntamiento para rehabilitarla y ubicar en ella el museo actual. [ 1 ] ​

En la actualidad el inmueble es el resultado de la unión de dos edificaciones mediante la apertura de vanos practicados en el muro medianero que las separaba. La casa situada al este y conocida como Casa del Hidalgo se conserva íntegramente, mientras que la situada al oeste conserva tan solo una pequeña parte de lo que debió ser el solar original de la antigua casa. De los 15 798 pies superficiales con que contaba en el siglo XIX el edificio, la actual casa cuenta con 7238 pies. De ahí que la casa fuera más grande que la que existe en la actualidad, algo que queda patente con la observación de los difíciles encuentros entre tejados, resueltos mediante complicadas limahoyas y limatesas, la discontinuidad de algunas de sus crujías, o la interrupción de la línea de fachada en sus dos extremos. [ 1 ] ​

Parte del edificio daba a la calle paralela (actual calle de Méndez Núñez), donde se encontraban los silos para almacenar el grano y, aunque en la actualidad la casa tan sólo conserva un patio, también se sabe que existió otro. Ello hace pensar que la casa debió organizarse en dos bloques enlazados. [ 1 ] ​

La tipología de la misma responde a una casona cuyos antecedentes hay que buscarlos en las “casas patio” y “casas patio entre medianeras”. Aunque son muchos los elementos con los que debió contar la casa y que se encuentran desaparecidos, se mantienen algunos testigos arquitectónicos, como los techos nobles de madera del tipo alfarje o artesonado que debió tener, ya que en el mirador que después fue utilizado como palomar se pueden encontrar en su cubierta vigas gramiladas conformando un antiguo forjado de madera de estilo mudéjar. [ 1 ] ​

Lo que sí se ha conservado es el acceso desde la calle al zaguán, que se hacía a través de una gran portada adintelada, con balconada característica de finales del siglo XVII o comienzos del XVIII. A través de otra gran puerta se accede al patio con siete columnas toscanas, en torno al cual se articulan las dos plantas de la vivienda. Desde el patio se accede a dos estancias subterráneas abovedadas y excavadas en la roca, de las cuales una se dedicó a bodega y la otra a la conservación de alimentos y posteriormente se reutilizó como aljibe después de haber sido sellada su entrada originaria. En el extremo oeste de la planta inferior de la vivienda se sitúa un pozo con un brocal tallado en piedra arenisca y decorado con motivos vegetales barrocos, que posee una conducción que capta el agua de lluvia que cae al patio, haciendo funciones de “impluvium”. La reutilización de materiales de otras épocas es patente en todo el edificio, tales como un canecillo de madera con decoración tallada, vigas gramiladas de tradición mudéjar, que seguramente formaron parte de algún artesonado, vigas con uno de sus extremos tallados en forma de quilla de barco, azulejería talaverana del siglo XVI y rejería de cuadradillo en las ventanas. [ 1 ] ​

Durante los siglos XIX y XX el edificio continuó sufriendo reformas destinadas a adaptar la casa a los nuevos tiempos. Estas reformas han consistido en ornamentaciones propias de la moda del momento como la que se puede encontrar en el techo que cubre el tiro de escalera. Se trata de una yesería policroma del barroco tardío a base de querubines, veneras y motivos vegetales donde también aparece una gran cruz verde. La última gran reforma que sufrió el edificio tuvo lugar el siglo pasado cuando acogió a varias familias, con el aprovechamiento del máximo espacio existente, lo que dio lugar a la construcción de galerías en la planta superior. Así, fueron cerrados mediante el relleno con yeso del espacio existente entre los antiguos balaustres y compartimentados con entramados de madera y panderete, para ser utilizados como cocinas y retretes. Todo esto ha hecho que la fisonomía de la casa cambiara, aunque no en su estructura básica. [ 1 ] ​

En la fachada actual, se puede ver una gran puerta en arco de medio punto que posteriormente fue reconvertido en ventana y que hoy en día es la entrada al museo. Este viejo portalón debió de ser el que daba acceso a la primitiva vivienda. También se han documentado restos de un encachado realizado a base de pequeños cantos rodados de cuarcita. La otra entrada, adintelada, sirve de acceso al zaguán y pudo ser la puerta principal de la casa también durante algún tiempo cuenta con una balconada característica de finales del XVII y comienzos del XVIII. [ 1 ] ​

La casa está dispuesta en dos plantas. Era la morada en la que vivía una familia, y su construcción debía conferir un especial valor a los espacios y la distribución de los mismos, así como a la forma y al tipo de decoración que había en ella. A través de esta simbología, su propietario expresaba su situación social respecto a los demás habitantes de la localidad. Se solía realizar con los materiales disponibles en el entorno más próximo: tierra, piedra, cal, arena, yeso, madera, carrizo y con técnicas de construcción tales como el tapial, mampostería, argamasa, ladrillo, adobe, etc. Aunque estos edificios construidos no eran solamente para la habitación de las personas, sino que también albergaban una parte destinada al trabajo, con los animales imprescindibles para las faenas del campo. Había estancias destinadas a los aperos de labranza, al almacenamiento de cosechas o la transformación y conservación de alimentos. Las cubiertas del edificio son de dos tipos: de par-hilera y de par y nudillo con teja árabe. Uno de los accesos a la casa desde la calle es al zaguán o portal. Era la primera pieza de la casa, por donde se entraba, y servía de paso a las demás dependencias de la vivienda. Se encontraba a continuación de la puerta principal y conduce al patio central de la casa. Cabe reseñar que si bien en la actualidad tan sólo se conserva un patio a modo de distribuidor y organizador de espacios en cuatro crujías y dos galerías superpuestas, por los estudios realizados se sabe que existió otro, lo que hace pensar que la casa debió organizarse en dos bloques enlazados. Al lado derecho del zaguán se abre una estancia. [ 1 ] ​

Desde esta zona de la casa se puede acceder a la cueva-bodega excavada en la roca, donde se conservan restos del apoyo de la viga del lagar, con los nichos en que se alojaban las tinajas. Volviendo al patio central de la casa, en la parte sur se encuentra el aljibe y la cocina bajo la cual existe un depósito subterráneo de agua, lugar ideado originalmente en la construcción como una fresquera donde conservar alimentos. Su uso cambió para almacenar agua de lluvia recogida desde el patio. Subiendo por la escalera original de la casa, localizada al lado oeste del patio, se aprecia en el techo una yesería policromada que reproduce una serie de querubines negros, parras y una vieira. Estos relieves de vivos colores se enmarcan dentro del estilo rococó de inspiración andaluza. La yesería resulta muy singular, adscribiéndose a la mitad del siglo XVIII . Mamperlanes de madera evitan el desgaste de los peldaños, rematados con baldosa de barro cocido en la huella y la tabica, dispuesta en dos tramos con un rellano intermedio, le acompaña al segundo tramo un barandal de hierro forjado. Sobre el tiro de la escalera aparece un pequeño mirador, una habitación de pequeñas proporciones, de planta cuadrada construida con entramado de madera y adobes sobre su estructura descansa una armadura de cuatro faldones de “lima bordón” que emplea en su construcción vigas reutilizadas en cuyo “papo” se pueden apreciar dos pares de gramiles. [ 1 ] ​

El acceso a las habitaciones se hacía a través de la galería superior. Ésta se levanta sobre pies derechos con zapatas y una balaustrada de madera con piezas torneadas. Las habitaciones han sido habilitadas como espacios expositivos. La última de las estancias privadas sería el oratorio, en el extremo suroeste del inmueble. La presencia del torreón –de planta cuadrada- en el lado oeste lleva a pensar en la posibilidad de que la casa, por suubicación a las afueras de la villa y por sus dimensiones, se construyera siguiendo el modelo de las casas de campo. [ 1 ] ​

Desde el torreón se podían divisar las dependencias domésticas, anticipar la presencia de visitas o avistar posibles amenazas. También es posible que se construyera simplemente para realzar la fachada o como un recuerdo de las torres de los castillos que años antes dominaban el paisaje. Otra hipótesis es que realizaría la función de palomar. [ 1 ] ​

El 21 de octubre de 2016 fue declarado Bien de Interés Patrimonial, con la categoría de «Construcción de Interés Patrimonial», en una resolución publicada el 3 de noviembre de ese mismo año en el Diario Oficial de Castilla-La Mancha. [ 1 ] ​


Casa de la Bola Museum

The Casa de la Bola Museum is a 16th century building of incredible atmosphere. In the old and rather famous neighborhood of Tacubaya, it’s also among the oldest parts of the city. The museum evokes much of what is best remembered from those by-gone eras, and a substantial collection of 17th- and 18th-century art. The grounds of the museum are today the Parque Lira which makes an excellent place to visit.

With 13 rooms primarily decorated in a 19th century style, some furniture from the 16th through the 20th centuries is included in the permanent collection.

The house’s name is believed to have derived either from a ball-shaped ornament once display atop the roof. Another version has it that “the ball” was actually a way of referring to one of the then-frequent strikes and social rebellions happening in the 19th century.

Built in the 16th century, the home was once part of an estate that produced olive oil. Owners included the head of the Inquisition, the Count of Cortina, and the Marquis of Guadalupe. The final owner was one Antonio Haghenbeck y de la Lama who had the building remodeled in the 1940s, and entirely decorated in the style of a 19th-century mansion. In 1984, he donated it to the cultural foundation that still bears his name and which manages this and a few other unique and irreplaceable homes in Mexico.

The Museum

Among the 13 rooms in the museum today, visitors will find a number of European tapestries, porcelain, clocks, paintings, and a large collection of furniture. With two floors, a cobbled central courtyard and corridors supported by stone columns A European-style garden includes walkways, fountains, and sculptures.

All the photos below are from the Haghenbeck Foundation website. The museum is easily reachable within walking distance of the Tacubaya Metro station.


Contents

Evidence of early human habitation in this area is found in Cerro de las Navajas and Zacualtipán, in the Sierra de Pachuca. Here primitive mines to extract green obsidian, arrow heads, scraping tools, and mammoth remains can be traced back as far as 12,000 BCE. An ancient pre-Hispanic obsidian tool-making center has also been found in the small town of San Bartolo near the city. Around 2,000 BCE nomadic groups here began to be replaced by sedentary peoples who formed farming villages in an area then known as Itzcuincuitlapilco, of which the municipality of Pachuca is a part. Later artifacts from between 200 CE and 850 CE show Teotihuacan influence with platforms and figurines found in San Bartolo and in Tlapacoya. Development of this area as a city, however, would lag behind other places in the region such as Tulancingo, Tula and Atotonilco El Grande, [2] but the archeological sites here were on the trade routes among these larger cities. [5]

After the Teotihuacan era, the area was dominated by the Chichimecas with their capital in Xaltocan, who called the area around Pachuca Njunthé. Later, the Chichimecas would found the dominion of Cuauhtitlán pushing the native Otomis to the Mezquital Valley. These conquests coalesced into a zone called Cuautlalpan, of which Pachuca was a part. Fortifications in the area of Pachuca city and other areas were built between 1174 and 1181. [2] [5] This dominion would eventually be overrun by the Aztec Triple Alliance between 1427 and 1430, with rule in Pachuca then coming from the city of Tenochtitlan. According to tradition, it was after this conquest that mineral exploitation began here and in neighboring Real del Monte, at a site known as Jacal or San Nicolás. [2] The Aztec governing center was where Plaza Juárez in Pachuca city is now. [3]

The Spanish arrived here in 1528, killing the local Aztec governor, Ixcóatl. [3] Credit for the Spanish conquest of the Pachuca area has been given Francisco Téllez, an artilleryman who came to Mexico with Hernán Cortés in 1519. [2] He and Gonzalo Rodriguez were the first Spaniards here, constructing two feudal estates, and calling the area Real de Minas de Pachuca. [3] Téllez was also given credit for laying out the colonial city of Pachuca on the European model but this story has been proven false, with no alternative version. [2] Mining resources were not discovered here until 1552, [7] and there are several versions of this story. The most probable comes from a work called “Descripción Anónima de la Minas de Pachuca” (Anonymous Description of the Mines of Pachuca) written between the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th. This work claims that the first mineral deposits were found by Alonso Rodríguez de Salgado on his ranch on the outskirts of Pachuca in two large hills called Magdalena and Cristóbal. [2] This discovery would quickly change the area's economy from agriculture to one dependent almost completely on mining. [5]

As early as 1560 the population of the city had tripled to 2,200, with most people employed in mining in some way. Because of this rapid growth and the ruggedness of the terrain, it was impossible to lay out an orderly set of streets. The first main plaza was placed next to the Asunción Parish, which is now the Garden of the Constitution. Next to the Cajas Reales (Royal Safe) was constructed to guard the fifth that belonged to the king. [2]

In 1554, on the Purísima Concepción Hacienda, now the site of a tennis club, Bartolomé de Medina found the largest mineral deposits here as well as developed new ways of extracting minerals from ore using the patio process. This caused Pachuca to grow even more with the discovery of new deposits and accelerated extraction processes. Mining operations spread to nearby areas such as Atotonilco, Actopan, and Tizayuca. The population of the town continued to grow, leading Pachuca to be declared a city in 1813. [2] [8]

Mining output had waned by the 18th century due to flooding, but was revived in 1741 by the first Count of Regla, Pedro Romero de Terreros, and his business partner Jose Alejandro Bustamante, who invested in new drainage works. [8] He also discovered new veins of ore, mostly in nearby Real del Monte. [5] By 1746, Pachuca had a population of 900 Spanish, mestizo, and mulatto households, plus 120 Indian ones. [8]

During the Mexican War of Independence, the city was taken by Miguel Serrano and Vicente Beristain de Souza in 1812, which caused the mines here to be abandoned by owners loyal to Spain. [5] The war left the Pachuca area in a state of chaos, both politically and economically. The third Count of Regla brought the first Cornish miners and technology around 1824. [2] The Cornish took over mines abandoned by the Spanish, bringing 1,500 tonnes of more modern equipment from Cornwall. [9] Cornish companies eventually dominated mining here until 1848, when the Mexican–American War forced them to sell out to a Mexican company by the name of Mackintosh, Escondón, Beistegui and John Rule. Mining operations resumed in 1850, especially in the Rosario mine. [2] [5] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Mining operations were disrupted again by the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century. The city was first taken by forces loyal to Francisco I. Madero in 1911. Roberto Martinez y Martinez, a general under Pancho Villa, entered the city in 1915. Both incursions were due to the economic importance of the mines here. [5] During this time American investors came to Pachuca, again updating the mining technology used here. From 1906 to 1947 the United States Smelting, Refining and Mining Company was the primary producer here, with output reaching its peak in the 1930s. However, by 1947, mining here had become too costly, because of political instability, labor disputes and low prices for silver on the world market. The company sold its interests to the Mexican government in 1965. [2] [9]

The decline in mining here in the mid-20th century had disastrous effects on the city. Many of the abandoned houses and other buildings were in danger of collapse. Under ownership of the Mexican government, mining came to a near standstill. During this time Pachuca's economy began to shift from mining to industry. The old Instituto Científico Literario Autónomo de Hidalgo was converted to the Universidad Autónoma del Estado in 1961, which would become one of the impetuses to the growth of the city in the following years, turning out as it did a better-educated and more technical workforce in areas such as law, engineering, business and medicine. In the late 1950s and through the 1960s, some growth was seen in the way of suburban developments for workers in newly built factories. [2]

Population growth returned in the 1970s and continued through the 1990s because of the growth of non-mining industries as well as a development of a large student population for the state university as well as other educational institutions. Another impetus was the movement of many government offices to Pachuca with new government facilities such as the State Government Palace and the State Supreme Court built in the 1970s. Much of the city's growth during this time was due to new housing projects, but infrastructure projects such as the new Municipal Market, the remodeling of the Plaza Benito Juárez and the main bus station also took place. [2]

Pachuca has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) . The climate is cool with high rainfall and occasional hail during the summer months and dry conditions during the winter. The coldest month is January, with an average high of 20 °C (68 °F) and an average low of 3 °C (37 °F). Winter nights are cold and the temperature can drop below 0 °C (32 °F). The warmest month is May, with an average high of 24 °C (75 °F) and a low of 9 °C (48 °F). Due to its high altitude, nighttime temperatures remain cool throughout the year. The average annual precipitation is 412 millimetres (16.2 in), mostly concentrated in the months May through September. In terms of extremes, the record high was 40 °C (104 °F) and the record low was −9 °C (16 °F).

Climate data for Pachuca (1951–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.0
(95.0)
29.0
(84.2)
28.4
(83.1)
40.0
(104.0)
32.0
(89.6)
33.0
(91.4)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
26.0
(78.8)
25.0
(77.0)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F) 19.8
(67.6)
20.7
(69.3)
23.0
(73.4)
24.6
(76.3)
24.1
(75.4)
22.0
(71.6)
20.7
(69.3)
20.8
(69.4)
20.5
(68.9)
20.4
(68.7)
20.0
(68.0)
19.7
(67.5)
21.4
(70.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.3
(52.3)
12.1
(53.8)
14.3
(57.7)
16.2
(61.2)
16.6
(61.9)
15.7
(60.3)
15.0
(59.0)
14.8
(58.6)
14.5
(58.1)
13.6
(56.5)
12.1
(53.8)
11.6
(52.9)
14.0
(57.2)
Average low °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
3.4
(38.1)
5.6
(42.1)
7.8
(46.0)
9.2
(48.6)
9.4
(48.9)
9.2
(48.6)
8.8
(47.8)
8.4
(47.1)
6.9
(44.4)
4.2
(39.6)
3.5
(38.3)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F) −9.0
(15.8)
−6.0
(21.2)
−7.0
(19.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.0
(33.8)
0.0
(32.0)
2.0
(35.6)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−7.0
(19.4)
−9.0
(15.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.7
(0.34)
8.4
(0.33)
13.6
(0.54)
32.9
(1.30)
58.3
(2.30)
70.0
(2.76)
69.7
(2.74)
49.3
(1.94)
58.3
(2.30)
24.8
(0.98)
11.3
(0.44)
6.6
(0.26)
411.9
(16.22)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.6 2.6 3.3 7.1 9.5 11.9 12.6 9.7 10.2 5.5 3.4 1.9 80.3
Average relative humidity (%) 57 53 50 52 58 68 72 72 74 69 63 61 62
Mean monthly sunshine hours 245.6 233.7 244.9 223.8 247.1 206.7 210.0 222.7 179.2 223.5 230.3 226.7 2,694.2
Source 1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional [13]
Source 2: Colegio de Postgraduados (sun and humidity) [14]

The city occupies a small valley and is almost completely surrounded by large hills, which are also covered in colorful housing. [2] The city centre has maintained most of its colonial-era structures, with narrow winding streets. Away from this centre is the more modern Pachuca, with warehouses, factories, supermarkets and a large football stadium called El Huracán (The Hurricane). The local team has won eight national and international titles here since it was built. [15] The city proper has a population (2005) of 267,751 which is 97% of the population of the municipality. [16] The Pachuca zona metropolitana (ZM) is one of the 56 officially defined areas for the 2005 Census (2010 not released) consisting of the municipalities of Pachuca de Soto, Real del Monte, and Mineral de la Reforma making a total of 7 municipios, with a combined population of 438,692 inhabitants as of 2005 [update] , up from 375,022 in 2000, covering 1202 km 2 . [16] Pachuca was declared the capital of Hidalgo by Benito Juárez in 1869. [15]


Conoce · Ubica · Agenda

Una de las figuras más sobresalientes en la Independencia de México es Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo y Costilla y Gallaga, mejor conocido como Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

Este museo tiene como sede la casa que habitó el &ldquoPadre de la Patria&rdquo y donde residió su curato, al mismo alberga objetos vinculados a su participan en la lucha independentista.

En este museo descubriremos la historia de Miguel Hidalgo, la información relacionada a su quehacer cotidiano y las lecturas e influencia que modelaron su pensamiento, además de las preocupaciones sociales que lo inquietaron en los tres curatos que tenía a su cargo.

Bienvenido al Museo Casa Hidalgo, ex Curato de Dolores, ubicado en Guanajuato.

List of site sources >>>


Watch the video: Sabías que..Museo Casa de Hidalgo (January 2022).