The story

Herndon DD- 198 - History


Herndon I

(DD-198: dp. 1,190 1. 314'5", b. 31'9"; dr. 9'4", s. 35
k.; cpl. 122, a. 4 4", 3 3", 12 21" tt.; cl. Clemson)

The first Herndon (DD-198) was launched 31 May 1919 by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Newport News, VA., sponsored by Miss Lucy Taylor Herndon, niece of Commander Herndon; and commissioned 14 September 1920 at Norfolk, Lt. Comdr. L. H. Thebaud in command.

After shakedown in New England waters, Herndon was placed in reserve in Charleston 3 November 1920. She served in reserve for training exercises and maneuvers along the East Coast until she decommissioned at Philadelphia 6 June 1922. Herndon, after serving in the Coast Guard from 1930 to 1934, recommissioned in the Navy 4 December 1939. Following trials and shakedown, she reached Guantanamo Bay 23 January 1940 to join the Caribbean Neutrality Patrol. In July and August she operated out of the Canal Zone in connection with tactical and antisubmarine maneuvers so valuable in the long naval struggle to come.

Herndon decommissioned and was turned over to Great Britain under the lend lease program at Halifax, Nova Scotia 9 September 1940. As HMS Churchill, she served as leader of the first "Town"-class flotilla in transatlantic convoys and patrol duty off the western approaches to the British Isles. High points in her career in the Royal Navy include participation in the search for Bismark after the German super battleship had sunk Hood, and a visit by her namesake, the redoubtable Prime Minister, on his way home from the momentous Atlantic Conference with President Roosevelt in August 1941. Churchill also served as an escort for the pre- and post-invasion buildup for Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa. Transferred to the Russian Navy 16 July 1944, the destroyer was renamed Delatelnyi (Active) and was sunk by a U-boat 16 January 1945 40 miles east of Cape Tereberski while escorting a convoy over the treacherous route from Kola Inlet to the White Sea.


USS Herndon

Ensimmäinen laivaston alus nimetty komentaja William Lewis Herndon (1813-1857), Herndon oli käynnistettiin 31. toukokuuta 1919 Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company , sponsoroi Miss Lucy Taylor Herndon, veljentytär komentaja Herndon. Hän oli tilattu 14. syyskuuta 1920 klo Norfolkissa Virginiassa kanssa Komentajakapteeni LH Thebaud komennossa.

Jälkeen Shakedown in New England vesillä, Herndon sijoitettiin varaukseen Charleston, USAssa 3. marraskuuta 1920. Hän toimi varattuina harjoituksissa ja liikkeitä pitkin Yhdysvaltain itärannikkoa kunnes hän poistui käytöstä klo Philadelphia 6. kesäkuuta 1922.

Hänet otettiin uudelleen käyttöön laivastoon 4. joulukuuta 1939. Koettelemusten ja alennusten jälkeen hän saavutti Guantanamon lahden 23. tammikuuta 1940 liittyäkseen Karibian puolueettomuuden partioon . Heinä – elokuussa hän toimi Panaman kanavan vyöhykkeeltä taktisten ja sukellusveneiden vastaisten manööverien avulla.

Herndon Depot -museossa Herndonissa, Virginiassa, on USS Herndonin esineitä .

Mainostaja Gleam pikkukaupungissa sanomalehden Guntersville, AL , ilmoitetaan aluksen kelloa olla hallussa yksityishenkilön asuu Albertvillen, AL. Artikkelissa todetaan, että Billy Sumner osti soittokellon "joltakin vain 20 dollarilla". Artikkeli tunnistaa myös kellon väärin aluksen päiväkelloksi. Artikkelin sisältämien valokuvien perusteella se on hyvin selvästi USS Herndonin vuonna 1919 käynnistämä kellokello. Yhdysvaltain merivoimien historia- ja perintökomento (NHHC) huomauttaa, että Yhdysvaltain merivoimien sota-alusten kelloja "käytetään merkinantoon, ajan pitämiseen. , ja kuulostavat hälytykset . kellot ovat tärkeä osa aluksen rutiinia ja valmiutta. " Lisäksi NHCC käsittelee jokaisen käyttöönotetulta merivoimialukselta koskaan otetun kellon omistajuusvaatimuksen:

Yhdysvaltain laivaston kellot ovat osa monia esineitä, jotka on poistettu käytöstä poistetuilta aluksilta ja joita merivoimien historia- ja perintökomento on säilyttänyt. Niitä voidaan lainata uusille nimikaivojen aluksille, merikomennoille, joilla on historiallinen tehtävä tai toiminnallinen yhteys, sekä museoille ja muille laitoksille, jotka tulkitsevat tiettyjä historiallisia teemoja ja merihistoriallisia esityksiä. Laivan kellot ovat Yhdysvaltain hallituksen ja merivoimien ministeriön pysyvä omaisuus. Kellot ovat edelleen voimakas ja konkreettinen muistutus merivoimien historiasta, perinnöstä ja saavutuksista.

Näin ollen USS Herndon -kellon yksityisomistus voi olla laivaston määräysten ja liittovaltion lakien vastaista.


DD-198 Herndon

The first Herndon (DD-198) was launched 31 May 1919 by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Newport News, Va., sponsored by Miss Lucy Taylor Herndon, niece of Commander Herndon and commissioned 14 September 1920 at Norfolk, Lt. Comdr. L. H. Thebaud in command.

After shakedown in New England waters, Herndon was placed in reserve in Charleston 3 November 1920. She served in reserve for training exercises and maneuvers along the East Coast until she decommissioned at Philadelphia 6 June 1922. Herndon, after serving in the Coast Guard from 1930 to 1934, recommissioned in the Navy 4 December 1939. Following trials and shakedown, she reached Guantanamo Bay 23 January 1940 to join the Caribbean Neutrality Patrol. In July and August she operated out of the Canal Zone in connection with tactical and antisubmarine maneuvers so valuable in the long naval struggle to come.

Herndon decommissioned and was turned over to Great Britain under the lend lease program at Halifax, Nova Scotia 9 September 1940. As HMS Churchill, she served as leader of the first "Town"-class flotilla in transatlantic convoys and patrol duty off the western approaches to the British Isles. High points in her career in the Royal Navy include participation in the search for Bismark after the German super battleship had sunk Hood, and a visit by her namesake, the redoubtable Prime Minister, on his way home from the momentous Atlantic Conference with President Roosevelt in August 1941. Churchill also served as an escort for the pre- and post-invasion buildup for Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa. Transferred to the Russian Navy 16 July 1944, the destroyer was renamed Delatelnyi (Active) and was sunk by a U-boat 16 January 1945 40 miles east of Cape Tereberski while escorting a convoy over the treacherous route from Kola Inlet to the White Sea.


Mục lục

Herndon được đặt lườn vào ngày 25 tháng 11 năm 1918 tại xưởng tàu của hãng Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company ở Newport News, Virginia. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 31 tháng 5 năm 1919, được đỡ đầu bởi cô Lucy Taylor Herndon, cháu gái của Trung tá Herndon và được đưa ra hoạt động tại Norfolk, Virginia vào ngày 14 tháng 9 năm 1920 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân L. H. Thebaud.

USS Herndon (DD-198/CG-17) Sửa đổi

Sau khi chạy thử máy tại vùng biển New England, Herndon được đưa về lực lượng dự bị Charleston, South Carolina tại vào ngày 3 tháng 11 năm 1920. Nó phục vụ trong thành phần dự bị các hoạt động thực tập huấn luyện và cơ động dọc theo bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ cho đến khi nó được cho xuất biên chế tại Philadelphia, Pennsylvania vào ngày 6 tháng 6 năm 1922. Cho nhu cầu tăng cường tuần tra chống buôn lậu rượu, Herndon tham gia phục vụ cho Lực lượng Tuần duyên Hoa Kỳ từ năm 1930 đến năm 1934 như là chiếc CG-17.

Herndon được cho nhập biên chế trở lại cùng Hải quân vào ngày 4 tháng 12 năm 1939. Sau khi hoàn tất chạy thử máy và huấn luyện, nó đi đến vịnh Guantánamo, Cuba vào ngày 23 tháng 1 năm 1940 để tham gia hoạt động Tuần tra Trung lập tại vùng biển Caribe. Đến tháng 7 và tháng 8, nó hoạt động tại vùng kênh đào Panama cho các cuộc cơ động chiến thuật và chống tàu ngầm. Nó được cho xuất biên chế và chuyển cho Anh Quốc tại Halifax, Nova Scotia vào ngày 9 tháng 9 năm 1940 theo Thỏa thuận đổi tàu khu trục lấy căn cứ.

HMS Churchill (I45) Sửa đổi

Được đổi tên thành HMS Churchill, nó phục vụ như là soái hạm của chi hạm đội Town đầu tiên trong nhiệm vụ hộ tống các đoàn tàu vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương và tuần tra các ngõ tiếp cận phía Tây đến quần đảo Anh. Các sự kiện nổi bật trong quãng đời phục vụ cùng Hải quân Hoàng gia bao gồm việc truy lùng thiết giáp hạm Đức Bismarck sau khi chiếc tàu đánh chìm tàu chiến-tuần dương HMS Hood được viếng thăm bởi người mang tên được đặt cho con tàu, Thủ tướng Winston Churchill, khi đang trên đường quay về sau cuộc hội nghị Hiến chương Đại Tây Dương cùng Tổng thống Franklin D. Roosevelt vào tháng 8 năm 1941. Churchill được phân về Đội hộ tống B-7 trực thuộc Lực lượng Hộ tống Giữa đại dương để hộ tống các đoàn tàu vận tải. [2] Nó cũng phục vụ hộ tống bảo vệ cho lực lượng được tập trung trước và sau Chiến dịch Torch, cuộc đổ bộ lực lượng Đồng Minh lên Bắc Phi. Churchill được cải biến để tối ưu cho nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải bằng cách tháo dỡ ba trong số các khẩu pháo hải pháo 4 inch/50 caliber ban đầu và ba dàn ống phóng ngư lôi ba nòng để giảm bớt trọng lượng nặng bên trên, lấy chỗ chứa thêm mìn sâu và trang bị một dàn súng cối chống tàu ngầm Hedgehog. [3] Churchill được phân về Đội hộ tống C-4 thuộc Lực lượng Hộ tống Giữa đại dương, và đã hộ tống nhiều đoàn tàu vận tải trong mùa Đông năm 1942-1943. [4]

Deyatelny Sửa đổi

Được chuyển cho Hải quân Liên Xô vào ngày 16 tháng 7 năm 1944, chiếc tàu khu trục được đổi tên thành Deyatelny (tiếng Nga: Деятельный). Đang khi hộ tống một đoàn tàu vận tải đi trên tuyến đường từ Bán đảo Kola đến Bạch hải đầy bất trắc vào ngày 16 tháng 1 năm 1945, nó bị trúng ngư lôi, có thể từ tàu ngầm U-boat U-286, và bị đắm ở cách 40 dặm (64 km) về phía Đông mũi Tereberski, ở tọa độ 69°15′B 37°2′Đ  /  69,25°B 37,033°Đ  / 69.250 37.033 Tọa độ: 69°15′B 37°2′Đ  /  69,25°B 37,033°Đ  / 69.250 37.033 .


HMS Churchill USS Herndon (DD-198)_section_1

Herndon decommissioned and was turned over to Great Britain under the Destroyers for Bases Agreement at Halifax, Nova Scotia on 9 September 1940. USS Herndon (DD-198)_sentence_22

As HMS Churchill, she served as leader of the first Town-class flotilla in transatlantic convoys and patrol duty off the Western Approaches to the British Isles. USS Herndon (DD-198)_sentence_23

Notable events in her career in the Royal Navy included participation in the search for the German battleship Bismarck after she had sunk the battlecruiser HMS Hood, and a visit by her namesake, the Prime Minister Winston Churchill, on his way home from the Atlantic Conference with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in August 1941. USS Herndon (DD-198)_sentence_24

Churchill was assigned to Escort Group B-7 of the Mid-Ocean Escort Force for convoys HX 186 and ON 94. USS Herndon (DD-198)_sentence_25

Churchill also served as an escort for the pre- and post-invasion buildup for Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa. USS Herndon (DD-198)_sentence_26

Churchill was modified for trade convoy escort service by removal of three of the original 4-inch (102 mm)/50 caliber guns and three of the triple torpedo tube mounts to reduce topside weight for additional depth charge stowage and installation of Hedgehog anti-submarine mortar. USS Herndon (DD-198)_sentence_27

Churchill was assigned to Escort Group C-4 of the Mid-Ocean Escort Force for convoys SC 112, ON 158, HX 224, ON 177 and HX 235 during the winter of 1942–43 USS Herndon (DD-198)_sentence_28


With the Herndon High School Band selected to represent the United States in Normandy, France, for the 75th Anniversary of D-Day June 2019, Rubin Sztajer, a 92-year-old Holocaust survivor and guest speaker, entered the high school auditorium on Tuesday, Dec. 13, 2018. Irene Hill, who organized the event, wanted to educate the students about the Holocaust through a first-hand source. “I thought it’d be helpful to envision the face of someone on the other end, a reason why our troops fought so hard, (for those) whose only hope in the world was to be rescued,” she said. The audience, mostly band members, crowded the front row seats.

While the students possessed the book-knowledge that the success of D-Day was the beginning of the end of World War II, what they heard that afternoon from Sztajer was something different. It began with what they knew would be a first-hand historical account of the war years, liberation and life afterward for a Polish Jew, but ended with an unexpected lifeline of hope for students in despair and an action plan. Sztajer asked, “that all of the students listening would take his life story as inspiration and motive to never lose hope…what a beautiful life he has been able to create," said Jordan Meyer 17, HHS band member, Clarinet, Wind Ensemble, in an email to the Connection.

Sztajer did not speak from the stage. Instead, he chose to set up the microphone within feet of the first couple of rows where the students sat, creating an intimate setting. From there Sztajer recounted life before during and after the war, ending with his life in the United States. On occasion, he asked the students for a moment. "Let me gather my thoughts.” At times, he cried.

SZTAJER spoke about his early years. "Christian children would throw stones that hit our faces," he said. He recounted that anyone Jewish over twelve had to wear the Star of David, and his family was forced to move to the Klobuck Ghetto when he was 14. The biggest problem he explained was there were no businesses, no jobs there. The family had to scavenge for food on a daily basis.

"We could not buy anything. … My childhood disappeared . In the summertime, we used to smuggle out at night steal the farmers’ food," said Sztajer.

Sztajer spoke about April 12, 1941, the roundup of Jews for slave labor and extermination. He shared when his father and older siblings, Gussie and Sam left home to hide the Nazis entered his home searching for them. Not wanting to go back empty-handed, they grabbed him by the arm. Sztajer was 16. "They pulled me away from my mother crying."

Sztajer recalled his years at Markstadt, a forced slave labor camp. “We marched. We moved mountains of bodies. . We had no coats, hats . Then we’d march back. It was worse than Hell. Working to death starving to death." He told how he eventually changed camps to Bergen-Belsen. “They were the worst. I don’t want to call them people. They were animals. Every day it got worse as the war was coming to an end… our job was to tie up the dead people."

In a crystal clear description, Sztajer recounted one specific day at Bergen-Belsen when he saw a group of women walk by and someone softly called his name. "I saw my sister there, but could not go to her."

Finally, Sztajer told about the liberation and aftermath he was now 19 years old. "I don’t remember, he said. “I was in a coma. After we were liberated, people looked for their loved ones. My sister found me. My mother gave birth to me. My sister gave life to me." It took him three years of treatment to recover his health, he said.

"Mr. Sztajer surprised me by sharing such painful details about his life and turning them into a powerful message," said Zoey Birman, 16, tenor sax, HHS Band member after the presentation.

"Why do I tell this story?" asked Sztajer. "I know how some of you feel. I was told I was not fit to live." Sztajer reassured them, "You can do whatever you want. Feel confident in yourself. This country gives opportunity to all, and don't let anyone tell you otherwise…there is hope. I can be your example.”

"When he spoke," Meyer said, "it felt as if he knew the hidden struggles each and every one of the audience members was going through. He wanted his time with us to not just be about history, but rather about our future."

Sztajer urged the students, "Go to vote. Study the issues. Not what's good for you but good for the country … I couldn't have picked a better country.

Give confidence, it's more valuable than money."

AFTER THE PRESENTATION, Birman said: “Having grown up in a Jewish home, the Holocaust has always been a source of sadness and fear…I really enjoyed getting to thank him for spreading his optimism and hearing his advice for continuing to embrace Judaism proudly and without fear."


HMS Churchill [ edit | edit source ]

Herndon decommissioned and was turned over to Great Britain under the Destroyers for Bases Agreement at Halifax, Nova Scotia on 9 September 1940. As HMS Churchill, she served as leader of the first Town-class flotilla in transatlantic convoys and patrol duty off the western approaches to the British Isles. Notable events in her career in the Royal Navy included participation in the search for the German battleship Bismarck after she had sunk the battlecruiser HMS Hood, and a visit by her namesake, the redoubtable Prime Minister Winston Churchill, on his way home from the Atlantic Conference with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in August 1941. Churchill was assigned to Escort Group B-7 of the Mid-Ocean Escort Force for convoys HX-186 and ON-94. Ώ] Churchill also served as an escort for the pre- and post-invasion buildup for Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa. Churchill was modified for trade convoy escort service by removal of three of the original 4"/50 caliber guns and three of the triple torpedo tube mounts to reduce topside weight for additional depth charge stowage and installation of hedgehog. ΐ] Churchill was assigned to Escort Group C-4 of the Mid-Ocean Escort Force for convoys SC-112, ON-158, HX-224, ON-177 and HX-235 during the winter of 1942-43 Α]


The Collapse of the Soviet Union

After his inauguration in January 1989, George H.W. Bush did not automatically follow the policy of his predecessor, Ronald Reagan , in dealing with Mikhail Gorbachev and the Soviet Union. Instead, he ordered a strategic policy re-evaluation in order to establish his own plan and methods for dealing with the Soviet Union and arms control.

Conditions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, however, changed rapidly. Gorbachev’s decision to loosen the Soviet yoke on the countries of Eastern Europe created an independent, democratic momentum that led to the collapse of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, and then the overthrow of Communist rule throughout Eastern Europe. While Bush supported these independence movements, U.S. policy was reactive. Bush chose to let events unfold organically, careful not to do anything to worsen Gorbachev’s position.

With the policy review complete, and taking into account unfolding events in Europe, Bush met with Gorbachev at Malta in early December 1989. They laid the groundwork for finalizing START negotiations, completing the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty, and they discussed the rapid changes in Eastern Europe. Bush encouraged Gorbachev’s reform efforts, hoping that the Soviet leader would succeed in shifting the USSR toward a democratic system and a market oriented economy.

Gorbachev’s decision to allow elections with a multi-party system and create a presidency for the Soviet Union began a slow process of democratization that eventually destabilized Communist control and contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Following the May 1990 elections, Gorbachev faced conflicting internal political pressures: Boris Yeltsin and the pluralist movement advocated democratization and rapid economic reforms while the hard-line Communist elite wanted to thwart Gorbachev’s reform agenda.

Facing a growing schism between Yeltsin and Gorbachev, the Bush administration opted to work primarily with Gorbachev because they viewed him as the more reliable partner and because he made numerous concessions that promoted U.S. interests. Plans proceeded to sign the START agreement. With the withdrawal of Red Army troops from East Germany, Gorbachev agreed to German reunification and acquiesced when a newly reunited Germany joined NATO. When Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, the United States and the Soviet leadership worked together diplomatically to repel this attack.

Yet for all of those positive steps on the international stage, Gorbachev’s domestic problems continued to mount. Additional challenges to Moscow’s control placed pressure on Gorbachev and the Communist party to retain power in order to keep the Soviet Union intact. After the demise of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, the Baltic States and the Caucasus demanded independence from Moscow. In January 1991, violence erupted in Lithuania and Latvia. Soviet tanks intervened to halt the democratic uprisings, a move that Bush resolutely condemned.

By 1991, the Bush administration reconsidered policy options in light of the growing level of turmoil within the Soviet Union. Three basic options presented themselves. The administration could continue to support Gorbachev in hopes of preventing Soviet disintegration. Alternately, the United States could shift support to Yeltsin and the leaders of the Republics and provide support for a controlled restructuring or possible breakup of the Soviet Union. The final option consisted of lending conditional support to Gorbachev, leveraging aid and assistance in return for more rapid and radical political and economic reforms.

Unsure about how much political capital Gorbachev retained, Bush combined elements of the second and third options. The Soviet nuclear arsenal was vast, as were Soviet conventional forces, and further weakening of Gorbachev could derail further arms control negotiations. To balance U.S. interests in relation to events in the Soviet Union, and in order to demonstrate support for Gorbachev, Bush signed the START treaty at the Moscow Summit in July 1991. Bush administration officials also, however, increased contact with Yeltsin.

The unsuccessful August 1991 coup against Gorbachev sealed the fate of the Soviet Union. Planned by hard-line Communists, the coup diminished Gorbachev’s power and propelled Yeltsin and the democratic forces to the forefront of Soviet and Russian politics. Bush publicly condemned the coup as “extra-constitutional,” but Gorbachev’s weakened position became obvious to all. He resigned his leadership as head of the Communist party shortly thereafter—separating the power of the party from that of the presidency of the Soviet Union. The Central Committee was dissolved and Yeltsin banned party activities. A few days after the coup, Ukraine and Belarus declared their independence from the Soviet Union. The Baltic States, which had earlier declared their independence, sought international recognition.

Amidst quick, dramatic changes across the landscape of the Soviet Union, Bush administration officials prioritized the prevention of nuclear catastrophe, the curbing of ethnic violence, and the stable transition to new political orders. On September 4, 1991, Secretary of State James Baker articulated five basic principles that would guide U.S. policy toward the emerging republics: self-determination consistent with democratic principles, recognition of existing borders, support for democracy and rule of law, preservation of human rights and rights of national minorities, and respect for international law and obligations. The basic message was clear—if the new republics could follow these principles, they could expect cooperation and assistance from the United States. Baker met with Gorbachev and Yeltsin in an attempt to shore up the economic situation and develop some formula for economic cooperation between the republics and Russia, as well as to determine ways to allow political reforms to occur in a regulated and peaceful manner. In early December, Yeltsin and the leaders of Ukraine and Belarus met in Brest to form the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), effectively declaring the demise of the Soviet Union.

On December 25, 1991, the Soviet hammer and sickle flag lowered for the last time over the Kremlin, thereafter replaced by the Russian tricolor. Earlier in the day, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned his post as president of the Soviet Union, leaving Boris Yeltsin as president of the newly independent Russian state. People all over the world watched in amazement at this relatively peaceful transition from former Communist monolith into multiple separate nations.

With the dissolution of Soviet Union, the main goal of the Bush administration was economic and political stability and security for Russia, the Baltics, and the states of the former Soviet Union. Bush recognized all 12 independent republics and established diplomatic relations with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. In February 1992, Baker visited the remaining republics and diplomatic relations were established with Uzbekistan, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. Civil war in Georgia prevented its recognition and the establishment of diplomatic relations with the United States until May 1992. Yeltsin met with Bush at Camp David in February 1992, followed by a formal state visit to Washington in June. Leaders from Kazakhstan and Ukraine visited Washington in May 1992.

During his visits to Washington, politics, economic reforms, and security issues dominated the conversations between Yeltsin and Bush. Of paramount concern was securing the nuclear arsenal of the former Soviet Union and making certain nuclear weapons did not fall into the wrong hands. Baker made it clear that funding was available from the United States to secure nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in the former Soviet Union. The Nunn-Lugar Act established the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program in November 1991 to fund the dismantling of weapons in the former Soviet Union, in accordance with the START and INF Treaties and other agreements. Bush and Baker also worked with Yeltsin and international organizations like the World Bank and IMF to provide financial assistance and hopefully prevent a humanitarian crisis in Russia.


HMS Churchill

Herndon decommissioned and was turned over to Great Britain under the Destroyers for Bases Agreement at Halifax, Nova Scotia on 9 September 1940. As HMS Churchill, she served as leader of the first Town-class flotilla in transatlantic convoys and patrol duty off the Western Approaches to the British Isles. Notable events in her career in the Royal Navy included participation in the search for the German battleship Bismarck after she had sunk the battlecruiser HMS   Hood, and a visit by her namesake, the Prime Minister Winston Churchill, on his way home from the Atlantic Conference with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in August 1941. Churchill was assigned to Escort Group B-7 of the Mid-Ocean Escort Force for convoys HX 186 and ON 94. [4] Churchill also served as an escort for the pre- and post-invasion buildup for Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa. Churchill was modified for trade convoy escort service by removal of three of the original 4-inch (102   mm) /50 caliber guns and three of the triple torpedo tube mounts to reduce topside weight for additional depth charge stowage and installation of Hedgehog anti-submarine mortar. [5] Churchill was assigned to Escort Group C-4 of the Mid-Ocean Escort Force for convoys SC 112, ON 158, HX 224, ON 177 and HX 235 during the winter of 1942󈞗 [6]


DesRon 6 flagship Balch stands by as the crew of Yorktown abandons ship after the Battle of Midway, 6 June 1942.

Caution: The purpose of this essay is to identify operations for which service stars were earned as indicated in the accompanying table. It has been compiled from secondary sources such as the Dictionary of American Fighting Ships which, in most cases, are silent about squadrons and divisions. Some statements, particularly regarding the dates of organization changes, reflect educated guesses. Verification will require examination of records such as war diaries and deck logs.

On 7 December 1941, the entire squadron was at sea with Enterprise (CV 6) and cruisers Chester, Northampton and Salt Lake City under VAdm. William F. Halsey, Jr., which was returning to Oahu after flying off aircraft for Wake Island, and thus missed the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

In January 1942, DesRon 6 sortied with VAdm. Halsey&rsquos Task Force 8 to strike the Marshall Islands. Fanning and Gridley collided during a rain squall and retired. Dunlap and cruisers shelled Wotje Atoll, sinking one enemy gunboat and damaging another. McCall hit Wotje, Maleolap and Kwajalein. Balch and Maury and cruisers hit Taroa and Maleolap and&mdashon a separate mission in late February&mdashWake Island. Thereafter, Dunlap operated from Hawaii and the West Coast before moving to Nouméa, New Caledonia in December.

After repairs, Fanning returned in April to join Balch, Benham and Ellet in VAdm. Halsey&rsquos Task Force 16, again screening Enterprise during the Doolittle raid on Japan. Fanning then drew escort assignments similar to Dunlap&rsquos before going to the Solomon Islands in November. After a year there in supporting roles, she returned to San Francisco for overhaul and then went to the Aleutians.

At the Battle of Midway in June, Balch, Benham and Ellet plus Maury from DesDiv 11 and Conyngham from DesDiv 5 were attached to RAdm. Raymond A. Spruance&rsquos Task Force 16, screening Enterprise and Hornet. Balch and Benham respectively rescued 545 and 908 survivors when Yorktown and Hammann were sunk on the 6th.

World War II Operations of the destroyers
originally attached to Destroyer Squadron 6

Next, Balch, Benham, Ellet and Maury went to the Solomon Islands. For the Guadalcanal&ndashTulagi landings in early August:

  • Balch, Benham and Maury operated with Gwin and Grayson in an air support force.
  • Ellet operated with the Amphibious Force. She was not engaged at the Battle of Savo Island on the 9th but afterward rescued 502 cruisermen from Quincy and Astoria and, with Selfridge, torpedoed and scuttled HMAS Canberra.

Balch, Benham, Ellet and Maury were still with Enterprise, North Carolina, Portland and Atlanta for the Battle of the Eastern Solomons at the end of the month. Thereafter:

  • Ellet missed the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands in October, but otherwise remained with Task Force 16 until May 1943. On 29&ndash30 January 1943, she operated with Morris, Mustin, Hughes and Russell during the Battle of Rennell Island.
  • Maury was still with Task Force 16 under RAdm. Thomas C. Kinkaid at Santa Cruz, operating with DesRon 5. She also participated in the Battle of Tassafaronga in November.
  • Benham was torpedoed at the Battle of Guadalcanal on 14&ndash15 November and subsequently foundered.

In June 1943, all eight ships plus anti-aircraft cruisers San Diego and San Juan formed the screen for carriers Saratoga and HMS Victorious (operating as USS Robin), which covered the launching of Operation &ldquoCartwheel&rdquo in the Solomon Islands&rsquo New Georgia Group.

  • In July, Maury operated with DesRon 12 in the Battle of Kolombangara.
  • In August, Craven and Maury joined Dunlap, flagship of DesDiv 12&rsquos Commander Frederick Moosbrugger, for the Battle of Vella Gulf.
  • In November, Gridley and Maury participated in the Gilbert Islands operation.

In January 1944, the full squadron was attached to RAdm. Samuel P. Ginder&rsquos Task Group 58.3 with cruisers Boston, Baltimore and San Juan screening carriers Saratoga, Princeton and Langley in strikes on Wotje, Maloelap and Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands.

In March and April, DesDiv 11 sailed from Majuro to screen the carriers in strikes on Palau, Yap, Ulithi, Woleai, covered the invasion of Hollandia, and raided Truk, Satawan, and Ponape. Moving to the Marianas in June, it and DesRon 46 and the cruisers, with Canberra and Oakland added, screened Hornet, Yorktown, Belleau Wood and Bataan in RAdm. &ldquoJocko&rdquo Clark&rsquos Task Group 58.1 during the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 19&ndash20 June. In July, from Eniwetok, they struck Iwo Jima, Guam, Yap, Ulithi and the Volcano Islands. In September, they supported the Palau landings.

From DesDiv 12, Case, too, continued on with the carriers. In March, meanwhile, Dunlap, Fanning and Cummings were detached.

  • With Saratoga, they reported to the Combined Far Eastern Fleet, which consisted of British Dutch, French and Australian ships. Planes from Saratoga and HMS Illustrious struck targets on Sumatra in April and at Soerabaja, Java in May.
  • In July, they escorted Baltimore (CA 68) with President Roosevelt embarked on an inspection cruise to Hawaii and Alaska. The president spent part of the cruise on board Cummings, from which he broadcast a nationwide address on the 12th.

Now screening Franklin, Enterprise, San Jacinto and Belleau Wood in RAdm. Ralph E. Davison&rsquos Task Group 38.4, the reconstituted DesRon 6 and DesDiv 24 struck Okinawa and Formosa, struck the Japanese Center force in the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea on the 24th and participated in the Battle off Cape Engaño on the 25th.

  • On the 28th, Gridley and Helm sank submarine I-54.
  • On the 30th, about 1,000 miles east of Samar, suicide planes hit both Franklin and Belleau Wood. On 2 November, Gridley screened them in retiring to Ulithi.
  • On 5 December in Surigao Strait, Mugford was hit by a kamikaze. She returned to Mare Island, where she was under repair from 6 January to 4 March 1945.

After availability at Manus, the squadron was reassigned to RAdm. Calvin T. Durgin&rsquos Task Group 77.4 built around escort carriers Makin Island, Lunga Point, Bismarck Sea, Salamaua and Hoggatt Bay, which sailed on 27 December for Lingayen Gulf to support the Luzon invasion. En route on 5 January, Helm was one of several ships crashed by suicide planes off Mindoro.

Tired and showing signs of structural failure that prevented them from mounting 40mm anti-aircraft guns to counter the growing kamikaze threat, however, the remaining three Gridleys did not last much longer on the front line:

  • On 16 February, Gridley and Maury retired to Ulithi, from which they escorted battleship Mississippi back to Hawaii. Gridley went on to New York, arriving on 30 March. On 22 June, after overhaul, she went to the Mediterranean for seven months of passenger, freight and convoy operations between Casablanca, Oran, Naples and Marseilles. Maury remained at Pearl Harbor until June, when she, too, went to New York. There, an inspection team recommended that she be disposed of and on 18 August she proceeded to Philadelphia where she decommissioned 10 October.
  • On 19 February, McCall arrived off the transport area at Iwo Jima, where she screened the transports and provided shore bombardment harassing and illumination fire services until 27 March, when she departed for Pearl Harbor and the West Coast, arriving at San Diego 22 April. Within the week, she got underway for a scheduled overhaul at New York. Her yard work completed by 4 August, she was undergoing refresher training at Casco Bay when Japan surrendered on 14 August.

Accordingly, DesRon 6 was reformed one more time. While all five Bagleys were combined in DesDiv 11, a new DesDiv 12 consisted of 1,630-tonners&mdashthe three survivors from DesDiv 34 and Satterlee, the only ship from DesDiv 36 not converted as a minesweeper. Reassigned to the Fifth Fleet in February, Bagley, Helm, Ralph Talbot and Patterson operated at Iwo Jima and in the spring, after Mugford returned, moved on to Okinawa with Shubrick and Tillman. There,

  • On 27 April, Ralph Talbot sustained a hit and a near miss from suicide planes. Repaired at Kerama Retto, she was back in the antiaircraft screen on 20 May.
  • On 29 May, Shubrick was crashed by a plane that also released a bomb into the ship. One of her depth charges also exploded. Towed to Kerama Retto for emergency repairs, she went home on one engine in July&ndashAugust but was not repaired.

Thereafter, ships of the squadron screened escort carriers and escorted convoys, typically between Leyte, the Marianas and the Ryukyus, until the war ended, when two Bagleys were given the honor of participating in surrender ceremonies before repatriating prisoners of war and returning home:

List of site sources >>>


Watch the video: 10 Places in VIRGINIA You Should NEVER Move To (January 2022).