The story

Stan Earle


Stanley (Stan) Earle, the son of Harry Earle, who played professional football for Nottingham Forest, was born in Stratford on 6th September 1897. A talented inside-right he played England Scoolboys before signing as an amateur for Clapton Orient.

In March 1922 Earle signed as an amateur for Arsenal. He made his debut against Aston Villa on 18th March 1922. Later that year he played for the English amateur side against Ireland. Over the next two years he scored 3 goals in 4 games for Arsenal. His form was so good that he won his first international cap for England against France on 17th May 1924.

Earle signed for West Ham United in August 1924. He joined a team that included Alfred Earl, Edward Hufton, Jimmy Ruffell, Jim Barrett, Billy Moore, Vic Watson and Tommy Yews. In his first season he scored 6 goals 18 games.

In the 1925-26 season he played in 37 of the 42 league games. He developed a fine partnership with Jimmy Ruffell and Vic Watson, who scored 41 goals between them that season.

Earle won his second international cap for England against Northern Ireland on 22nd October 1927. Also in the team that day was Dixie Dean, Joe Hulme, Tom Cooper and Edward Hufton. England lost the game 2-0.

Stan Earle left West Ham United at the end of the 1931-32 season. He had scored 58 goals in 273 league and cup games. He ended his career playing for Clapton Orient. After retiring at the end of the 1931-32 season he coached top amateur club, Walthamstow Avenue.

Stan Earle died in Colchester in 26th September 1971.


Stan Hack

There are fewer third basemen in the Hall of Fame than players from any other position. One who hasn’t made it is Stan Hack, who held down the post for 16 years with the Chicago Cubs, from 1932 through 1947. Yet Bill James ranks him the ninth best all time at the position, well ahead of Pie Traynor, Jimmy Collins, and George Kell, who are enshrined in Cooperstown. Hack retired with a lifetime batting average of .301 and an on-base percentage of .394, drawing 1,092 walks against 466 strikeouts. He was a five-time All-Star and twice finished in the top ten in MVP voting. He played in four World Series with the Cubs, hitting .348 with a .408 on-base percentage.

So why is Stan Hack virtually forgotten today? There are several reasons. He wasn’t the archetypical slugging third baseman, essentially a singles hitter who never hit more than eight home runs in a season. He was overshadowed on some strong Cubs teams by the likes of Gabby Hartnett, Kiki Cuyler, Phil Cavarretta, and Bill Nicholson. He was even overshadowed by the shortstop on the other side of town, Luke Appling, a similar player who won a pair of batting championships.

As a leadoff man for most of his career, Hack’s job was getting on base and scoring runs. And he did that admirably. For six straight years he scored over 100 runs, tying a National league record. He led the league in hits twice, and in stolen bases twice. (Of course, players didn’t run much in the late 1930s. His leading numbers were 16 in 1938 and 17 in 1939.) Defensively, Hack ranked among the best third basemen of his time. At one point he held the record for most consecutive games without an error at third. James retroactively awarded him three Gold Gloves. (The award wasn’t introduced until ten years after Hack retired.)

Because of his consistency and good nature, Stan was one of the most popular players on the Cubs. An opposing player once said that Hack “has more friends than Leo Durocher has enemies.”1 From rookie to elder statesman, with good teams and bad ones, Smiling Stan was the same man.

Stanley Camfield Hack was born in Sacramento, California, on December 6, 1909. His father, Charles Hack, worked as department manager in a bank at the time of the 1910 census, but ten years later had taken up farming. His mother, Pearl Hack, also gave birth to Stan’s younger brother, Delwyn. At Sacramento High School Stan was the starting third baseman, alongside outfielder Myril Hoag, whose Yankees would sweep Hack’s Cubs in the 1932 and 1938 World Series. A left-handed contact hitter at 6 feet and 170 pounds, Stan was a throwback to the third basemen of the Deadball Era. His job was setting the table for the big boppers, getting on base and into position to score. It was a skill set he carried into the major leagues.

After graduation Hack worked as a bookkeeper in a Sacramento bank and played weekends on a semipro team. He attracted the attention of the local Pacific Coast League team, the Sacramento Senators, and in 1931 was signed to a contract. Hack was a star among stars on the Senators, whose roster included future major leaguers Dolph Camilli, Frank Demaree, and Frenchy Bordagaray. At 21, Hack hit .352, with 232 hits in 164 games.

During those Depression years, PCL teams survived by developing players and selling them to the major leagues. Cubs president Bill Veeck, Sr. paid $40,000 for Hack’s contract at the end of the season. He also bought Demaree, who became a mainstay later in the decade. Although the Cubs had won the pennant in 1929, the core of that team was on the shady side of 30. Hack Wilson, Rogers Hornsby, Charlie Grimm, Riggs Stephenson, and Kiki Cuyler soon would need to be replaced. So Veeck brought in Hack and Demaree along with Billy Jurges, Billy Herman, and Lon Warneke to fortify the team through the coming decade.

Hack didn’t set the National League on fire in his rookie year, 1932. He hit only .236 in 72 games, and his only World Series action was as a pinch-runner. Perhaps one reason was that he replaced Hack Wilson as pitcher Pat Malone’s drinking buddy. As he matured, Hack gave up partying and his career flourished. He was the Opening Day third baseman, and for most of the year shared the position with Woody English. He struggled at the plate, but when shortstop Billy Jurges was shot by a spurned girlfriend, English moved to short and Hack got more playing time. Veeck also brought in former Yankees shortstop Mark Koenig, who sparked the Cubs in the dog days of late summer by hitting .353. Manager Rogers Hornsby was fired in August, replaced by Charlie Grimm. The Cubs came from behind to win the pennant, but were swept by the Yankees in the World Series.

Hack topped off that turbulent year on a high note, marrying his teenage sweetheart, Dorothy Weisel. She was a top-ranked tennis player, twice reaching the quarterfinals at the US Nationals and ranking as high as third nationally. At that point, she was a more famous athlete than her husband. They had one child, Stanley Jr., born in 1934.

English was the Cubs’ starting third baseman the following year, so Hack was sent off to Albany, where he hit .299. Recalled to Chicago late in the season, he hit .350 in 20 games. Except for his final year at age 37, Hack never hit less than .280 again.

In 1934 Hack established himself as the Cubs’ starting third baseman. Three-fourths of the infield of Grimm, Hack, Jurges, and Herman remained intact for the rest of the decade. Only first base changed hands, from Grimm to Cavarretta to Ripper Collins and then to Rip Russell. Behind the scenes, Bill Wrigley and Bill Veeck had died, and the Cubs were inherited by Wrigley’s son, Phil. Phil Wrigley had little interest in baseball and kept the Cubs only because they had meant so much to his father. The people he put in charge lacked the elder Wrigley’s dedication and Veeck’s baseball sense, so the talent flow that made the Cubs contenders during the 1930s began to slow down. In 1935 they had first crack at a San Francisco Seals outfielder but turned him down because of a questionable knee, so Joe DiMaggio was sold to the Yankees. Five years later the Cubs turned down his brother Dom DiMaggio because he was too small and wore glasses.

But the Cubs of the 1930s still managed two more pennants. In September 1935 they won 21 games in a row to overtake the Cardinals and Giants. Hack hit seventh most of the season, batting .311 with 65 walks and only 17 strikeouts. Gabby Hartnett hit .344 and won the MVP award, Billy Herman led the league with 227 hits and 57 doubles.

By this time, Hack had acquired the nickname Smiling Stan because of his good nature and handsome looks. In one of the few promotions of the day, the Cubs handed out mirrors to the fans with his picture on the back. The promotion backfired when fans tried to shine them in the faces of opposing players, and umpires threatened to forfeit the game. That giveaway was the idea of Bill Veeck, Jr., then 21 years old and recently hired into the Cubs’ front office. Two years later, a better idea of his took root when he planted ivy on the outfield walls.

The Cubs faced the Tigers in the 1935 World Series. Hack had only five hits in the six games, hitting .227. In Game Six, with the scored tied 3-3, and the Cubs trailing 3 games to 2, Hack led off the ninth inning with a triple. Jurges then struck out on three pitches. Grimm’s pitching staff was thin, so he had to let pitcher Larry French bat. French grounded out to the pitcher. Augie Galan ended the frustrating inning by flying out to left field, leaving Hack stranded. In the bottom of the ninth, the Tigers scored on Goose Goslin’s single to end the series.

A few years later Hack returned to Briggs Stadium for the All-Star Game. When he arrived, he took a quick look at third base before entering the clubhouse. He explained later, “I just wanted to see if I was still standing out there waiting for somebody to drive me home.”2

From 1929 through 1938, the Cubs won a pennant every three years. During the seasons of 1936 and 1937, Hack hit .297 and .298, alternating mostly between leadoff and fifth in the batting order. By this time he was considered one of the top third basemen in the National League, but his best years were ahead.

In the pennant-winning year of 1938, Stan was 28 years old, made his first All-Star team, and finished seventh in the MVP voting. He led off for the Cubs most of the season, hit .320 with a .411 OBP and led the league in steals. The Cubs were struggling in July, when Grimm resigned as manager and was replaced by Gabby Hartnett. That set a spark, and slowly they crept up on the league-leading Pirates. Going into a late-September series at Wrigley Field, the Cubs trailed Pittsburgh by 1½ games. Dizzy Dean, pitching on guts and a lame arm, won the first game, 2-1. The second game is legendary in Cubs lore. It was tied 5-5 going into the last of the ninth with darkness descending on the ballpark. That was when Hartnett hit his “Homer in the Gloamin’” to vault the Cubs into first place. As Gabby joked later, his mother could have pitched the next game because the Pirates were done. The Cubs won the final game of the series, 10-1, to all but lock up the pennant.

That won them the chance to become sacrificial lambs to another loaded Yankee team, which swept the Series in four games. The highlight for the Cubs was Stan Hack, who hit .471. It was the end of the good times for Cubs fans, as the team began a long slide into mediocrity. They dropped to fourth place in 1939, their last winning season until the wartime pennant of 1945. Hack hit .298 in ’39, led the league in stolen bases again, and started his second All-Star Game.

Hack was even better in 1940, leading the league in hits and batting .317, along with 21 stolen bases. But the Cubs dropped to fifth place, losing four more games than they won.

Hartnett was fired and Jimmie Wilson hired as the Cubs manager for 1941. It was a great year for baseball, featuring tight pennant races, Joe DiMaggio’s 56-game streak, and Ted Williams’s .406 average. But it was dreary for the Cubs, as they limped home in sixth place with five fewer wins than the year before. Hack was consistent, though, hitting .317 again, leading the league with 186 hits, and playing in his third All-Star Game.

The 1942 season was the first of the war years. At 32, Hack was too old to be drafted, so he remained in a Cubs uniform. By now his best years were behind him, as his batting averages dropped to .300 and .289. Although Stan kept smiling, the losing was getting to him. At the end of 1943 he’d had enough. He didn’t get along with Wilson, and retired at the age of 33. Wilson’s Cubs won their opener without Hack at third, but then lost 13 in a row. General manager Jim Gallagher fired Wilson, replacing him with Mr. Cub of that time, Charlie Grimm. One of the first things Grimm did was to call his old infield buddy and talk him out of retirement. Hack debuted on June 18.He was a bit rusty, played in only 98 games, and hit .282.

In 1945 it all came together for the Cubs. They improved from 75 to 98 wins, and won the National League pennant. Travel restrictions resulted in lots of doubleheaders that year, and the Cubs won both ends of 20 of them, as of 2014 still a major-league record. They also beat up on the Cincinnati Reds, winning 21 out of 22 games. Although detractors called their pennant a wartime fluke, the Cubs were a solid ballclub that led the league in team batting average and team ERA. Hack contributed big-time, hitting a career-high .323, with a .420 OBP, and scoring 110 runs. He was selected for his fifth All-Star Game, although the game wasn’t played due to wartime travel restrictions. He finished 11th in MVP voting teammate Phil Cavarretta won the award.

In the World Series the Cubs again faced the Tigers. Chicago sportswriter Warren Brown called it the World’s Worst Series, referring to sloppy play from many who wouldn’t have been in a big-league uniform if the real players weren’t in the military. The Cubs took two of the first three games in Detroit on shutouts by Hank Borowy and Claude Passeau. Passeau’s victory was a one-hitter, equaling the Cubs’ Ed Reulbach as the best-pitched game in Series history. (This was 11 years before Don Larsen’s perfect game.) But the Tigers came back to win the next two games at Wrigley Field. With the Cubs facing elimination in Game Six, Hack hit a 12th-inning line drive that skipped past left fielder Hank Greenberg for a game-winning double.

It was the biggest hit of Hack’s career. (He had another great Series, hitting .367 with a .441 OBP.) Grimm started his weary ace, Borowy, in Game Seven. Hank had pitched four scoreless relief innings in Game Six, but with one day’s rest had nothing left. When the first three batters got hits, Grimm got the message and pulled him. Before the inning was over, the Tigers had scored five runs and cruised to a 9-3 win.

While other teams got stronger with returning war veterans, the Cubs stood pat and paid the price. Their 82 wins in 1946 were good for third place. It would be their last winning season for 17 years. At the age of 36, Hack hit .285, and 83 walks in 92 games raised his OBP to .431, a career high for a full season. He broke a finger in August, which kept him out of the lineup for a month.

The 1947 season was Hack’s last as a player. The Cubs tried several others at third base, limiting him to 76 games. He hit .271 with a .377 OBP. In September the Cubs gave him a car on Stan Hack Day in front of a capacity crowd.

Hack was such a favorite in Chicago that the Cubs offered him a managerial job in their minor-league system. Over the next six years he worked his way up the ladder, from Des Moines to Springfield, and in 1951 to Los Angeles. There he managed the system’s first African American player, shortstop Gene Baker. Baker spent four years in Triple-A before being called up, as the Cubs were one of the last teams to integrate.

Phil Cavarretta was managing the major-league team in 1954. During spring training Phil Wrigley asked him how the team was looking. The blunt Cavarretta told him the truth: With the players they had, they were a second-division ballclub. Wrigley fired him for a defeatist attitude. It was the first time a manager had ever been fired in spring training. The only way to defuse a media firestorm was to replace one Cubs icon with another. That was how Stan Hack became manager of the Cubs.

The Cubs had bought Ernie Banks from the Kansas City Monarchs and played him in ten games at the end of the previous year. Hack installed him as the starting shortstop, while Baker moved to second base, and both had strong rookie years. Hank Sauer and Ralph Kiner supplied punch in the outfield, but Cavarretta was right. They lost 90 games and finished in seventh place.

The 1955 Cubs started out strong. Banks became a star, with 44 homers and 117 RBIs. Rookie Bob Speake had a great streak until pitchers caught up with him. Veterans Randy Jackson and Frankie Baumholtz still had something in the tank. The Cubs were 45-38 in early July, but a couple of long losing streaks doomed the season. They finished in sixth place, nine games under .500. The following year Banks played hurt, his production dropped off, and the team finished in the cellar. Hack was fired.

Hack didn’t stay unemployed long. Fred Hutchinson hired him as a coach with the Cardinals. Having been a Cubs employee for 24 years, it must have been strange for Stan to don a Redbirds uniform. The Cardinals weren’t much better than the Cubs, and Hutchinson was fired with ten games left in the 1958 season. Hack was tabbed to replace him, but won only three of those games.

From that point, Hack bounced around the minor leagues as a manager and coach, finally retiring from baseball in 1966. By this time he and Dorothy had divorced. Stan and his second wife, Glennyce, bought the Landmark Restaurant in Grand Detour, Illinois, about 100 miles west of Chicago. One patron wrote, “In the entrance to the Landmark was the largest collection of Chicago Cub memorabilia I had ever seen: uniforms, photos of players, coaches, radio announcers and executives, scorecards and equipment. Everything there was to collect was there.”3 Hack enjoyed his other passions, golf, fishing, and hunting. In an interview with Chicago sportswriter Jim Enright, he said he had only two wishes. He wished Cubs pitchers had dusted Giants hurler Monty Kennedy, who “used to hit me like I was a dart board.” The other was one more victory, because he had 199 as a major-league manager. “On second thought,” he said, “I wouldn’t want to see Monte or anybody else hurt, and it’s too late now to worry about 200 victories.”4

Stan Hack died in 1979, at 70. In 1996 Lennie Merullo, the last living Cub who played for them in the World Series, described him this way: “Everybody loved Stan Hack. … He hit from foul line to foul line, a line-drive hitter … like Wade Boggs. He didn’t have a great arm, but had such a nice, soft throw. It was never off the mark, and he’d always come up with the ball.”5

Phil Cavarretta added, “Stan never got the credit he deserved. … To me, with his stats and knowing Stan Hack, I can’t understand why he isn’t in the Hall of Fame.”6

Hack never had much support for the Hall of Fame, falling off the ballot after about five years. Bill James disagrees with the voters, comparing Hack with Pie Traynor, who was considered the best third baseman of all time before the likes of Eddie Mathews, Ron Santo, and Mike Schmidt came along. Traynor hit .320 against Hack’s .301, but Traynor played most of his career in the 1920s, when averages were significantly higher. Traynor drove in more runs, but Hack scored more, seldom hitting from an RBI position in the lineup. James argues that Hack was actually a better hitter on the basis of runs created. Somewhere in that ivy-covered ballpark in the sky, Stan Hack must be smiling over the comparison.

This biography is included in the book “Van Lingle Mungo: The Man, The Song, The Players” (SABR, 2014), edited by Bill Nowlin.

Brown, Warren, The Chicago Cubs (New York: Putnam, 1946).

Enright, Jim, Chicago Cubs (New York: Collier Books, 1975).

Gold, Eddie, and Art Ahrens, The New Era Cubs (Chicago: Bonus Books, 1985).

Golenbock, Peter, Wrigleyville (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996).

James, Bill, The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract (New York: Free Press, 2003).

2 Warren Brown, The Chicago Cubs (New York: Putnam, 1946), 150.

3 Sandy Goldman, “We’re Still Waiting! … the 1945 World Series,” andthatsmyopinion.com.

4 Jim Enright, Chicago Cubs (New York: Collier Books, 1975), 148.

5 Peter Golenbock, Wrigleyville. (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996), 297.


Erle Stanley Gardner

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Erle Stanley Gardner, (born July 17, 1889, Malden, Mass., U.S.—died March 11, 1970, Temecula, Calif.), American author and lawyer who wrote nearly 100 detective and mystery novels that sold more than 1,000,000 copies each, making him easily the best-selling American writer of his time. His best-known works centre on the lawyer-detective Perry Mason.

The son of a mining engineer, Gardner traveled extensively with his family throughout childhood. He dropped out of Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind., after a brief time and settled in California, where he worked as a typist in a law firm. After three years he was admitted to the California bar (1911) and began defending poor Chinese and Mexicans as well as other clients. His interest in the friendless and unjustly accused was lifelong and led to his founding of The Court of Last Resort in the 1940s, an organization dedicated to helping men imprisoned unjustly.

While practicing trial law in Ventura, Calif., he began writing for the pulp magazines popular at that time, creating accurate courtroom scenes and brilliant legal maneuvers resembling his own legal tactics. By 1932 he was writing more than 200,000 words a month while still working two days a week in his law practice. With the successful publication of the first Perry Mason detective stories, The Case of the Velvet Claws (1933) and The Case of the Sulky Girl (1933), however, he gave up the law. Eighty Perry Mason novels followed. Gardner later supervised the adaptation of the Perry Mason stories for radio, television, and motion pictures.


The Eagles Honor Roll

  • Eric Allen, CB
  • Chuck Bednarik*, C/LB
  • Bert Bell*, Owner
  • Bill Bergey, LB
  • Bill Bradley, FS
  • Tom Brookshier, DB
  • Bob Brown, T
  • Jerome Brown, DT
  • Timmy Brown, RB
  • Harold Carmichael, WR
  • Randall Cunningham, QB
  • Otho Davis, Head Trainer
  • Jim Gallagher, Executive
  • Bill Hewitt*, E
  • Ron Jaworski, QB
  • Jim Johnson, Defensive Coordinator
  • Sonny Jurgensen*, QB
  • Ollie Matson*, HB
  • Tommy McDonald*, WR
  • Wilbert Montgomery, RB
  • Earle "Greasy" Neale*, Coach
  • Pete Pihos*, E
  • Mike Quick, WR
  • Pete Retzlaff, E
  • Jim Ringo*, C
  • Jerry Sisemore, T
  • Norm Van Brocklin*, QB
  • Steve Van Buren*, HB
  • Dick Vermeil, Coach
  • Stan Walters, T
  • Reggie White*, DE
  • Al Wistert, T
  • Alex Wojciechowicz*, C
  • 1948 and 1949 NFL Championship Teams

Honoring Stanley N. Griffith,
2021 Recipient of the Cornerstone of Equality Award

Stan Griffith’s dedication to Greater Boston PFLAG is unparalleled. Over nearly twenty years, Stan has provided the vision and leadership to transform the organization into one of the largest, most successful PFLAG affiliates in the country. One of his proudest accomplishments is his advocacy for anti-bullying legislation, which was enacted in Massachusetts in 2010.

Stan also spearheaded the formation of support groups specifically for parents with children who are gender nonconforming and/or transgender. When he stepped off the board in 2012, Stan was awarded the lifelong title of Chair Emeritus.

Celebrating the Next Generation of LGBTQ+ Leaders

We are thrilled to be awarding two high school seniors with scholarships in 2021. Our second scholarship this year was made possible by the parents of Thomas V. Earle in honor of their son’s courage and leadership in promoting LGBTQ+ inclusion.

These youth leaders will be recognized at the event for their efforts promoting LGBTQ+ inclusion and acceptance. Last year’s awardee, Banti Jaswal, was selected for their incredible leadership as an advocate for the intersex community. And we can’t wait to share the inspiring work of our 2021 winners with you!

Applauding One of Our Parent Volunteers

Greater Boston PFLAG would not exist without our 150 dedicated volunteers. They do it all – from running groups and answering our helpline, to public speaking, and helping with events. We are thrilled to spotlight one of those volunteers at Pride & Passion this year. You’ll hear how being part of Greater Boston PFLAG allows parents to not only support their own children, but also to support all the LGBTQ+ kids in their lives.


Stan Lee

In his two-hour Archive interview, as part of the Archive of American Television's Living Television Collection, animation legend Stan Lee (1922-2018) discusses his career in multiple media, from comic books to feature films. He describes the birth of Marvel Comics, competition with DC comics and the creation of many of his most beloved characters -- The Fantastic Four, The X-Men, The Incredible Hulk and Spider-Man. Mr. Lee also recalls the formation of production companies Marvel Productions, Stan Lee Productions and POW! Entertainment and his role in each. He talks about his involvement with television programs based on his comic characters (the animated Spider-Man series and the unforgettable The Incredible Hulk) and defines what a superhero means to him. He also reveals his real name and why he changed it to Stan Lee. Lisa Terrada conducted the interview on March 22, 2004 in Los Angeles, CA.

"I learned one of life's greatest lessons. I don't know the reason for this, but people who like superhero stories want their heroes to wear costumes. And if any psychologist or sociologist out there can ever tell me the reason, I would like to know."


Appearances

Batting Average
1917 AL .302 (8th)
1919 AL .321 (9th)
1920 AL .338 (8th)
1925 AL .350 (8th)
1926 AL .337 (10th)
1928 AL .328 (8th)
1930 AL .349 (10th)
1932 AL .323 (6th)
Career .322 (53rd)
8 Seasons in Top 10 Games Played
1917 AL 155 (4th)
1919 AL 141 (1st)
1920 AL 153 (8th)
1922 AL 154 (4th)
1924 AL 154 (4th)
1925 AL 152 (9th)
1926 AL 152 (8th)
Career 2,404 (87th)
7 Seasons in Top 10 At Bats
1917 AL 586 (3rd)
1919 AL 557 (4th)
1920 AL 624 (3rd)
1922 AL 633 (1st)
1923 AL 595 (7th)
1924 AL 646 (1st)
1925 AL 649 (2nd)
1926 AL 641 (1st)
1927 AL 603 (3rd)
1928 AL 616 (4th)
1929 AL 616 (5th)
1930 AL 593 (7th)
Career 9,269 (61st)
12 Seasons in Top 10 Plate Appearances
1917 AL 657 (9th)
1919 AL 614 (4th)
1920 AL 687 (6th)
1922 AL 692 (4th)
1924 AL 712 (3rd)
1925 AL 710 (2nd)
1926 AL 704 (1st)
1927 AL 651 (9th)
1928 AL 681 (6th)
1929 AL 694 (5th)
1930 AL 669 (10th)
Career 10,260 (69th)
11 Seasons in Top 10 Runs Scored
1923 AL 117 (5th)
1924 AL 106 (6th)
1925 AL 111 (5th)
1926 AL 98 (8th)
1927 AL 98 (9th)
1928 AL 95 (9th)
1929 AL 119 (6th)
1930 AL 121 (9th)
Career 1,514 (67th)
8 Seasons in Top 10 Hits
1917 AL 177 (5th)
1919 AL 179 (5th)
1920 AL 211 (6th)
1922 AL 187 (9th)
1923 AL 188 (9th)
1924 AL 216 (1st)
1925 AL 227 (2nd)
1926 AL 216 (1st)
1927 AL 179 (9th)
1928 AL 202 (3rd)
1929 AL 199 (8th)
1930 AL 207 (4th)
Career 2,987 (33rd)
12 Seasons in Top 10 Total Bases
1919 AL 229 (7th)
1920 AL 267 (10th)
1923 AL 268 (9th)
1924 AL 286 (6th)
1925 AL 287 (6th)
1926 AL 285 (6th)
1928 AL 270 (8th)
Career 3,955 (98th)
7 Seasons in Top 10 Triples
1922 AL 13 (6th)
1923 AL 18 (1st)
1924 AL 14 (4th)
1925 AL 13 (4th)
1926 AL 14 (5th)
1927 AL 14 (5th)
1928 AL 15 (4th)
1930 AL 13 (7th)
Career 184 (14th)
8 Seasons in Top 10 Stolen Bases
1917 AL 35 (6th)
1919 AL 26 (4th)
1920 AL 63 (1st)
1921 AL 26 (3rd)
1922 AL 20 (5th)
1923 AL 20 (4th)
1924 AL 24 (3rd)
1925 AL 26 (3rd)
1926 AL 24 (2nd)
1927 AL 19 (8th)
1928 AL 16 (7th)
1929 AL 16 (9th)
Career 351 (111th)
12 Seasons in Top 10 Singles
1917 AL 145 (5th)
1919 AL 144 (1st)
1920 AL 170 (2nd)
1924 AL 162 (2nd)
1925 AL 182 (1st)
1926 AL 167 (1st)
1927 AL 130 (5th)
1928 AL 153 (2nd)
1929 AL 149 (2nd)
1930 AL 158 (1st)
Career 2,271 (16th)
10 Seasons in Top 10 Runs Created
1917 AL 77 (10th)
1919 AL 84 (7th)
1920 AL 100 (9th)
1923 AL 101 (10th)
1924 AL 108 (7th)
1925 AL 111 (8th)
1928 AL 104 (8th)
Career 1,464 (95th)
7 Seasons in Top 10 Times On Base
1917 AL 230 (8th)
1919 AL 228 (7th)
1920 AL 254 (9th)
1924 AL 266 (7th)
1925 AL 268 (6th)
1926 AL 260 (6th)
1928 AL 253 (8th)
1930 AL 265 (7th)
Career 3,751 (74th)
8 Seasons in Top 10 AB per SO
1921 AL 56.1 (2nd)
1922 AL 48.7 (2nd)
1923 AL 49.6 (2nd)
1925 AL 64.9 (2nd)
1926 AL 32.1 (6th)
1927 AL 54.8 (4th)
1928 AL 41.1 (3rd)
1929 AL 68.4 (2nd)
1930 AL 42.4 (2nd)
1931 AL 37.5 (2nd)
1932 AL 48.0 (2nd)
Career 33.7 (11th)
11 Seasons in Top 10 Outs Made
1917 AL 423 (10th)
1920 AL 462 (6th)
1922 AL 461 (4th)
1924 AL 459 (3rd)
1925 AL 452 (4th)
1926 AL 466 (4th)
1927 AL 442 (1st)
1928 AL 431 (6th)
1929 AL 444 (5th)
Career 6,638 (87th)
9 Seasons in Top 10 Errors Committed as CF (s.1901)
1920 AL 20 (1st)
1921 AL 15 (1st)
1922 AL 21 (1st)
1924 AL 7 (5th)
1926 AL 8 (5th)
Career 80 (25th)
5 Seasons in Top 10 Def. Games as RF (s.1901)
1917 AL 155 (1st)
1919 AL 138 (1st)
1923 AL 147 (2nd)
1924 AL 124 (3rd)
1925 AL 132 (2nd)
1926 AL 120 (3rd)
1927 AL 138 (2nd)
1928 AL 147 (1st)
1929 AL 147 (1st)
1930 AL 133 (2nd)
Career 1,649 (21st)
10 Seasons in Top 10 Putouts as RF (s.1901)
1917 AL 261 (1st)
1919 AL 280 (1st)
1923 AL 297 (1st)
1924 AL 258 (2nd)
1925 AL 276 (1st)
1926 AL 233 (2nd)
1927 AL 234 (3rd)
1928 AL 196 (5th)
1929 AL 211 (2nd)
1930 AL 209 (2nd)
Career 2,864 (28th)
10 Seasons in Top 10 Assists as RF (s.1901)
1917 AL 25 (1st)
1919 AL 16 (3rd)
1923 AL 21 (2nd)
1924 AL 19 (3rd)
1925 AL 18 (2nd)
1926 AL 17 (2nd)
1928 AL 12 (4th)
1929 AL 19 (1st)
1930 AL 12 (2nd)
1932 AL 6 (5th)
Career 192 (6th)
10 Seasons in Top 10 Errors Committed as RF (s.1901)
1917 AL 12 (1st)
1919 AL 12 (2nd)
1923 AL 13 (1st)
1924 AL 7 (5th)
1925 AL 9 (2nd)
1926 AL 7 (4th)
1928 AL 7 (1st)
1929 AL 9 (5th)
1930 AL 8 (3rd)
Career 101 (13th)
9 Seasons in Top 10 Double Plays Turned as RF (s.1901)
1917 AL 7 (1st)
1919 AL 4 (2nd)
1923 AL 8 (1st)
1924 AL 4 (4th)
1925 AL 7 (1st)
1926 AL 3 (4th)
1928 AL 5 (2nd)
1929 AL 5 (1st)
1930 AL 3 (5th)
1932 AL 2 (2nd)
1933 AL 2 (5th)
Career 55 (3rd)
11 Seasons in Top 10 Def. Games as OF
1917 AL 155 (1st)
1919 AL 141 (1st)
1920 AL 153 (3rd)
1922 AL 154 (1st)
1924 AL 154 (2nd)
1925 AL 152 (4th)
1926 AL 152 (3rd)
1928 AL 147 (4th)
1929 AL 147 (2nd)
1930 AL 145 (5th)
Career 2,270 (25th)
10 Seasons in Top 10 Assists as OF
1917 AL 26 (3rd)
1920 AL 24 (4th)
1922 AL 23 (2nd)
1923 AL 21 (5th)
1925 AL 20 (3rd)
1926 AL 25 (1st)
1929 AL 20 (3rd)
1930 AL 13 (4th)
Career 278 (13th)
8 Seasons in Top 10 Double Plays Turned as OF
1920 AL 6 (5th)
1922 AL 4 (4th)
1923 AL 8 (1st)
1925 AL 7 (3rd)
1926 AL 5 (4th)
1928 AL 5 (5th)
1929 AL 5 (4th)
1930 AL 4 (3rd)
Career 69 (11th)
8 Seasons in Top 10 Range Factor/Game as RF (s.1901)
1917 AL 1.85 (1st)
1919 AL 2.14 (1st)
1923 AL 2.16 (3rd)
1924 AL 2.23 (2nd)
1925 AL 2.23 (1st)
1926 AL 2.08 (2nd)
1927 AL 1.76 (5th)
1929 AL 1.56 (5th)
8 Seasons in Top 10 Fielding % as RF (s.1901)
1917 AL .960 (3rd)
1919 AL .961 (2nd)
1923 AL .961 (3rd)
1924 AL .975 (3rd)
1925 AL .970 (1st)
1926 AL .973 (2nd)
1927 AL .972 (1st)
1928 AL .967 (4th)
1929 AL .962 (2nd)
1930 AL .965 (2nd)
10 Seasons in Top 10 Oldest
1928 AL born 1890-02-20 (8th)
1929 AL born 1890-02-20 (9th)
1930 AL born 1890-02-20 (6th)
1931 AL born 1890-02-20 (4th)
1932 AL born 1890-02-20 (2nd)
1933 AL born 1890-02-20 (3rd)
1934 AL born 1890-02-20 (3rd)
7 Seasons in Top 10

Episodes, Intros, Music, and Credits

    (voiced by Larry Kenney) (voiced by Peter Newman) (voiced by Lynne Lipton) (voiced by Earle Hyman) (voiced by Bob McFadden) (voiced by Lynne Lipton) (voiced by Peter Newman) (voiced by Earl Hammond) (voiced by Peter Newman) (voiced by Gerrianne Raphael) (voiced by Doug Preis) (voiced by Bob McFadden) (voiced by Earl Hammond) (voiced by Bob McFadden) (voiced by Larry Kenney) (voiced by Peter Newman) (voiced by Earl Hammond) (voiced by Bob McFadden) (voiced by Lynne Lipton) (voiced by Earl Hammond) (voiced by Doug Preis) (voiced by Bob McFadden) (voiced by Gerrianne Raphael) (voiced by Earle Hyman)

Stan Earle - History

Since his memorable debut in 1986 with Guitar Town, Steve Earle's musical career has included country, rock, folk, bluegrass, blues and a duet album last year with Shawn Colvin. He's also written books, been an outspoken advocate for progressive causes and appeared in highly regarded TV shows from The Wire to Treme. It was a pair of songs he wrote for TV's Nashville, though, that led him to country on his 2017 album, So you Wannabe an Outlaw. That and thinking about Waylon Jennings, who died in 2002 at the age of 64.

Earle's been in the news lately for gossipy items. Divorced from his sixth wife, Allison Moorer, whom he famously said went off with a "younger, skinnier, less talented singer-songwriter," Earle then appeared at Willie Nelson's Fourth of July Picnic where that songwriter, Hayes Carll, was also booked. Carll debuted a new song interpreted as being about Earle ("I think she left you because you wouldn't shut your mouth" was its lyric), while Earle for his part was content just to mow the crowd down with the latest version of his band, the Dukes, which he says is his best ever.

He also collaborates with Nelson, Miranda Lambert and Johnny Bush on the new album, his first for Warners since El Corazon 20 years ago. Earle, 62, spoke from the tour bus while awaiting sound check at the Dallas House of Blues a few days after that picnic in question.

Roger Catlin (Songfacts): Tell me about the band touring with you this year.

Earle: It's the band that's on the record. It's a band I've had. The bass player Kelley Looney has been with me since Copperhead Road in 1988. Chris Masterson and Eleanor Whitmore, who are the guitar player and the fiddle player, who are married and also make records of their own as The Mastersons, have been in the band eight years this year.

We did change drummers two-thirds of the way through the tour, just before we went to Australia on the [2015 album] Terraplane cycle. That's Brad Pemberton, the newish drummer who played on this record. He's from Nashville. He was in the Cardinals, Ryan Adams' band, for 10 years.

And then we needed steel guitar for this record. With the songs I was writing I knew that was something I needed to do. At first I thought, "Well, I'll just bring in a ringer and find a kid somewhere," but before we were scheduled to record, I was talking to Charlie Sexton, and he told me about this kid who lived in Austin, which is where we actually recorded the record. His name is Ricky Ray Jackson, he's from Dallas originally. Chris and Eleanor had used him by happenstance on their record, and they recommended him too. So I called him and asked him if he wanted to do the record and this tour and be in the band, and that rounded it out.

I hear the term "Outlaw" thrown around a lot, and there's a lot of misconceptions of what that thing was about.

It's the best band I ever had. We kind of peeled the paint off the wall at the Fourth of July picnic the other day - it was really good. We did the first full show in Houston two nights ago and we're playing a gig there and heading East. I'm really proud of the band, and it's exactly the band that you hear on the new record.

Songfacts: So your idea with the new record was to get back to little more country?

Earle: A lot more country. On purpose. Everything I do is pretty country, because I talk like this. I wasn't aiming at a specific thing. It happened by accident.

I made a blues record and I made a record with Shawn Colvin, and those songs were kind of written simultaneously - a lot of overlap between writing those two albums. The bluesy songs went into one pile, the harmony kind of songs went in another pile to finish with Shawn.

Meanwhile, T Bone Burnett called me. He was the musical director of Nashville, the TV show, the first season. I hadn't ever seen it - still haven't seen it - but he sent me a script and he said, "I need a song. This character's brother is getting out of prison, and he's going to have a song, and it's supposed to be a pretty good song that he wrote while he was in jail." And for some reason he thought I was qualified to do that. He knows I can write a song to order, so it's not really just a jail thing. Because I'd done it for Treme, and he had been involved in some of that stuff. So he called me and I wrote "If Mama Coulda Seen Me."

He liked it, and [show producer] Callie [Khouri] liked it, and they used it in the show. Then I went on about my business and while I was touring with the blues record, Buddy Miller called me because he took over as music director the second year. He had seen me do that for T Bone so he wanted a song for an episode, and I wrote "Lookin' for a Woman." [This one wasn't used on the show.]

And then I sort of forgot about those two songs, finished the Colvin & Earle record and started touring. Halfway through that tour there was a day when I woke up and went, "Oh, I'm going to have to make a new record in a few months, I better start writing." So I looked to see what I had in the way of fragments, the way I always do, and realized I had these two complete songs on the desktop of my computer. I listened to them both and I realized they really hung together. And I thought, What is going on?

I realized I'd been listening to [Waylon Jennings' 1973 album] Honky Tonk Heroes again, for about a year. You know, there's always a Beatles, a Stones, a Waylon, a Willie and a Bob Dylan that I'm listening to at any given time. Not that there aren't a lot of great records by all those artists, but there are about two Waylon records, three Willie records, really only a couple Beatles records that I listen to over and over again, and a couple of Stones records. And I was on a Honky Tonk Heroes thing. I thought maybe with these two songs, that's what this record should be.

You know, I hear the term Outlaw thrown around a lot, and there's a lot of misconceptions of what that thing was about. What some people refer to as Outlaw Country, it was about artistic freedom. That's all it was ever about.

Country singers always got fucked up. George Jones wasn't going to go to the liquor store on a lawn mower at 3:30 in the morning. There aren't any liquor stores open at 3:30 in the morning in Tennessee, or anywhere else besides New Orleans and Las Vegas. He was just going someplace else to get something else.

They were called outlaws because they wanted to make records the way they wanted. They discovered that rock had that artistic freedom that they didn't have. Or at least perceived that they did, and that's what that was all about.

Songfacts: Sounds like this set of songs came easily to you.

Earle: I write, man. I just think writers write. I write something all the time. I'm writing a book for a musical, and I'm going to have to start writing songs for a new record at some point too. And I'm working on a song with one of my students who came to Camp Copperhead, which was so beautiful, and the lyrics are so gorgeous, I went to help her corral her melody. So I'm trying to help her with that on the internet.

I just write. I try to wake up in the morning and make something out of thin air. It's my job.

Songfacts: Was there a time when it didn't come easy for you?

Earle: The only time it never came easy to me was the four-and-a-half years I didn't write anything because I was trying to run down $500 to $1,000 worth of drugs every day. Between 1992 and late 1994, I didn't write anything.

Waylon Jennings, who grew up in West Texas and played bass for Buddy Holly, was a pioneer in the Outlaw Country movement of the 1970s. While the first album recorded under his creative control, Lonesome, Orn'ry and Mean, featuring songs written by his future Highwaymen bandmates Johnny Cash, Willie Nelson and Kris Kristofferson, got some attention, in 1973 his Honky Tonk Heroes established him as a leading force. (Billy Jo Shaver wrote or co-wrote all of the songs on that album except one.)

Jennings went on toward such #1 hits as "Are You Sure Hank Done It This Way" and a string of six solo albums that went gold. When he joined forces with Willie Nelson, Tompall Glaser and Jessi Colter for 1976's Wanted! The Outlaws, it became the first country music album to go Platinum.

Songfacts: You pay homage on your album to Waylon. He recorded one of your songs, right?

Earle: He recorded it twice. "The Devil's Right Hand." He did it on his own and then he contributed it to a Highwaymen session, and the Highwaymen recorded it as well.

Songfacts: Did you know him pretty well?

Earle: Yeah, I knew him well. I wear a bandana on my right wrist. It's just an '80s throwback sweatband thing, and it became my mojo. When I was locked up, Waylon sent me a picture, back when there were still pictures and not just stuff on your phone. The envelope had the picture in it and on the back he said, "I'm wearing the bandana for you." I turned it over and he was wearing a bright yellow bandana on his right wrist.

Songfacts: You got Willie to sing along on your title track.

Earle: Yeah, it was pretty cool. I wrote the second verse of "Outlaw" for Willie. I'd hoped I could get him to do it. It was the first week of December and I knew he'd be in Maui by the time we recorded this, and the last couple of years I've been going Maui. I went originally to meet [spiritual teacher and author] Ram Dass the first time I went, which was three years ago, and I'd never been to Hawaii at all before.

Kris Kristofferson lives there part of the time. Willie's there in the winter. Ram Dass, Willie Nelson, Kris Kristofferson — what's better than that? So I started going every Christmas. [My son] John Henry and I are going to leave Christmas Day this year.

Houston-born Johnny Bush, 82, has been a country musician for 65 years, starting out playing local honky tonks. He joined Ray Price's band the Cherokee Cowboys in 1963 with Willie Nelson and stayed associated with him, playing in Nelson's the Record Band. Nelson helped finance Bush's first solo album in 1967, The Sound of a Heartache.

His highest charting single was a version of Marty Robbins' "You Gave Me a Mountain" but the most performed song he ever wrote was the one that was his first single for RCA, "Whiskey River." To this day it opens every Willie Nelson concert.

After some throat ailments in the late 1970s, Bush lost his recording contract and was off the scene for a while before he began making a comeback a decade later. On his most recent album, released in June, he collaborated with Dale Watson and Reckless Kelly.

Songfacts: You got Johnny Bush on the record as well.

Earle: That's a big deal. He's still down there, chugging away. He's only a year and a half younger than Willie. You know, he and Willie were in Ray Price's band together and Bush was in Willie's first band, the Record Men. He was one of my local heroes. And he wrote "Whiskey River." He wrote the song Willie opens every single show with.

We got off stage and realized that we had elected the first orangoutang president.

It was a big deal. He came in and he sang on the track when we cut it. He lives in San Antonio. A childhood friend of mine, somebody I've known since I was 12, is now the guitar player for the last 10 years or so in Bush's band, so I got to visit with him, too. He drove John up for the sessions.

And John, see, the way we met was a little rough. When I finally met him I was 19 - it was the year before I moved to Nashville. I was playing a club in San Antonio that was really just a restaurant, and there was a guy named Joe Vorhees, who was a piano player in Bush's band and also played really good five-string banjo. He would come and sit in with me. We were just having fun, playing a lot of songs one night, and we got a little high. We weren't in any shape to drive quite yet and we were hungry. We were trying to think of the nearest place open that was the least-risky place to get to without ending up in jail or being killed. He realized, "Hey, I got the keys to Bush's condo."

So we went to Bush's condo. He said he thought Bush was in Vegas. So we got there, and we raided the icebox. I got a bowl of Rice Krispies, and I don't know what Joe was eating, but I'm looking over at him and all of a sudden he goes completely white, and says "John!" I turned around, and here's Johnny Bush in a bathrobe with a .357 magnum pointed at the back of my head.

When Bush's book came out a few years ago, he inscribed my copy of it. It says, "To Steve, I sure am glad I didn't pull the trigger. John."

Songfacts: Do you think your album will make a ripple in Nashville or on country radio?

Earle: I don't know. I'm not going to get played on country radio. I'm too old. If I was a girl I think I might be able to get away with some of these songs on country radio, because all the good songs I hear on country radio, whenever I listen to it, are by girls for the most part. Chris Stapleton is pretty great. But the girls seem to have the real songs.

But I'm not going to be played on country radio, so I don't worry about that. And Nashville, all I can tell you about this record and Nashville is that I'm going to be playing the Ryman Auditorium on the 21st of this month and I'll let you know what happens.

Steve Earle is a longtime political activist who has put many of his feelings into songs such as "The Revolution Starts Now," "John Walker's Blues," "America v. 6.0," "Ellis Unit One," "Over Yonder (Jonathan's Song)," "Billy Austin," and "Mississippi, It's Time," which is about taking down the Confederate Flag. He's done some formal work in addition to benefit concerts, serving as a board member of the Journey of Hope and has been involved with the Abolitionist Action Committee and the Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death penalty. He has supported groups from the Kensington Welfare Rights Union to the Campaign for a Landmine-Free World.

Earle was an outspoken supporter of Bernie Sanders' campaign for the Democratic Presidential Nomination, but supported Hillary Clinton's bid when he stepped down.

Songfacts: People might have been expecting a more political album from you this time.

Earle: You're going to get one after this. The next one is going to be just as country as this one, but way more political.

I just didn't know this was going to happen. The songs were written by November 9. I supported Bernie Sanders to the end, but I went on stage that night expecting, well, this wasn't going to be that bad. We were going to get the first woman president of the United States. We got off stage and realized that we had elected the first orangoutang president. You can carry diversity too far, I'm sorry. But damn.

I just stuck with the songs that this record was about musically. And it's pretty personal, the record. It was sort of about me, which I do every once in a while.

This record is a look back, but it's also the future. It's sort of like the players coming up from the farm system to the Yankees this year. Whatever happens this season, you're seeing the future of the ball club, and that's kind of the way I feel about this record. For the foreseeable future, which could be the rest of my life - I'm fucking 62 years old - I've got the best country-rock band in America.

So the next record is going to be just as country as this one, and way more political. You can count on it. It will be interesting. I'll be traveling around the country. If I listen as much as I talk, that could be really interesting.

Songfacts: Is it fun to play your old songs with this band as well?

Earle: Yeah. We had settled into a kind of ridiculously loud, really good four-piece adult rock band for several years. When Chris Masterson came along, Chris and Eleanor came as a package and she played fiddle, and it was basically the record I made with T Bone, which was done with the studio players that he uses.

And all of a sudden, what I wanted to do with that record is make a record that sort of set the tone for the future where I could combine the bluegrass and acoustic with the rock stuff, and that put me back in the position where I could so songs. We're playing songs on this tour from older records. There are a few things that haven't played in years, because we can do it with this band. So that is exciting. It's fun.

Songfacts: There are favorites you have to play though, right?

Earle: Yeah. I gotta play "Copperhead Road," and I gotta play "The Galway Girl" and I gotta play "Guitar Town." And then there are other things. I actually have more than one song that people consider to be indespensible, which is pretty good.

It depends where I am in the world. "I Ain't Never Satisfied" was a big deal up in Canada. It was a hit there, so I had to play that song every night there. I play it some in the States, but it's a big deal up there. "The Devil's Right Hand" is kind of a big deal. I play it a lot. But I got 16 studio albums, man. It's hard to play everything. It gets harder and harder.

In the '80s we were all playing three-hour shows because we were all trying to keep up with Springsteen. I shouldn't be doing it, and my audience can't do it sometimes, some of the older members anyway, so we try to keep the show to two hours now, all in. But it gets tough putting together a setlist when you have 16 albums.

Songfacts: When you wrote things like "Copperhead Road," did you know you had something that would be a signature song?

Earle: Yeah. I did. That song I did. "Guitar Town," I didn't. I just thought I was writing a song that was going to open my tour and open my record, because I'd seen Springsteen come out and open the show with "Born in the U.S.A." on that tour. That's really when I started writing that album, the day after I saw that tour. But it had such a utilitarian reason to exist for me that I thought that was it. So I was shocked when they made it a single and shocked when it was a hit. But "Copperhead" I knew.

August 17, 2017.
The tour by Steve Earle & the Dukes continues in the US through September 23 before jumping to Canada. Info at steveearle.com/tour.
Photo 1: Ted Barron, facebook.com/SteveEarleMusic
More Songwriter Interviews

Comments: 4

  • Kendra from Ontario, Canada Steve Fain Earle, I thank you for every song you’ve wrote and every song you have ever sang. In my humble opinion, you have a brilliance for what you do. I’m unable to choose what it is you do best. Write song lyrics to tell your stories. Play musical instruments. Voice your honest opinions of how you view the ways of the world and touch on the emotions you hold inside. You do it all so well. No “brown nosing” here, just a thank you for the joy you bring to other’s lives who haven’t got your talent. I pray you stay strong in your sobriety and the love and commitment John Henry needs. Bless you sir.
  • Michele from Portland Oregon Usa Thank you. Great depth.
  • Psychedelic Pete from Ckwr Fm Kitchener Ont. I hate when a trusted site gets their facts wrong --I bought Waylon's Honky tonk heroes lp in 1973-you say it came out in 78.

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Bibliography

Baker, Beth. Sylvia Earle: Guardian of the Sea. Minneapolis: Lerner Publication, 2001.

“NASA’s Tektite II Undersea Habitat: An Interview with Aquanaut & Engineer Peggy Lucas Bond.” Spaceflight Insider. December 13, 2013. http://www.spaceflightinsider.com/space-flight- news/nasas-tektite-ii-undersea-habitat-an-interview-with-aquanaut-engineer-peggy-lucas-bond/.

Pauli, D.C. et al. “Project Tektite I: A Multiagency 60-Day Saturated Dive Conducted by the United States Navy, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of the Interior, and the General Electric Company” (PDF). Office of Naval Research. Accessed August 9, 2017. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/773351.pdf .

Reichard, Susan E. Who on Earth is Sylvia Earle?: Undersea Explorer of the Ocean. New York: Enslow Publishers, 2010.

Thomas, James Merle and Meghan O’Hara. “Tektite Revisited, Bringing the Final Frontier Back Home: NASA, Aquanauts, Anechoic Chambers, and the Problems of Modern Living.” Triple Canopy Magazine. accessed July 28, 2017. https://www.canopycanopycanopy.com/issues/13/contents/tektite_revisited

Wayman, Stan and Reg Bragonier. “The Longest Dive.” Life Magazine, March 7, 1969

Gallery

The Project Tektite I habitat, consisting of essentially two vertical steel cylinders attached to a rectangular steel base. Each cylinder contained two large compartments for the crew, control, research and diving (Credit: Seabee Magazine) Aquanaut diving outside the Tektite I (Credit: Life Magazine, Photographer Stan Wayman) Underwater view of the Tektite I habitat with aquanauts and accompanying divers near the Great Lameshur Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands (Credit: Seabee Magazine, Photo Source: NOAA)
ektite II all-female crew (Mission 6-50), July 1970. (Courtesy: Tektite Museum) Sylvia Earle shows algae to engineer inside habitat, July 1970. Credit: Triple Canopy Magazine, Photographer Bates Littlehales)


Watch the video: Stan Earle 200 kilo first attempt Lifting with natural powerlifter Kevin Elkin Jan 2017 Stans Gym. (November 2021).