The story

State of the Union January 24, 2014 - History


January 28, 2014

REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT
IN THE STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS

U.S. Capitol

9:15 P.M. EST

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, members of Congress, my fellow Americans:

Today in America, a teacher spent extra time with a student who needed it, and did her part to lift America’s graduation rate to its highest level in more than three decades. An entrepreneur flipped on the lights in her tech startup, and did her part to add to the more than 8 million new jobs our businesses have created over the past four years. (Applause.) An autoworker fine-tuned some of the best, most fuel-efficient cars in the world, and did his part to help America wean itself off foreign oil.

A farmer prepared for the spring after the strongest five-year stretch of farm exports in our history. A rural doctor gave a young child the first prescription to treat asthma that his mother could afford. (Applause.) A man took the bus home from the graveyard shift, bone-tired, but dreaming big dreams for his son. And in tight-knit communities all across America, fathers and mothers will tuck in their kids, put an arm around their spouse, remember fallen comrades, and give thanks for being home from a war that, after 12 long years, is finally coming to an end. (Applause.)

Tonight, this chamber speaks with one voice to the people we represent: It is you, our citizens, who make the state of our union strong. (Applause.)

And here are the results of your efforts: The lowest unemployment rate in over five years. (Applause.) A rebounding housing market. (Applause.) A manufacturing sector that’s adding jobs for the first time since the 1990s. (Applause.) More oil produced at home than we buy from the rest of the world -- the first time that’s happened in nearly 20 years. (Applause.) Our deficits -- cut by more than half. (Applause.) And for the first time in over a decade, business leaders around the world have declared that China is no longer the world’s number one place to invest; America is. (Applause.)

That’s why I believe this can be a breakthrough year for America. After five years of grit and determined effort, the United States is better positioned for the 21st century than any other nation on Earth.

The question for everyone in this chamber, running through every decision we make this year, is whether we are going to help or hinder this progress. For several years now, this town has been consumed by a rancorous argument over the proper size of the federal government. It’s an important debate -- one that dates back to our very founding. But when that debate prevents us from carrying out even the most basic functions of our democracy -- when our differences shut down government or threaten the full faith and credit of the United States -- then we are not doing right by the American people. (Applause.)

Now, as President, I’m committed to making Washington work better, and rebuilding the trust of the people who sent us here. And I believe most of you are, too. Last month, thanks to the work of Democrats and Republicans, Congress finally produced a budget that undoes some of last year’s severe cuts to priorities like education. Nobody got everything they wanted, and we can still do more to invest in this country’s future while bringing down our deficit in a balanced way, but the budget compromise should leave us freer to focus on creating new jobs, not creating new crises. (Applause.)

In the coming months, let’s see where else we can make progress together. Let’s make this a year of action. That’s what most Americans want: for all of us in this chamber to focus on their lives, their hopes, their aspirations. What I believe unites the people of this nation -- regardless of race or region or party, young or old, rich or poor -- is the simple, profound belief in opportunity for all -- the notion that if you work hard and take responsibility, you can get ahead in America. (Applause.)

Let’s face it: That belief has suffered some serious blows. Over more than three decades, even before the Great Recession hit, massive shifts in technology and global competition had eliminated a lot of good, middle-class jobs, and weakened the economic foundations that families depend on.

Today, after four years of economic growth, corporate profits and stock prices have rarely been higher, and those at the top have never done better. But average wages have barely budged. Inequality has deepened. Upward mobility has stalled. The cold, hard fact is that even in the midst of recovery, too many Americans are working more than ever just to get by, let alone to get ahead. And too many still aren’t working at all.

So our job is to reverse these trends. It won’t happen right away, and we won’t agree on everything. But what I offer tonight is a set of concrete, practical proposals to speed up growth, strengthen the middle class, and build new ladders of opportunity into the middle class. Some require congressional action, and I am eager to work with all of you. But America does not stand still -- and neither will I. (Applause.) So wherever and whenever I can take steps without legislation to expand opportunity for more American families, that’s what I’m going to do. (Applause.)

As usual, our First Lady sets a good example. (Applause.) Michelle’s Let's Move partnership with schools, businesses, local leaders has helped bring down childhood obesity rates for the first time in 30 years. (Applause.) And that’s an achievement that will improve lives and reduce health care costs for decades to come. The Joining Forces alliance that Michelle and Jill Biden launched has already encouraged employers to hire or train nearly 400,000 veterans and military spouses. (Applause.)

Taking a page from that playbook, the White House just organized a College Opportunity Summit, where already, 150 universities, businesses, nonprofits have made concrete commitments to reduce inequality in access to higher education -- and to help every hardworking kid go to college and succeed when they get to campus. (Applause.) And across the country, we’re partnering with mayors, governors, and state legislatures on issues from homelessness to marriage equality.

The point is there are millions of Americans outside of Washington who are tired of stale political arguments and are moving this country forward. They believe, and I believe, that here in America, our success should depend not on accident of birth, but the strength of our work ethic and the scope of our dreams. That’s what drew our forebears here. It’s how the daughter of a factory worker is CEO of America’s largest automaker. (Applause.) How the son of a barkeep is Speaker of the House. (Applause.) How the son of a single mom can be President of the greatest nation on Earth. (Applause.)

Opportunity is who we are. And the defining project of our generation must be to restore that promise. We know where to start: The best measure of opportunity is access to a good job. With the economy picking up speed, companies say they intend to hire more people this year. And over half of big manufacturers say they’re thinking of insourcing jobs from abroad. (Applause.)

So let’s make that decision easier for more companies. Both Democrats and Republicans have argued that our tax code is riddled with wasteful, complicated loopholes that punish businesses investing here and reward companies that keep profits abroad. Let’s flip that equation. Let’s work together to close those loopholes, end those incentives to ship jobs overseas, and lower tax rates for businesses that create jobs right here at home. (Applause.)

Moreover, we can take the money we save from this transition to tax reform to create jobs rebuilding our roads, upgrading our ports, unclogging our commutes -- because in today’s global economy, first-class jobs gravitate to first-class infrastructure. We’ll need Congress to protect more than 3 million jobs by finishing transportation and waterways bills this summer. (Applause.) That can happen. But I’ll act on my own to slash bureaucracy and streamline the permitting process for key projects, so we can get more construction workers on the job as fast as possible. (Applause.)

We also have the chance, right now, to beat other countries in the race for the next wave of high-tech manufacturing jobs. My administration has launched two hubs for high-tech manufacturing in Raleigh, North Carolina and Youngstown, Ohio, where we’ve connected businesses to research universities that can help America lead the world in advanced technologies. Tonight, I’m announcing we’ll launch six more this year. Bipartisan bills in both houses could double the number of these hubs and the jobs they create. So get those bills to my desk; put more Americans back to work. (Applause.)

Let’s do more to help the entrepreneurs and small business owners who create most new jobs in America. Over the past five years, my administration has made more loans to small business owners than any other. And when 98 percent of our exporters are small businesses, new trade partnerships with Europe and the Asia Pacific will help them create more jobs. We need to work together on tools like bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority to protect our workers, protect our environment, and open new markets to new goods stamped “Made in the USA.” (Applause.)

Listen, China and Europe aren’t standing on the sidelines, and neither should we. We know that the nation that goes all-in on innovation today will own the global economy tomorrow. This is an edge America cannot surrender. Federally funded research helped lead to the ideas and inventions behind Google and smartphones. And that’s why Congress should undo the damage done by last year’s cuts to basic research so we can unleash the next great American discovery. (Applause.)

There are entire industries to be built based on vaccines that stay ahead of drug-resistant bacteria, or paper-thin material that’s stronger than steel. And let’s pass a patent reform bill that allows our businesses to stay focused on innovation, not costly and needless litigation. (Applause.)

Now, one of the biggest factors in bringing more jobs back is our commitment to American energy. The all-of-the-above energy strategy I announced a few years ago is working, and today, America is closer to energy independence than we have been in decades. (Applause.)

One of the reasons why is natural gas -- if extracted safely, it’s the bridge fuel that can power our economy with less of the carbon pollution that causes climate change. Businesses plan to invest almost $100 billion in new factories that use natural gas. I’ll cut red tape to help states get those factories built and put folks to work, and this Congress can help by putting people to work building fueling stations that shift more cars and trucks from foreign oil to American natural gas. (Applause.)

Meanwhile, my administration will keep working with the industry to sustain production and jobs growth while strengthening protection of our air, our water, our communities. And while we’re at it, I’ll use my authority to protect more of our pristine federal lands for future generations. (Applause.)

It’s not just oil and natural gas production that’s booming; we’re becoming a global leader in solar, too. Every four minutes, another American home or business goes solar, every panel pounded into place by a worker whose job cannot be outsourced. Let’s continue that progress with a smarter tax policy that stops giving $4 billion a year to fossil fuel industries that don’t need it, so we can invest more in fuels of the future that do. (Applause.)

And even as we’ve increased energy production, we’ve partnered with businesses, builders, and local communities to reduce the energy we consume. When we rescued our automakers, for example, we worked with them to set higher fuel efficiency standards for our cars. In the coming months, I’ll build on that success by setting new standards for our trucks, so we can keep driving down oil imports and what we pay at the pump.

And taken together, our energy policy is creating jobs and leading to a cleaner, safer planet. Over the past eight years, the United States has reduced our total carbon pollution more than any other nation on Earth. (Applause.) But we have to act with more urgency -- because a changing climate is already harming Western communities struggling with drought, and coastal cities dealing with floods. That’s why I directed my administration to work with states, utilities, and others to set new standards on the amount of carbon pollution our power plants are allowed to dump into the air. (Applause.)

The shift to a cleaner energy economy won’t happen overnight, and it will require some tough choices along the way. But the debate is settled. Climate change is a fact. (Applause.) And when our children’s children look us in the eye and ask if we did all we could to leave them a safer, more stable world, with new sources of energy, I want us to be able to say yes, we did. (Applause.)

Finally, if we’re serious about economic growth, it is time to heed the call of business leaders, labor leaders, faith leaders, law enforcement -- and fix our broken immigration system. (Applause.) Republicans and Democrats in the Senate have acted. And I know that members of both parties in the House want to do the same. Independent economists say immigration reform will grow our economy and shrink our deficits by almost $1 trillion in the next two decades. And for good reason: When people come here to fulfill their dreams -- to study, invent, contribute to our culture -- they make our country a more attractive place for businesses to locate and create jobs for everybody. So let’s get immigration reform done this year. (Applause.) Let’s get it done. It’s time. (Applause.)

The ideas I've outlined so far can speed up growth and create more jobs. But in this rapidly changing economy, we have to make sure that every American has the skills to fill those jobs. The good news is we know how to do it.

Two years ago, as the auto industry came roaring back, Andra Rush opened up a manufacturing firm in Detroit. She knew that Ford needed parts for the best-selling truck in America, and she knew how to make those parts. She just needed the workforce. So she dialed up what we call an American Jobs Center, places where folks can walk in to get the help or training they need to find a new job or a better job. She was flooded with new workers. And today, Detroit Manufacturing Systems has more than 700 employees. And what Andra and her employees experienced is how it should be for every employer and every job seeker.

So tonight, I've asked Vice President Biden to lead an across-the-board reform of America’s training programs to make sure they have one mission: Train Americans with the skills employers need, and match them to good jobs that need to be filled right now. (Applause.)

That means more on-the-job training and more apprenticeships that set a young worker on an upward trajectory for life. It means connecting companies to community colleges that can help design training to fill their specific needs. And if Congress wants to help, you can concentrate funding on proven programs that connect more ready-to-work Americans with ready-to-be-filled jobs.

I’m also convinced we can help Americans return to the workforce faster by reforming unemployment insurance so that it’s more effective in today’s economy. But first, this Congress needs to restore the unemployment insurance you just let expire for 1.6 million people. (Applause.)

Let me tell you why. Misty DeMars is a mother of two young boys. She’d been steadily employed since she was a teenager, put herself through college. She’d never collected unemployment benefits, but she’d been paying taxes. In May, she and her husband used their life savings to buy their first home. A week later, budget cuts claimed the job she loved. Last month, when their unemployment insurance was cut off, she sat down and wrote me a letter, the kind I get every day. “We are the face of the unemployment crisis,” she wrote. “I’m not dependent on the government. Our country depends on people like us who build careers, contribute to society, care about our neighbors. I’m confident that in time I will find a job, I will pay my taxes, and we will raise our children in their own home in the community we love. Please give us this chance.”

Congress, give these hardworking, responsible Americans that chance. (Applause.) Give them that chance. (Applause.) Give them the chance. They need our help right now. But more important, this country needs them in the game. That’s why I’ve been asking CEOs to give more long-term unemployed workers a fair shot at new jobs, a new chance to support their families. And in fact, this week, many will come to the White House to make that commitment real.

Tonight, I ask every business leader in America to join us and to do the same –- because we are stronger when America fields a full team. (Applause.)

Of course, it’s not enough to train today’s workforce. We also have to prepare tomorrow’s workforce, by guaranteeing every child access to a world-class education. (Applause.)

Estiven Rodriguez couldn’t speak a word of English when he moved to New York City at age nine. But last month, thanks to the support of great teachers and an innovative tutoring program, he led a march of his classmates through a crowd of cheering parents and neighbors from their high school to the post office, where they mailed off their college applications. And this son of a factory worker just found out he’s going to college this fall. (Applause.)

Five years ago, we set out to change the odds for all our kids. We worked with lenders to reform student loans, and today, more young people are earning college degrees than ever before. Race to the Top, with the help of governors from both parties, has helped states raise expectations and performance. Teachers and principals in schools from Tennessee to Washington, D.C. are making big strides in preparing students with the skills for the new economy –- problem solving, critical thinking, science, technology, engineering, math.

Some of this change is hard. It requires everything from more challenging curriculums and more demanding parents to better support for teachers and new ways to measure how well our kids think, not how well they can fill in a bubble on a test. But it is worth it and it is working. The problem is we’re still not reaching enough kids, and we’re not reaching them in time. And that has to change.

Research shows that one of the best investments we can make in a child’s life is high-quality early education. (Applause.) Last year, I asked this Congress to help states make high-quality pre-K available to every 4-year-old. And as a parent as well as a President, I repeat that request tonight. But in the meantime, 30 states have raised pre-k funding on their own. They know we can’t wait. So just as we worked with states to reform our schools, this year we’ll invest in new partnerships with states and communities across the country in a Race to the Top for our youngest children. And as Congress decides what it’s going to do, I’m going to pull together a coalition of elected officials, business leaders, and philanthropists willing to help more kids access the high-quality pre-K that they need. (Applause.) It is right for America. We need to get this done. (Applause.)

Last year, I also pledged to connect 99 percent of our students to high-speed broadband over the next four years. Tonight, I can announce that with the support of the FCC and companies like Apple, Microsoft, Sprint, and Verizon, we’ve got a down payment to start connecting more than 15,000 schools and 20 million students over the next two years, without adding a dime to the deficit. (Applause.)

We’re working to redesign high schools and partner them with colleges and employers that offer the real-world education and hands-on training that can lead directly to a job and career. We’re shaking up our system of higher education to give parents more information and colleges more incentives to offer better value, so that no middle-class kid is priced out of a college education.

We’re offering millions the opportunity to cap their monthly student loan payments to 10 percent of their income, and I want to work with Congress to see how we can help even more Americans who feel trapped by student loan debt. (Applause.) And I’m reaching out to some of America’s leading foundations and corporations on a new initiative to help more young men of color facing especially tough odds to stay on track and reach their full potential.

The bottom line is Michelle and I want every child to have the same chance this country gave us. But we know our opportunity agenda won’t be complete -- and too many young people entering the workforce today will see the American Dream as an empty promise -- unless we also do more to make sure our economy honors the dignity of work, and hard work pays off for every single American.

Today, women make up about half our workforce, but they still make 77 cents for every dollar a man earns. That is wrong, and in 2014, it’s an embarrassment. Women deserve equal pay for equal work. (Applause.) She deserves to have a baby without sacrificing her job. A mother deserves a day off to care for a sick child or a sick parent without running into hardship. (Applause.) And you know what, a father does, too. It is time to do away with workplace policies that belong in a “Mad Men” episode. (Laughter and applause.) This year, let’s all come together -- Congress, the White House, businesses from Wall Street to Main Street -- to give every woman the opportunity she deserves. (Applause.) Because I believe when women succeed, America succeeds. (Applause.)

Now, women hold a majority of lower-wage jobs, but they’re not the only ones stifled by stagnant wages. Americans understand that some people will earn more money than others, and we don’t resent those who, by virtue of their efforts, achieve incredible success. That’s what America is all about. But Americans overwhelmingly agree that no one who works full-time should ever have to raise a family in poverty. (Applause.)

In the year since I asked this Congress to raise the minimum wage, five states have passed laws to raise theirs. Many businesses have done it on their own. Nick Chute is here today with his boss, John Soranno. John’s an owner of Punch Pizza in Minneapolis, and Nick helps make the dough. (Laughter.) Only now he makes more of it. (Laughter.) John just gave his employees a raise, to 10 bucks an hour -- and that’s a decision that has eased their financial stress and boosted their morale.

Tonight, I ask more of America’s business leaders to follow John’s lead: Do what you can to raise your employees’ wages. (Applause.) It’s good for the economy. It’s good for America. (Applause.) To every mayor, governor, state legislator in America, I say you don’t have to wait for Congress to act -- Americans will support you if you take this on.

And as a chief executive, I intend to lead by example. Profitable corporations like Costco see higher wages as the smart way to boost productivity and reduce turnover. We should too. In the coming weeks, I will issue an executive order requiring federal contractors to pay their federally funded employees a fair wage of at least $10.10 an hour -- because if you cook our troops’ meals or wash their dishes, you should not have to live in poverty. (Applause.)

Of course, to reach millions more, Congress does need to get on board. Today, the federal minimum wage is worth about 20 percent less than it was when Ronald Reagan first stood here. And Tom Harkin and George Miller have a bill to fix that by lifting the minimum wage to $10.10. It's easy to remember, $10.10. This will help families. It will give businesses customers with more money to spend. It does not involve any new bureaucratic program. So join the rest of the country. Say yes. Give America a raise. (Applause.) Give them a raise. (Applause.)

There are other steps we can take to help families make ends meet, and few are more effective at reducing inequality and helping families pull themselves up through hard work than the Earned Income Tax Credit. Right now, it helps about half of all parents at some point. Think about that -- it helps about half of all parents in America at some point in their lives. But I agree with Republicans like Senator Rubio that it doesn’t do enough for single workers who don’t have kids. So let’s work together to strengthen the credit, reward work, help more Americans get ahead.

Let’s do more to help Americans save for retirement. Today, most workers don’t have a pension. A Social Security check often isn’t enough on its own. And while the stock market has doubled over the last five years, that doesn’t help folks who don’t have 401(k)s. That’s why, tomorrow, I will direct the Treasury to create a new way for working Americans to start their own retirement savings: MyRA.

It’s a new savings bond that encourages folks to build a nest egg. MyRA guarantees a decent return with no risk of losing what you put in. And if this Congress wants to help, work with me to fix an upside-down tax code that gives big tax breaks to help the wealthy save, but does little or nothing for middle-class Americans. Offer every American access to an automatic IRA on the job, so they can save at work just like everyone in this chamber can.

And since the most important investment many families make is their home, send me legislation that protects taxpayers from footing the bill for a housing crisis ever again, and keeps the dream of homeownership alive for future generations. (Applause.)

One last point on financial security: For decades, few things exposed hardworking families to economic hardship more than a broken health care system. And in case you haven’t heard, we’re in the process of fixing that. (Applause.) A preexisting condition used to mean that someone like Amanda Shelley, a physician’s assistant and single mom from Arizona, couldn’t get health insurance. But on January 1st, she got covered. (Applause.) On January 3rd, she felt a sharp pain. On January 6th, she had emergency surgery. Just one week earlier, Amanda said, that surgery would have meant bankruptcy.

That’s what health insurance reform is all about -– the peace of mind that if misfortune strikes, you don’t have to lose everything. Already, because of the Affordable Care Act, more than 3 million Americans under age 26 have gained coverage under their parents’ plans. (Applause.) More than 9 million Americans have signed up for private health insurance or Medicaid coverage. (Applause.) Nine million.

And here’s another number: zero. Because of this law, no American -- none -- zero -- can ever again be dropped or denied coverage for a preexisting condition like asthma, or back pain, or cancer. (Applause.) No woman can ever be charged more just because she’s a woman. (Applause.) And we did all this while adding years to Medicare’s finances, keeping Medicare premiums flat, and lowering prescription costs for millions of seniors.

Now, I do not expect to convince my Republican friends on the merits of this law. (Laughter.) But I know that the American people are not interested in refighting old battles. So, again, if you have specific plans to cut costs, cover more people, increase choice -- tell America what you’d do differently. Let’s see if the numbers add up. But let’s not have another 40-something votes to repeal a law that’s already helping millions of Americans like Amanda. (Applause.)

The first 40 were plenty. We all owe it to the American people to say what we’re for, not just what we’re against. And if you want to know the real impact this law is having, just talk to Governor Steve Beshear of Kentucky, who’s here tonight. Now Kentucky is not the most liberal part of the country. (Laughter.) That’s not where I got my highest vote totals. (Laughter.) But he’s like a man possessed when it comes to covering his commonwealth’s families. They are our neighbors and our friends, he said. “They’re people we shop and go to church with, farmers out on the tractor, grocery clerks. They’re people who go to work every morning praying they don’t get sick. No one deserves to live that way.”

Steve is right. That’s why, tonight, I ask every American who knows someone without health insurance to help them get covered by March 31st. (Applause.) Help them get covered. (Applause.) Moms, get on your kids to sign up. Kids, call your mom and walk her through the application. It will give her some peace of mind –- plus, she’ll appreciate hearing from you. (Laughter.)

After all, that’s the spirit that has always moved this nation forward. It’s the spirit of citizenship –- the recognition that through hard work and responsibility, we can pursue our individual dreams but still come together as one American family to make sure the next generation can pursue its dreams as well.

Citizenship means standing up for everyone’s right to vote. (Applause.) Last year, part of the Voting Rights Act was weakened, but conservative Republicans and liberal Democrats are working together to strengthen it. And the bipartisan commission I appointed, chaired by my campaign lawyer and Governor Romney's campaign lawyer, came together and have offered reforms so that no one has to wait more than a half hour to vote. Let’s support these efforts. (Applause.) It should be the power of our vote, not the size of our bank accounts that drives our democracy. (Applause.)

Citizenship means standing up for the lives that gun violence steals from us each day. I’ve seen the courage of parents, students, pastors, police officers all over this country who say “we are not afraid." And I intend to keep trying, with or without Congress, to help stop more tragedies from visiting innocent Americans in our movie theaters, in our shopping malls, or schools like Sandy Hook. (Applause.)

Citizenship demands a sense of common purpose; participation in the hard work of self-government; an obligation to serve our communities. And I know this chamber agrees that few Americans give more to their country than our diplomats and the men and women of the United States Armed Forces. (Applause.)

Tonight, because of the extraordinary troops and civilians who risk and lay down their lives to keep us free, the United States is more secure. When I took office, nearly 180,000 Americans were serving in Iraq and Afghanistan. Today, all our troops are out of Iraq. More than 60,000 of our troops have already come home from Afghanistan. With Afghan forces now in the lead for their own security, our troops have moved to a support role. Together with our allies, we will complete our mission there by the end of this year, and America’s longest war will finally be over. (Applause.)

After 2014, we will support a unified Afghanistan as it takes responsibility for its own future. If the Afghan government signs a security agreement that we have negotiated, a small force of Americans could remain in Afghanistan with NATO allies to carry out two narrow missions: training and assisting Afghan forces, and counterterrorism operations to pursue any remnants of al Qaeda. For while our relationship with Afghanistan will change, one thing will not: our resolve that terrorists do not launch attacks against our country. (Applause.)

The fact is that danger remains. While we put al Qaeda’s core leadership on a path to defeat, the threat has evolved as al Qaeda affiliates and other extremists take root in different parts of the world. In Yemen, Somalia, Iraq, Mali, we have to keep working with partners to disrupt and disable those networks. In Syria, we’ll support the opposition that rejects the agenda of terrorist networks. Here at home, we’ll keep strengthening our defenses, and combat new threats like cyberattacks. And as we reform our defense budget, we will have to keep faith with our men and women in uniform, and invest in the capabilities they need to succeed in future missions. (Applause.)

We have to remain vigilant. But I strongly believe our leadership and our security cannot depend on our outstanding military alone. As Commander-in-Chief, I have used force when needed to protect the American people, and I will never hesitate to do so as long as I hold this office. But I will not send our troops into harm’s way unless it is truly necessary, nor will I allow our sons and daughters to be mired in open-ended conflicts. We must fight the battles that need to be fought, not those that terrorists prefer from us -- large-scale deployments that drain our strength and may ultimately feed extremism.

So even as we actively and aggressively pursue terrorist networks -– through more targeted efforts and by building the capacity of our foreign partners -- America must move off a permanent war footing. (Applause.) That’s why I’ve imposed prudent limits on the use of drones -- for we will not be safer if people abroad believe we strike within their countries without regard for the consequence.

That’s why, working with this Congress, I will reform our surveillance programs, because the vital work of our intelligence community depends on public confidence, here and abroad, that privacy of ordinary people is not being violated. (Applause.)

And with the Afghan war ending, this needs to be the year Congress lifts the remaining restrictions on detainee transfers and we close the prison at Guantanamo Bay -- (applause) -- because we counter terrorism not just through intelligence and military actions, but by remaining true to our constitutional ideals, and setting an example for the rest of the world. (Applause.)

You see, in a world of complex threats, our security, our leadership depends on all elements of our power, including strong and principled diplomacy. American diplomacy has rallied more than 50 countries to prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands, and allowed us to reduce our own reliance on Cold War stockpiles. American diplomacy, backed by the threat of force, is why Syria’s chemical weapons are being eliminated. (Applause.)

And we will continue to work with the international community to usher in the future the Syrian people deserve -- a future free of dictatorship, terror and fear. As we speak, American diplomacy is supporting the Israelis and Palestinians as they engage in the difficult but necessary talks to end the conflict there; to achieve dignity and an independent state for Palestinians, and lasting peace and security for the State of Israel -- a Jewish state that knows America will always be at their side. (Applause.)

And it is American diplomacy, backed by pressure, that has halted the progress of Iran’s nuclear program and rolled back parts of that program for the very first time in a decade. As we gather here tonight, Iran has begun to eliminate its stockpile of higher levels of enriched uranium. It’s not installing advanced centrifuges. Unprecedented inspections help the world verify every day that Iran is not building a bomb. And with our allies and partners, we’re engaged in negotiations to see if we can peacefully achieve a goal we all share: preventing Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. (Applause.)

These negotiations will be difficult. They may not succeed. We are clear-eyed about Iran’s support for terrorist organizations like Hezbollah, which threatens our allies. And we're clear about the mistrust between our nations, mistrust that cannot be wished away. But these negotiations don't rely on trust. Any long-term deal we agree to must be based on verifiable action that convinces us and the international community that Iran is not building a nuclear bomb. If John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan could negotiate with the Soviet Union, then surely a strong and confident America can negotiate with less powerful adversaries today. (Applause.)

The sanctions that we put in place helped make this opportunity possible. But let me be clear: If this Congress sends me a new sanctions bill now that threatens to derail these talks, I will veto it. (Applause.) For the sake of our national security, we must give diplomacy a chance to succeed. (Applause.) If Iran’s leaders do not seize this opportunity, then I will be the first to call for more sanctions, and stand ready to exercise all options to make sure Iran does not build a nuclear weapon. But if Iran’s leaders do seize the chance -- and we’ll know soon enough -- then Iran could take an important step to rejoin the community of nations, and we will have resolved one of the leading security challenges of our time without the risks of war.

And, finally, let’s remember that our leadership is defined not just by our defense against threats, but by the enormous opportunities to do good and promote understanding around the globe –- to forge greater cooperation, to expand new markets, to free people from fear and want. And no one is better positioned to take advantage of those opportunities than America.

Our alliance with Europe remains the strongest the world has ever known. From Tunisia to Burma, we’re supporting those who are willing to do the hard work of building democracy. In Ukraine, we stand for the principle that all people have the right to express themselves freely and peacefully, and to have a say in their country’s future. Across Africa, we’re bringing together businesses and governments to double access to electricity and help end extreme poverty. In the Americas, we’re building new ties of commerce, but we’re also expanding cultural and educational exchanges among young people. And we will continue to focus on the Asia Pacific, where we support our allies, shape a future of greater security and prosperity, and extend a hand to those devastated by disaster –- as we did in the Philippines, when our Marines and civilians rushed to aid those battered by a typhoon, and who were greeted with words like, “We will never forget your kindness” and “God bless America.”

We do these things because they help promote our long-term security, and we do them because we believe in the inherent dignity and equality of every human being, regardless of race or religion, creed or sexual orientation. And next week, the world will see one expression of that commitment -– when Team USA marches the red, white, and blue into the Olympic Stadium, and brings home the gold. (Applause.)

AUDIENCE: USA! USA! USA!

THE PRESIDENT: My fellow Americans, no other country in the world does what we do. On every issue, the world turns to us, not simply because of the size of our economy or our military might, but because of the ideals we stand for and the burdens we bear to advance them. No one knows this better than those who serve in uniform.

As this time of war draws to a close, a new generation of heroes returns to civilian life. We’ll keep slashing that backlog so our veterans receive the benefits they’ve earned, and our wounded warriors receive the health care -– including the mental health care –- that they need. (Applause.) We’ll keep working to help all our veterans translate their skills and leadership into jobs here at home. And we will all continue to join forces to honor and support our remarkable military families.

Let me tell you about one of those families I’ve come to know. I first met Cory Remsburg, a proud Army Ranger, at Omaha Beach on the 65th anniversary of D-Day. Along with some of his fellow Rangers, he walked me through the program and the ceremony. He was a strong, impressive young man, had an easy manner, he was sharp as a tack. And we joked around and took pictures, and I told him to stay in touch.

A few months later, on his tenth deployment, Cory was nearly killed by a massive roadside bomb in Afghanistan. His comrades found him in a canal, face down, underwater, shrapnel in his brain. For months, he lay in a coma. And the next time I met him, in the hospital, he couldn’t speak, could barely move. Over the years, he’s endured dozens of surgeries and procedures, hours of grueling rehab every day.

Even now, Cory is still blind in one eye, still struggles on his left side. But slowly, steadily, with the support of caregivers like his dad, Craig, and the community around him, Cory has grown stronger. And, day by day, he’s learned to speak again and stand again and walk again. And he’s working toward the day when he can serve his country again. “My recovery has not been easy,” he says. “Nothing in life that’s worth anything is easy.”

Cory is here tonight. And like the Army he loves, like the America he serves, Sergeant First Class Cory Remsburg never gives up, and he does not quit. (Applause.)

My fellow Americans, men and women like Cory remind us that America has never come easy. Our freedom, our democracy, has never been easy. Sometimes we stumble, we make mistakes; we get frustrated or discouraged. But for more than 200 years, we have put those things aside and placed our collective shoulder to the wheel of progress -– to create and build and expand the possibilities of individual achievement; to free other nations from tyranny and fear; to promote justice, and fairness, and equality under the law so that the words set to paper by our founders are made real for every citizen. The America we want for our kids -- a rising America where honest work is plentiful and communities are strong; where prosperity is widely shared and opportunity for all lets us go as far as our dreams and toil will take us -- none of it is easy. But if we work together -- if we summon what is best in us, the way Cory summoned what is best in him, with our feet planted firmly in today but our eyes cast toward tomorrow -- I know it is within our reach. Believe it.

God bless you, and God bless the United States of America. (Applause.)


State of the Union January 24, 2014 - History

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How to Navigate the Interface

To move between State of the Union addresses, click or drag on the graph below the word cloud the president who delivered each address and the date of delivery will appear at the bottom of the screen and in the center. The current date will appear in white and the previous one in red.

You can also use the right and left arrow keys to move one year at a time.

The words from the previous address viewed will appear in red when your mouse is over the cloud window so you can compare them. Mouse out to make them fade into the background.

Click on a word to view the full State of the Union address in the window to the right the selected word will be highlighted.

Click below the graph or on a blank area of the word cloud to view the Wikipedia U.S. History Timeline describing events that happened in and around the year of the address.

Words automagically move to avoid overlapping. On mouseover, a line and dot indicate the original position (according to the data). To make the words move more, press the up arrow.

Use the search box to mine all the State of the Union addresses for occurrences of specific words (use quotes to search for phrases such as &ldquoUnited States&rdquo).

Icons below the Timeline indicate the distribution of the address:

State of the Union: April 28, 2021

President Biden will deliver his Address to a joint session of congress on April 28, 2021 (9pm EST).

Have access to the analysis as soon as its ready by signing up for the announcement email. Use this form.

You can make your own word to word comparisons of usage over time with the SotuGraph tool.

State of the Union (SOTU) provides access to the corpus of all the State of the Union addresses from 1790 to 2020. SOTU allows you to explore how specific words gain and lose prominence over time, and to link to information on the historical context for their use. SOTU focuses on the relationship between individual addresses as compared to the entire collection of addresses, highlighting what is different about the selected document. You are invited to try and understand from this information the connection between politics and language&ndashbetween the state we are in, and the language which names it and calls it into being.

The Words

SOTU maps the significant content of each State of the Union address so that users can appreciate its key terms and their relative importance.

The horizontal axis shows the average position of a word in the document. The vertical axis displays the word&rsquos relative frequency, determined by comparing how frequently the word occurs in the document to how frequently it appears throughout the entire body of SOTU addresses (see appendix for details).

Common words (&ldquoand,&rdquo &ldquothe,&rdquo etc.) and words that occur frequently in the entire corpus (&ldquostates&rdquo) are largely filtered out what remains are words that are especially characteristic of a given address. The size of the word indicates how many times it was used in the document. Click the word to view the full text of the address with the word highlighted. Rollover the word to get detailed frequency data.

The Data

The data underneath the map of significant words shows trends in the language of the State of the Union addresses. On the graph, white bars indicate the word length of each address. The red dots indicate readability as measured by the address&rsquos Flesch-Kincaid score, which is meant to suggest the grade level in an American school for which the text is comprehensible. The actual scores are displayed in the bottom right corner of the interface (for more information on Flesch-Kincaid, see the appendix).

The current corpus contains 235 documents. There are 1,797,507 words in the corpus, and 28,273 unique words.


ACCESS Hoosier State Chronicles!

Below is a list of freely-accessible, historic, digitized Indiana newspapers organized by place of publication. These titles are available through various websites [noted in brackets after the title: e.g. HSC=Hoosier State Chronicles].

Bloomington

  • Bloomington Courier (1881-95, 242 issues) [HSC] (1902-1907) [Newspaper Archive via Indiana State Library]
  • Bloomington Daily Telephone(1932 only) [HSC]
  • Bloomington News-Letter(1855-56) [IU-Bloomington]
  • Bloomington Post(144 issues, 1835-39) [HSC]
  • Bloomington Progress (also called Republican Progress) (1869-1900) [HSC]
  • Bloomington republican. (4 issues, 1827) [HSC]
  • Bloomington Telephone(also called Weekly Telephone and Semi-Weekly Telephone) (1879-93) [HSC>
  • The Bloomington Hawkeye (1881, 7 issues) [HSC]
  • [Brookville/Indianapolis]Indiana American(1833-57) [HSC]
  • Brookville American(1858-1860) [HSC]
  • [Brookville]Indiana American(1865-71) [HSC]
  • Brookville Democrat(1896-1955) [via INSPIRE]
  • Brookville inquirer. (one issue 1824) [HSC]
  • Brookville Inquirer. (21 issues, 1824, 1833) [HSC]
  • The plain dealer. (2 issues, 1816) [HSC]
  • Franklin repository. (10 issues 1826-28) [HSC]

Cambridge City

  • Cambridge Reveille (1847 Incorrectly Identified as 1817) [Google]
  • Cambridge City Tribune (1869-81, 1883-1906, 1908-10) [Google]
  • National Road Traveler (1940-52, 1962 [Google]
  • Western Mirror (1866-67) [Google]
  • Western Wayne News (2005) [Google]

Centerville

Charlestown

    (1941-1964) [via INSPIRE]
  • Clark County Democrat (1 issue, 1863) [HSC]
  • The Indiana intelligencer. [a few issues titled Indiana Intelligencer and farmer’s friend] (54 issues, 1821-25) [HSC]
  • Southern Indianian(1 issue, 1845) [HSC]
    [HSC]
  • Columbus Bulletin(3 scattered issues, 1868 – 1870) [HSC]
  • Columbus Gazette (1 issue, 1846) [HSC]
  • Columbus Herald(2 scattered issues, 1896 – 1910) [HSC]
  • Columbus Republican(3 scattered issues, 1872 – 1874) [HSC]
  • Columbus Weekly News(1 issue, 1861) [HSC]
  • Columbus Weekly Union(2 scattered issues, 1867-1869) also published as Indiana Dollar Weekly [HSC]
  • The Daily Evening Democrat (1 issue, 1880) [HSC]
  • Monroe’s Legal Tender Issue (1876, 7 issues) [HSC]

College Corner

Columbia City

Connersville

  • Corydon press, and anti-Masonic Democrat. (7 issues, 1830) [HSC]
  • The Indiana gazette. (63 issues, 1821-26) [HSC] (also published in Bloomington)
  • Harrison gazette. (one issue, 1845) [HSC]

Crawfordsville

  • Crawfordsville Record (105 issues, 1834-1836) [HSC]
  • Crawfordsville Star(1872-89, 1892-98) [Google]
  • The [Crawfordsville] Star (1904) [Google]
  • The [Crawfordsville] Sunday Star (1898-99, 1901-03) [Google]
  • Daily Argus News(1886-1900) [Google]
  • Weekly Argus News(1890-1900) [Google]
  • Daily News-Review(1900-1903) [Google]
  • Weekly News-Review(1901-1907) [Google] (1853-1899) [HSC]
  • Crawfordsville Review(1911-20, 1923-28) [Google]
  • Weekly Review (1907-1910) [Google]
  • Crawfordsville Daily Journal (1890-1894) [HSC] (1853-1902) [HSC]

Dale (Spencer County)

  • The Butcher Knife ( 22 issues, 1857) [HSC] (52 issues, 1881 – 1898) [HSC]
  • Hendricks County Republican (235 issues, 1879-1907) [HSC]
  • Hendricks County Union(26 issues, 1865 – 1874) [HSC] (3 issues, 1883) [HSC]
  • Evansville Argus(269 issues, 1938-1943) [HSC courtesy of University of Southern Indiana]
  • Evansville Message(548 issues, 1987-1998) [SmallTown Papers]
  • Evansville Press (1906-1919 1927) [via INSPIRE]
  • Evansville Journal [various title variations and publication frequencies] (1848-1862) [HSC]
    (1864-1899) [via INSPIRE] (1874-1923) [via INSPIRE] (1873-1923) [via INSPIRE] (1895-1903) [via INSPIRE] (1890-1899) [via INSPIRE] (1875-1917) [via INSPIRE] (1870-1923) [via INSPIRE] [Allen County Public Library via NewspaperArchive.com]
    (1912-1963) [via INSPIRE]
  • Franklin Daily Herald(68 issues, 1880-85) [HSC]
  • Franklin Daily News(1 issue, 1894) [HSC]
  • Franklin Repository(10 issues, 1826-28) [HSC] (6 issues, 1884) [HSC]
  • Franklin Jacksonian(3 issues, 1883-85) [HSC]

Greencastle

    (1,425 issues, 1853-1903) [HSC]
  • Daily Greencastle Banner and Times (1290 issues, 1890-1897) [HSC]
  • Weekly Greencastle Banner and Times (384 issues, 1890-1897) [HSC] (10,649 issues, 1900-1968) [HSC]
  • Banner Graphic(563 issues, 1973-1974) [HSC]
  • Greencastle Democrat (254 issues, 1892-1903) [HSC] (5,039 issues, 1907-1931) [HSC] (312 issues, 1913-1921) [HSC]
  • Indiana Press (52 issues, 1858-1865) [HSC]
  • Greencastle Star (102 issues, 1880-1881) [HSC]
  • Greencastle Star Press (249 issues, 1882-1896) [HSC]
  • Star-Democrat (332 issues, 1906-1913) [HSC]
  • Greencastle Times (323 issues, 1884-1890) [HSC] (58 issues, 1933-1934) [HSC]
  • Greencastle Daily Sun(56 issues, 1890)
  • Western Plough Boy(1 issue, 1837) [HSC] (71 issues, 1896) [HSC]
  • The DePauwuniversity newspaper (1932-present) [PALNI CONTENTdm]

Hanover/South Hanover

Indianapolis

  • Fiery Cross(1922-24, 104 issues)
  • [Indianapolis] Freeman (1888-1915) [via Google]
  • Free Soil Banner. (10 issues, 1848) [HSC, courtesy Indianapolis Public Library Digital Collections]
  • Hoosier Patron (9 issues, 1877) [HSC] (1851-1917) [via Purdue University]
  • Indiana Socialist (1913, 15 issues) [HSC]
  • Indiana Socialist Party Bulletin (1911-13, 3 issues) [HSC]
  • The Bulletin(Socialist Party Bulletin, 1920, 27 issues) [HSC]
  • Indianapolis Journal(1872-73, 1887-97, 1899-1904) [HSC]
  • Indianapolis Leader(1879-1882) [HSC]
  • Indianapolis Locomotive(202 issues, 1845-1858) [HSC]
  • Indianapolis News(1869-1902, 1917-20) [HSC]
  • Indianapolis Recorder(2814 issues, 1899-1916, 1926-2005) [HSC]
  • Indianapolis Recorder(2006-2014) [via IUPUI]
  • Indiana Sentinel, various title variations and publication frequencies (1841-1894) [HSC]
  • Daily State Sentinel (4063 issues, 1851-59, 1862-1865, 1868-69)
  • Indianapolis Daily Herald (1865-68) Sentinel changed the name of its daily edition to the Herald for these three years)
  • Indianapolis Sentinel (1885) [daily]
  • Indiana State Sentinel (1841-1852) [weekly]
  • Indiana State Sentinel (1845-1849) [semi-weekly & tri-weekly]
  • Weekly Indiana State Sentinel(1855-56, 1861)
  • Indiana State Sentinel (1861-1864) [weekly]
  • Indiana State Sentinel (1874-1894) [weekly] (1903-22) [free access to Indianapolis Marion County Public Library cardholders only via ProQuest use your IMCPL library card to log-in] (1991-Present) [Free access via Indiana State Library]
  • IndianaState gazette. (31 issues, 1829-30) [HSC]
  • Indiana State Guard(also called The Old Line Guard) (1860-61) [HSC] (1920-1952) [HSC]
  • Jewish Post and Opinion (1933-2005) [HSC]
  • Semi-Weekly Journal(1840-41) [HSC]
  • Täglicher Telegraph (1865-67, 1870-1907) [via Google]
  • Indiana Tribüne (1878-1907, 8307 issues) [HSC]
  • Western censor, & emigrants guide. (3 issues, 1823) [HSC]

Indianapolis college and high school newspapers

  • The Attucks News (1956-57) and Tiger Topics(1960s-80s) (Crispus Attucks High School newspapers) [via IUPUI]
  • The Butler Collegian(1886- ) (Deaf-Mute Journal, Silent Hoosier, Hoosier) (1887- ) [via IUPUI]
  • Marian University’s Phoenix[via Marian University]

Kendallville

Knightstown

Kokomo & Howard County

  • Greentown Gem(scattered 1898-1935) [Indiana Memory]
  • Greentown Grapevine(1994-2010) [Indiana Memory]
  • Other Kokomo newspapers are accessible through Howard County, Indiana Memory Project

Lawrenceburg & Dearborn County

  • Dearborn County Register(1842) [HSC]
  • Indiana palladium. (575 issues, 1825-1836) [HSC] (13 issues, 1824-1825) [HSC]
  • Indiana Whig(1834, 1844, 8 issues) [HSC] (50 issues, 1837-1845) [HSC] (182 issues, 1830-1834) [HSC]

Leavenworth

  • Liberty Express(scattered 1916-1921) [HSC]
  • Liberty Herald (14 scattered issues, 1854-1919) Union Herald and Union County Herald> [HSC]
  • Liberty gazette. (one issue, 1827) [HSC]
    (1 issue, 1879) [HSC]
  • Logansport Pharos-Tribune(1890-2006) [via INSPIRE]
  • Potawattimie & Miami times. (13 issues, 1829-31) [HSC]
  • Logansport Republican and Indiana herald. (13 issues, 1833) [HSC]
  • Cass County times. (57 issues 1831-33) [HSC]
    (1978-2009) [Google]
  • Madison Daily Courier (1849-50, 308 issues) [HSC]
  • Madison Daily Times (1 issue, 1859) [HSC] (185 issues, 1817-1820) [HSC] (4 issues, 1833-34) [HSC]
  • Western clarion. (26 issues, 1822) [HSC]
  • Western Eagle (45 issues, 1813-1816) [HSC]
  • Labor Sentinel (30 issues (also published as the Economic Intelligencer), 1914) [HSC]
  • The Marion Socialist(1911-12, 7 issues) [HSC]
  • Freedom’s Banner (1910, 7 issues, also a Socialist paper) [HSC]

Monon (White County)

    ( Easterner , Ball StateDaily News , and the Ball StateNews [via Ball State University]
  • Daily Muncie News(1879-80) [Google]
  • Muncie Daily News(1880-92) [Google]
  • Muncie News(1892-93) [Google]
  • [Muncie] Sunday Morning News (1895-96) [Google]
  • Muncie Morning News(1898-1901) [Google]
  • Muncie Post-Democrat(1921-1950) [HSC]
  • Muncie Times (1991-2011) [HSC]
    (1898) [HSC] (1890-1918) [HSC]
  • The Daily Evening Democrat(1898) [HSC]
  • Hickory Withe (1856-1857) [HSC] (1869) [HSC]
  • The Jacksonian (1873, 1882-1883) [HSC] (1862-1863) [HSC]
    (one issue, 1828)[HSC]
  • Indiana recorder and public advertiser. (2 issues, 1827) [HSC]
  • Microscope and general advertiser. (2 issues, 1824) [HSC]
  • New Albany chronicle. (7 issues, 1821) [HSC]
  • New Albany Daily Ledger (1858, 2 issues) [HSC]

New Harmony

New Garden (Wayne County)

New Richmond

Noblesville

North Manchester

  • Plymouth Journal(November 1844) [HSC]
  • Plymouth Pilot(1851-52) [HSC]
  • Plymouth Banner(1853-1855) [HSC]
  • Plymouth Weekly Banner(1855-56) [HSC]
  • Marshall County Republican(1856-1878) [HSC]
  • Plymouth Republican(1878-1901) [HSC]
  • Plymouth Tribune(1901-1911) [HSC]
  • Weekly Republican(1911-12) [HSC]
  • Marshall County Democrat(1855-1859) [HSC]
  • Plymouth Weekly Democrat(1860-69) [HSC]
  • Plymouth Democrat(76 issues, 1869-1870, scattered issues from 1873, 1875, 1876, 1878) [HSC]
  • Marshall County Independent(1894-1895) [HSC]
  • Semi-Weekly Independent(1895-1896) [HSC]
  • Marshall County Independent(1897-1901) [HSC]
  • Public leger. (175 issues, 1824-28) [HSC]
  • Richmond weekly intelligencer. (28 Issues, 1822) [HSC] (5214 Issues, 1877-1923) [HSC] (1429 Issues, 1831-1890) [HSC]
  • Hoosier Patriot (4 issues, 1852) [HSC]
  • Indiana Democrat(1 issues, 1858) [HSC]
  • Indiana Oasis(2 issues, 1878) [HSC]
  • Neutral Pennant (9 issues, 1853-54) [HSC]
  • Rising Sun Times (139 issues, 198 issues) [HSC]
  • Weekly News (27 issues, 1854) [HSC]
  • Rochester Evening Sentinel(1899-1901, 1903-04, 1906-11) [Google]
  • Rochester News-Sentinel(scattered 1925-27, 1929-60) [Google]
  • Rochester Sentinel(scattered 1858, 1862-65, 1870-71, 1873-83, 1887-89, 1893-99, 1902, 1911-24) [Google]
  • Rockville intelligencer.(one issue, 1837) [HSC]
  • Olive branch.(one issue, 1840) [HSC]
  • Parke County Whig.(4 issues, 1848-51) [HSC]
  • The Parke County Democrat.(one issue, 1864) [HSC]
  • Wabash herald.(46 issues, 1831-32) [HSC]

Royal Center (Cass County)

    Annotator. (18 issues, 1828-34) [HSC]
  • Indiana times. (one issue, 1830) [HSC]
  • The Indiana farmer. (17 issues, 1822-26) [HSC]
  • The tocsin. (2 issues, 1820) [HSC]
  • Indiana Monitor(1 issue, 1837) [HSC]
  • Indiana Phoenix (9 issues, 1831-1832) [HSC] (1 issue, 1845) [HSC] (1 issue, 1841) [HSC]
  • Salem Whig (1 issue, 1840) [HSC]

Shelbyville

  • South Bend News-Times (1913-1922) [HSC]
  • Reformer (1967-1971) [St. Joseph County Public Library, Michiana Memory]
  • Various University of Notre Dame student newspapers are accessible via University of Notre Dame Digital Collections.

Terre Haute

  • American [HSC]
    • Terre-Haute Daily American(5 May 1855-29 May 1855)
    • Daily American (30 May 1855-13 September 1855)
      (1842-1861) [HSC]
  • Daily Wabash Express(1861-1890) [HSC]
    • Terre Haute Daily Gazette (1870-1872) [HSC] (1872-76) [HSC] (1873-1887)
    • Terre Haute Journal(9 scattered issues, 1858 & 1876) (148 issues, 1850-1854)
    • Tipton County Argus(7 issues, 1858) [HSC] [from the Tipton County Public Library via NewspaperArchive.com]
    • Western Dominion(1857, 1 issue) [HSC]
      (2 issues, 1824) [HSC] (16 issues, 1817-1825) [HSC] (1853-1855) [HSC] (199 issues, 1857-1860) [HSC] (4 issues, 1827) [HSC] (1840) [HSC] (also titled Weekly Messenger and Vevay Sentinel, 261 issues, 1831-1837) [HSC]
      (33 issues, 1822-1823) [HSC]
    • Indiana centinel. [also titled Indiana centinel & public advertiser] (106 issues, 1819-21) [HSC] (15 issues, 1804-1806) [HSC]
    • Vincennes Gazette (also published as Vincennes Saturday Gazette 563 issues, 1830-1845) [HSC]
    • Wabash Telegraph(20 issues, 1827-1828) [HSC] . (881 issues, 1817-34) [HSC]
    • The Western sun. (418 issues, 1807-1817) [HSC] , various titles (1884-1955) [Advantage Companies]

    Warren (Huntington County)

    • Northern Indianian(1856-58, 1862-65, 1867-69, 1879-84, 1895-1902, 1905-1919 [Google]
    • Weekly Northern Indianian(1870-78) [Google]
    • Daily Indianian(1881-82) [Google]
    • Warsaw Weekly Republican(1880-82) [Google]
    • Indianian-Republican (1882-94) [Google]
    • Inter-Mountain (1886-87) [Google]
    • Warsaw Daily Times(1882-95, 1897-1924, 1942-45, 1947-49) [Google]
    • Warsaw Daily Times and Northern Indianian(1919-1925) [Google]
    • Warsaw Daily Times and the Northern Indianian (May 1921-August 1921) [Google]
    • Warsaw Union /Kosciusko Union (1905-28, 1930-35, 1940-41) [Google]
    • Kosciusko Union(1915-16) [Google]
    • Warsaw Daily Union(1904-15) [Google]
    • Warsaw Times-Union(1949-71, 1977) [Google]
    • Times-Union(1963, 1970, 1972-2009) [Google]

    West Lafayette

    • Randolph County Journal(1857-61) [HSC]
    • Randolph Journal(1862) [HSC]
    • Winchester Journal(1862-63) [HSC]
    • Randolph County Journal(1864-65) [HSC]
    • Randolph Journal(1866-67) [HSC]
    • Winchester Journal(1870) [HSC]

    Other Free Digitized Newspaper Sites

    You can access 36 Indiana titles and over 200,000 pages of historic Indiana newspapers for free at Chronicling America from the Library of Congress. You can also view nearly 10 MILLION newspaper pages from across the country!

    Elephind.com is a fast-growing newspaper search site that searches across newspaper digitization projects that use Veridian software. You can find newspapers from 13 states as well as Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore!

    Still can’t find what you seek?

    If you cannot find a digitized newspaper for the Indiana community you are interested in you may want to visit the Indiana State Library in person. The State Library has the world’s largest collection of Indiana newspapers on microfilm. You can access ISL’s microfilm holdings guide here. You can also freely access two newspaper databases at the Indiana State Library: NewspaperArchive.com and ProQuest Indianapolis Star (1991-present).

    If you cannot visit the State Library in person, you may also find the Indiana newspaper titles you are interested in at three pay sites: Newspapers.com, NewspaperArchive.com, and NewsBank’s GenealogyBank.

    Other digital newspaper services, including a clipping service, are available from the Hoosier State Press Association.


    The (Not) State of the Union: Why Joe Biden's speech is not officially the annual address

    From immigration to criminal justice reform, take a look into U.S. President Joe Biden's first 100 days in office. USA TODAY

    Wednesday night will mark the first time President Joe Biden speaks in front of both houses of Congress as he approaches his 100th day in office.

    While Biden's speech on the Congress floor will seem like the State of the Union, it actually is not.

    The practice of addressing a joint session of Congress comes straight from Article II, Section 3 of the United States Constitution, which states the president, "shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient."

    The annual address is typically delivered by the president in late January or early February, with the last one given by former President Donald Trump on Feb. 4, 2020.

    Since the inauguration of former President Ronald Reagan in 1981, presidents have not delivered the State of the Union the year they left office or were inaugurated, primarily because a president can't really speak about the state of the country just a few weeks in office.

    At 100 days (and after a lifetime in politics): The surprising presidency of Joe Biden

    That same year is when the new tradition began where the new president addressed Congress without the State of the Union title, like Trump's “Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress" in 2017.

    Biden's address comes a few months into his term due to COVID-19 precautions, and only after he accepted an invitation from Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi on April 13. Wednesday's speech allows Biden to speak on the progress of his administration in his first nearly 100 days in office.

    There will be other differences only a few special guests are invited to the address and some members of Congress and the Supreme Court will not be present or seated in the House gallery due to social distancing guidelines. The event will also be designated as a National Special Security Event in wake of the attack on the Capitol on Jan. 6.


    RELEVANT DATA AND ANALYSIS

    U.S. Supreme Court Standard

    • Starting with its ruling in Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court has consistently held that states may not ban abortion at a specific gestation, but they are permitted to place certain restrictions on abortion after the point of viability.
    • In Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Supreme Court affirmed that bans after viability must include exceptions to protect the life and health of the woman. 2,3
      • Courts have voided the limitations enacted by states because they do not contain a health exception, contain an unacceptably narrow health exception or do not permit a physician to determine viability case by case, instead imposing a rigid definition based on specific weeks of gestation or trimester. 2
      • Restrictions on previability abortion must not act as a substantial impediment to obtaining an abortion when restrictions are challenged, a judge must weigh their impact on women seeking abortion against any potential benefit. 3

      Unproven Claims of Fetal Pain and Survival of Extremely Preterm Infants

      Proponents of abortion bans at 20 weeks postfertilization (which is equivalent to 22 weeks after a woman’s last menstrual period) base their argument on the assertion that a fetus can feel pain at this point in development. 4

      • According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), available evidence indicates that a fetus cannot perceive pain until the “third trimester at the earliest, well past the period between 20 weeks and viability.” 5
      • A 2005 comprehensive literature review by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco concluded that “fetal perception of pain is unlikely before the third trimester.” 6
        • A fetus cannot experience pain until after viability and lacks the brain structures and connections necessary to process pain. A fetus develops cortical function (“required for conscious perception of pain”) at 29–30 weeks, during the third trimester. 6,7
        • Although a fetus may recoil from stimuli, this reaction does not mean that a fetus feels pain. This reaction “can be elicited by nonpainful stimuli and occur without conscious cortical processing.” Anesthetics are provided during fetal surgery to reduce movement or prevent a hormonal stress response—not to address pain.
        • Pain is subjective. Without a psychological understanding of pain and the consciousness to know that stimuli are unpleasant, a fetus cannot experience pain.

        Barriers to Obtaining Later Abortion Procedures

        • Women seeking an abortion after 12 weeks of pregnancy typically experience more logistical delays—including difficulties locating a provider, raising funds for the procedure and for transportation costs, and obtaining or confirming health insurance coverage—than women who obtain a first-trimester abortion. 8
        • In 2012, only 34% of all facilities that provided abortion in the United States offered the procedure at 20 weeks’ gestation 16% did so at 24 weeks. 9
        • Hospitals are more likely than other types of facilities to offer abortions at 20 weeks’ gestation and beyond. In 2012, two-thirds of hospitals that performed abortion did so at 20 weeks, compared with 36% of abortion clinics. 11 However, abortion care at hospitals is not widely available (accounting for fewer than 5% of all abortion procedures across the country in 2011) and can be very expensive, further compounding the barriers experienced by women seeking care later in pregnancy.

        Other Factors That Result in Later Abortions

        Delays push women who want to obtain an abortion until further along in the pregnancy than intended. Multiple factors in a patient’s life, along with state laws requiring a waiting period and additional visits, can make it more difficult for patients to access abortion services earlier in pregnancy.

        • Fifty-eight percent of abortion patients in a 2004 survey reported that they would have preferred to have obtained their abortion earlier than they did. 10

        The intersecting aspects of an individual’s identity—such as race, socioeconomic status, gender, age, education, state of residence, and rural or urban location—play a role in how barriers to health care affect the ability to obtain abortion services.

        • According to an analysis of a national sample of women who obtained abortions in 2014, women with less education, black women and women who had experienced multiple disruptive life events (such as unemployment or separation from a partner) in the past year were more likely than others to have had an abortion at or beyond 13 weeks’ gestation. 11
        • Women who lived at least 50 miles away from an abortion facility were more likely than those who lived less than 25 miles away to seek a second-trimester abortion. 11
        • In addition, only 25% of women who lived in states that require an in-person counseling visit before an abortion procedure obtained an abortion within seven weeks after their last menstrual period, compared with 40% of women who lived in states without a waiting period. 11

        Need for Abortion Access at All Stages of Pregnancy

        • Although most abortions take place early in pregnancy, 11% of women who obtain an abortion do so after the first trimester (at 13 weeks after the last menstrual period or later), and slightly more than 1% of abortions are performed at 21 weeks or later. 12
        • Women sometimes choose to terminate a pregnancy because of fetal medical conditions or because the pregnancy poses a threat to their health these diagnoses can be received throughout pregnancy. 13
        • In 2008–2010, women denied an abortion because they were past the gestational limit under state law or clinical practice felt more regret and anger and less relief and happiness compared with women who obtained an abortion close to the gestational limit at the same clinic. 14

        Interference with the Patient-Provider Relationship

        Banning certain abortion methods interferes with the provider-patient relationship.

        • Medical providers have the knowledge and skills necessary to assess patients and determine which medical procedures are safest and most appropriate. ACOG’s abortion policy statement supports patients’ agency in making medical decisions “in consultation with their health care providers and without undue interference by outside parties.” 15
        • In its 2007 decision in Gonzales v. Carhart, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 and set a major jurisprudential precedent by allowing legislators to prohibit health care professionals from using a safe medical technique. 16,17
          • The term “partial-birth abortion” is not a defined procedure recognized by leading medical groups, including ACOG. Nevertheless, the Court found the federal law’s definition sufficient to be constitutional and allowed the law to be used to ban a specific method that had been used in some later abortion procedures.
          • The federal law does not include a health exception.
          • D&E is a safe and routine method of abortion used after 12 weeks’ gestation: It accounts for 95% of abortions after the first trimester. 13
          • Proposed and enacted legislation describes D&E in medically inaccurate terms designed to portray abortion as dangerous. Yet in those states where the D&E procedure is banned, one consequence is that providers may be forced to induce fetal demise or labor in order to comply with the law, adding unnecessary risk without any medical benefit to the patient. 13,19
          • D&E bans disproportionately impact women who receive diagnoses of fetal anomalies or maternal health complications because many such diagnoses do not take place until the second trimester. 13

          February 2014

          27-28 February: Pro-Russian gunmen seize key buildings in the Crimean capital, Simferopol. Unidentified gunmen in combat uniforms appear outside Crimea's main airports.

          • Parliament votes to ban Russian as the second official language, causing a wave of anger in Russian-speaking regions the vote is later overturned
          • Parliament names speaker Olexander Turchynov as interim president
          • An arrest warrant is issued for Mr Yanukovych
          • Arseniy Yatsenyuk is nominated prime minister.
          • The elite Berkut police unit, blamed for deaths of protesters, is disbanded
          • President Yanukovych disappears
          • Protesters take control of presidential administration buildings
          • Parliament votes to remove president from power with elections set for 25 May
          • Mr Yanukovych appears on TV to denounce "coup"
          • His arch-rival Yulia Tymoshenko is freed from jail

          21 February: President Yanukovych signs compromise deal with opposition leaders.

          20 February: Kiev sees its worst day of violence for almost 70 years. At least 88 people are killed in 48 hours. Video shows uniformed snipers firing at protesters holding makeshift shields.

          18 February: Clashes erupt, with reasons unclear: 18 dead.

          14-16 February: All 234 protesters arrested since December are released. Kiev city hall, occupied since 1 December, is abandoned by demonstrators, along with other public buildings in regions.


          Alabama, County Marriages, 1809-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — This collection of marriage records for Alabama counties includes: a) indexed records with images b) indexed records without images and c) images which can be browsed but do not have searchable indexes. The indexed records without images display a message “Image is Unavailable” when you attempt to view the image. The browse records are grouped by film number / digital film number (DGS). Each film is arranged by county, volume and date. Currently this collection is 41% indexed. Images will only be available for 84% of this collection when it is complete. Digital images and indexes will be added as they become available.”– There are 2,310,900 Records and 1,231,203 Images as of 21 July 2015 up 718,870 Records and 223,694 Images since 9 April 2015.

          Alabama, Marriages, 1816-1957 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Alabama. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,412,065 Records as of 21 July 2015.

          Arizona, County Marriages, 1871-1964 — Browsable Images — Images of county marriage records acquired from county courthouses. This collection does not include Coconino, Navajo and Yuma counties. – There are 354,145 Images as of 21 April 2015.

          Arizona, Marriages, 1865-1949 — Searchable Index — Index to marriage records from the state of Arizona. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 75,014 Records as of 21 November 2013.

          Arkansas Divorce Index, 1923-1939 — Searchable Index — Index of divorces from the Arkansas Genealogical Society. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 107,965 Records as of 7 March 2012.

          Arkansas Marriage Index, 1933-1939 — Searchable Index — Index of marriages from the Arkansas Vital Records Division, Arkansas Department of Health. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 421,079 Records as of 23 January 2012.

          Arkansas Marriages, 1837-1944 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Arkansas. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,001,777 Records as of 3 March 2012.

          Arkansas, County Marriages, 1837-1957 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and images of marriages recorded in counties of Arkansas. There may be related records included with marriage records. Once an image of a marriage record is located, browse through preceding and following images to check for related records. This project was indexed in partnership with the Arkansas Genealogical Society.– There are 1,869,736 Records and 1,033,184 Images as of 27 January 2012.

          California, County Marriages, 1850-1952 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index of marriage records including a number of different type of documents such as licenses, certificates, registers, applications, affidavits, stubs, etc. Currently this collection is 99% complete. Additional records will be added as they are completed. Not all indexed names will have a viewable record image due to contractual agreements.– There are 1,911,081 Records and 2,480,495 Images as of 12 May 2014 up 227628 images since 20 December 2012.

          California, Divorce Index, 1966-1984 — Searchable Index — Index of divorces from the California Department of Health Services in Sacramento. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 3,518,813 Records as of 7 March 2012.

          California, Oakland, Alameda County, Newspaper Record Collection, 1985-2011 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and images of card file indexes created from local newspapers. The card files for 1985-2002, 2003-2006 and 1986-2011 are located at the Oakland Family History Center. The collection includes, obituaries wedding announcements, anniversaries, birth announcements. The obituaries are mixed with biographical news stories. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 46,907 Records and 74,691 Images as of 9 January 2015.

          California, Marriage Index, 1960-1985 — Searchable Index — Index of marriages from the California Department of Health Services in Sacramento. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 487,251 Records as of 6 December 2011.

          California, Marriages, 1850-1945 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of California. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 43,491 Records as of 8 March 2012.

          California, San Francisco County Records, 1824-1997 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Records from San Francisco County, California including an alphabetical newspaper clipping file of the “San Francisco Examiner”, death reports, general index, indexes to deeds, deeds, indexes to marriage certificates, marriage licenses, indexes to naturalizations, naturalization records, coroner’s records, and alien registrations. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 60,253 Records and 1,036,854 Images as of 2 September 2015.

          California, San Mateo County Records, 1851-1991 — Browsable Images — County records including marriage intentions, naturalizations, deeds, patents, homesteads, and military service discharges. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 1,594,995 Images as of 26 April 2013.

          Colorado Statewide Divorce Index, 1900-1939 — Browsable Images — Colorado Department of Health card index of divorces in Colorado from 1900-1939. The index is arranged in alphabetical order.– There are 82,674 Images as of 3 January 2013.

          Colorado Statewide Marriage Index, 1853-2006 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of card index created by the Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Health in Colorado. The index is arranged alphabetically by groom’s name providing county, names of husband and wife, age, race, date and place of marriage, certificate number. Some cards are out of order.– There are 452,357 Records and 454,881 Images as of 9 September 2013.

          Colorado, County Marriages, 1864-1995 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Images of county marriages from Clear Creek, Fremont, Kit Carson, Logan, Moffat, Phillips, Saguache, Sedgwick, Washington, and Yuma counties.– There are 129,976 Records and 49,690 Images as of 15 October 2015 up 129,976 Records since 14 June 2012.

          Connecticut, Divorce Index, 1968-1997 — Searchable Index — Index of divorces from the Connecticut Department of Public Health in Hartford. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 322,012 Records as of 7 March 2012.

          Connecticut, Marriage Index, 1959-2001 — Searchable Index — Index of marriages from the Connecticut Department of Public Health in Hartford. Index provided by Ancestry.com– There are 1,005,746 Records as of 14 November 2011.

          Connecticut, Marriages, 1729-1867 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Connecticut. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 453,475 Records as of 3 March 2012.

          Delaware Deaths and Burials, 1815-1955 — Searchable Index — Name index to death and burial records from the state of Delaware. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. This set contains 1,653 records. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,653 Records as of 9 December 2010.

          Delaware Marriage Records, 1913-1954 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of Delaware statewide marriage records. The certificates are arranged by year then by certificate number.– There are 112,894 Records and 127,218 Images as of 12 October 2012.

          Delaware Marriages, 1713-1919 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Delaware. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 4,424 Records as of 16 December 2014.

          Delaware Marriages and Marriage Licenses, 1713-1894 — Searchable Index — Index to selected church marriages and marriage licenses. We do not have rights to publish the images associated with these records. – There are 5,490 Records as of 29 December 2014.

          Delaware Vital Record Index Cards, 1680-1934 — Browsable Images — Images of card indexes from the Delaware State Archives Hall of Records in Dover, Delaware.– There are 134,797 Images as of 23 January 2012.

          Delaware Vital Records, 1680-1971 — Browsable Images — A collection of various vital records from the Delaware Public Archives. The collection includes birth, marriage, death, bible, and cemetery records spanning various year ranges.– There are 624,395 Records and 1,974,520 Images as of 25 June 2015 up 624,395 Records images since 24 April 2014.

          Delaware, Wilmington Vital Records, 1847-1954 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Images of birth, marriage, and death records from Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware. Includes some indexes. The birth records end in the year 1919.– There are 207,577 Records and 25,875 Images as of 9 September 2015 up 297,577 Records since 12 October 2012.

          District of Columbia Marriages, 1811-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of marriage records in the District of Columbia. Currently this collection is 87% complete. Additional records will be added as they are completed.– There are 605,303 Records and 375,218 Images as of 3 June 2015 up 61,386 Images since 14 May 2014.

          District of Columbia, Marriages, 1830-1921 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the District of Columbia. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 239,999 Records as of 3 March 2012.

          Florida, Divorce Index, 1927-2001 — Searchable Index — Index of divorces from the Florida Department of Health in Jacksonville. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 3,012,178 Records as of 28 February 2012.

          Florida, Marriage Index, 1822-1875 and 1927-2001 — Searchable Index — Index of marriages from the Florida Department of Health in Jacksonville. Index provided by Ancestry.com– There are 11,718,373 Records as of 13 January 2012.

          Florida, Marriages, 1830-1993 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images to Florida marriage records. – There are 1,774,682 Records and 1,308,358 Images as of 1 July 2015 up 190,891 Records and 54,877 Images since 24 September 2014.

          Florida, Marriages, 1837-1974 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Florida. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 859,969 Records as of 24 March 2012.

          Georgia, County Marriages, 1785-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and digital images of marriages recorded in Georgia counties. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 683,052 Records and 238,921 Images as of 17 August 2015 up 63,393 Images since 12 March 2013.

          Georgia, Elbert County Records, 1790-2002 — Browsable Images —Collection of digital images of marriage, court, land, school and other records from Elbert County. – There are 63,290 Images as of 18 June 2014.

          Georgia, Hall County Marriages, 1950-2005 — Browsable Images — Images of marriages licenses acquired in Gainesville. – There are 28,533 Images as of 18 September 2014.

          Georgia, Marriages, 1808-1967 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Georgia. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,069,456 Records as of 12 March 2013.

          Hawaii, Marriages, 1826-1922 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Hawaii. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 101,136 Records as of 3 March 2012.

          Idaho, Bonneville County Records, 1867-2012 — Browsable Images — Marriages, military discharges and land and property records located in the county recorder’s office in Idaho Falls.– There are 123,122 Images as of 28 March 2014.

          Idaho, Butte County Records, 1882-1970 — Browsable Images —Land, marriage, and probate records from the county courthouse in Arco. – There are 23,226 Images as of 18 June 2014.

          Idaho, Clark County Records, 1884-1998 — Browsable Images — Clark County marriage affidavits, naturalization records, declarations of intention, deeds, patents, brands and marks, mining records, probate records, and estate files located at the Clark County courthouse. Time period varies by record type. Additional records will be added to this collection as they become available.– There are 19,976 Images as of 2 November 2012.

          Idaho, County Marriages, 1864-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of Idaho county marriages acquired from local courthouses. Also includes records for the towns of Ashton and Marysville. Bannock County marriages are not currently apart of this collection. Currently the collection includes the following counties: Ada, Adams, Benewah, Blaine, Bonner, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark, Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Idaho, Jefferson, Jerome, Kootenai, Latah, Lemhi, Lewis, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Nez Perce, Oneida, Payette, Power, Shoshone, Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, and Washington.– There are 148,053 Records and 62,274 Images as of 19 June 2014 up 39,405 Images since 2 January 2014.

          Idaho, Divorce Index, 1947-1961 — Searchable Index — Index to divorces created by the Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics. Covering divorces filed between May 1, 1947 and December 31, 1961.– There are 38,625 Records as of 20 November 2012.

          Idaho, Gem County Records, 1877-1962 — Browsable Images — Images of homestead patents, deeds, marriage licenses, naturalizations and probate records from the county clerk and recorder’s office in Emmett.– There are 45,542 Images as of 20 November 2012.

          Idaho, Gooding County Records, 1879-1962 — Browsable Images — Land, naturalization, marriage, military, school and probate records from the Clerk of the District Court in Gooding. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 52,108 Images as of 18 June 2014.

          Idaho, Marriage Index, 1947-1961 — Searchable Index — Index to marriages created by the Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics. Covering marriages filed between May 1, 1947 and December 31, 1961.– There are 131,597 Records as of 20 November 2012.

          Idaho, Marriages, 1878-1898 1903-1942 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Idaho. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 85,190 Records as of 3 March 2012.

          Illinois Marriages, 1815-1935 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Illinois. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 636,536 Records as of 8 March 2012.

          Illinois, Chicago, Catholic Church Records, 1833-1925 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Images of catholic church records from the Bishop of Chicago. Some indexes go beyond 1925.– There are 107,678 Records and 295,723 Images as of 27 May 2014 up 107,678 records since 12 April 2013.

          Illinois, Cook County Marriages, 1871-1920 — Searchable Index — Name index of marriage licenses and returns recorded at Cook County, Illinois – including the City of Chicago.– There are 865,669 Records as of 31 March 2012.

          Illinois, County Marriages, 1810-1934 — Searchable Index — Name indexes and images of county marriages from the state of Illinois. Currently this collection is 63% complete. Additional records will be added as they are completed.– There are 1,533,245 Records as of 9 October 2015 up 2,858 Records since 25 June 2015.

          Illinois, Diocese of Belleville, Catholic Parish Records, 1729-1956 — Browsable Images — Images of parish registers recording the events of baptism, first communion, confirmation (to 1907), marriage (to 1930) or death (to 1956) in the Diocese of Belleville (Illinois), Roman Catholic Church. The index to some volumes may reference pages within a given volume beyond our current publication dates. As such, these images are not currently available. In addition to traditional parish registers, this collection includes a small number of census, church history, family and financial records.– There are 34,135 Images as of 24 March 2010.

          Indiana, Marriages, 1780-1992 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Indiana. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,008,158 Records as of 3 March 2012.

          Indiana, Marriages, 1811-2007 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Indexed in partnership with the Indiana Genealogical Society. Name index of marriages recorded in the Indiana Territory and in the state of Indiana between 1811 and 1959. This collection includes searchable index data for marriage records from all Indiana counties except Howard, Johnson, and Montgomery. This is an ongoing project, so additional records will be added as indexing is completed. New images are being added as they become available. Images of some marriage records included in the index cannot be viewed online due to various contract restrictions. In instances where digital images are not available, microfilm copies of the original records are available at the Family History Library and through family history centers. – There are 3,287,619 Records and 1,242,528 1,183,405 Images as of 8 May 2015 up 59,123 Images since 29 January 2015.

          Iowa, County Marriages, 1838-1934 — Searchable Index — Name indexes for county marriages in Iowa. Currently, portions of the following counties are represented in this collection: Adair, Appanoose, Audubon, Boone, Buchanan, Calhoun, Clarke, Clinton, Crawford, Davis, Decatur, Des Moines, Dickinson, Dubuque, Franklin, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Harrison, Henry, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Jones, Keokuk, Lee, Louisa, Lucas, Madison, Mahaska, Marshall, Mitchell, Monroe, Muscatine, Plymouth, Shelby, Tama, Van Buren, Webster, Winneshiek, Wright. Currently this collection is 86% complete. Additional records will be added as they are completed.– There are 2,204,797 Records as of 15 October 2015 up 35,637 Records since 21 March 2014.

          Iowa, Marriages, 1809-1992 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Iowa. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,320,389 Records as of 13 September 2012.

          Kansas, County Marriages, 1855-1911 — Browsable Images — Images of marriage registers and records made by county clerks in Kansas. Includes the following counties: Allen, Anderson, Bourbon, Brown, Chase, Chautauqua, Cherokee, Clay, Coffey, Crawford, Doniphan, Douglas, Elk, Franklin, Geary, Greenwood, Harvey, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Labette, Linn, Marshall, McPherson, Miami, Montgomery, Morris, Nemaha, Neosho, Osage, Pottawatomie, Riley, Saline, Sedgwick, Wabaunsee, Washington, Wilson, and Woodson.– There are 151,823 Images as of 31 August 2011.

          Kansas, Marriages, 1840-1935 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Kansas. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 286,775 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          Kentucky Marriages, 1785-1979 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Kentucky. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,532,533 Records as of 21 March 2012.

          Kentucky, County Marriages, 1797-1954 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Marriage records created by Kentucky counties. Records include bonds, license, certificates, and returns.– There are 515,304 Records and 1,084,403 Images as of 15 October 2014 up 331,212 Records since 4 September 2014.

          Kentucky Vital Record Indexes, 1911-1999 — Searchable Index — Indexes of births, marriages, and deaths from January 1911 to July 1999. These indexes were created by the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives from data files obtained from the Office of Vital Statistics. – There are 9,865,944 Records as of 1 July 2015.

          Louisiana, Marriages, 1816-1906 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Louisiana. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 133,814 Records as of 0 January 1900.

          Louisiana, Orleans Parish Vital Records, 1910, 1960 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — This collection includes birth records and index for 1910. It also includes marriage and death records and indexes for 1960. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 17,605 Records and 20,713 19,330 Images as of 25 September 2015 up 17,605 Records and 1,383 since 6 December 2011.

          Louisiana, Parish Marriages, 1837-1957 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Marriages recorded in Louisiana Parishes (counties). Currently this collection is 17% complete. Additional records will be added as they are completed.– There are 1,060,742 Records and 54,003 Images as of 15 October 2015 up 1,023,241Records since 21 December 2011.

          Maine, Marriage Index, 1892-1966, 1977-1996 — Searchable Index — Marriage index, 1892-1996, by the Maine Department of Human Services from the Maine State Archives This index does not have data for 1967-1976.– There are 857,131 Records as of 0 January 1900.

          Maine, Marriages, 1771-1907 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Maine. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 597,621 Records as of 0 January 1900.

          Maine, Vital Records, 1670-1907 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of birth, marriage and death returns acquired from the State Board of Health, Division of Vital Statistics and the state archives. Records are organized alphabetically, then chronologically within a name. The collection is divided into three parts, Vital Records Prior to 1892, 80 towns, Vital Records, 1892-1907, and Delayed returns for births, deaths, and marriages, 1670-1891. – There are 1,404,391 Records and 1,831,788 Images as of 11 March 2015 up 4826 Images since 11 August 2014.

          Maryland, Marriages, 1666-1970 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Maryland. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 256,134 Records as of 5 March 2012.

          Massachusetts, Marriages, 1695-1910 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Massachusetts. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,969,244 Records as of 21 March 2012.

          Massachusetts, Marriages, 1841-1915 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of Massachusetts statewide marriage registers. The marriage registers are in numbered volumes arranged by year then by individual town.– There are 1,538,139 Records and 108,296 Images as of 27 July 2015 up 8,533 Images since 28 Mar 2014.

          Massachusetts, Springfield Vital Records, 1638-1887 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and images of vital records recorded by the town clerk of Springfield.– There are 68,176 Records and 3,331 Images as of 14 April 2011.

          Massachusetts, State Vital Records, 1841-1920 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Massachusetts births, marriages and deaths, 1916-1920 and state amendments to vital records, 1841-1920 located at the state archives in Boston. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 755,766 Records and 742,594 Images as of 27 September 2013.

          Massachusetts, Town Clerk, Vital and Town Records, 1626-2001 — Browsable Images — Vital and town records acquired from local town clerk offices. Some entries contain birth dates earlier than their date of recording. Additional images and indexed records will be published as they become available. Some of these records have been indexed and are searchable. – There are 16,142 Records and 1,962,488 Images as of 26 June 2015 up 16,142 Records and 254,908 Images since 26 June 2015.

          Michigan, County Marriages, 1820-1935 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Images of marriage registers and certificates from county records. This collection does not include the following counties: Alger, Alpena, Barry, Eaton, Gladwin, Kalkaska, Kent, Lenawee, Missaukee, Monroe, Montmorency, Oceana, Oscoda, Schoolcraft, and Shiawassee.– There are 371,310 Records and 292,064 Images as of 3 January 2012.

          Michigan, Marriages, 1822-1995 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Michigan. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,908,148 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          Michigan, Marriages, 1868-1925 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of marriages recorded in the State of Michigan between 1868 and 1925. In some instances, marriages were celebrated and recorded in a county different from the county where the marriage license was issued.– There are 1,533,863 Records and 116,995 Images as of 26 February 2013 up 49,063 images since 9 May 2014 .

          Minnesota, County Marriages, 1860-1949 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of county marriage records for Minnesota. Currently the following counties are represented in this collection: Anoka, Blue Earth, Brown, Carver, Cottonwood, Dodge, Faribault, Fillmore, Freeborn, Goodhue, Hennepin, Kanabec. – There are 404,879 Records and 585,021 Images as of 28 May 2014 up 122,410 records since 25 March 2014.

          Missouri, County Marriage, Naturalization, and Court Records, 1802-1969 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and digital images of microfilmed marriage records from Missouri counties including recorded marriages, marriage applications, licenses, and certificates. This collection includes records from the microfilm collections of FamilySearch and of the Missouri State Archives in Jefferson City, Missouri. This project is being published as images and index data become available. – There are 158,956 Records and 1,612,846 Images as of 24 September 2014.

          Minnesota, Divorce Index, 1970-1995 — Searchable Index — Index of divorces from the Minnesota Department of Health in St. Paul. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 366,350 Records as of 7 March 2012.

          Minnesota, Marriage Index, 1958-2001 — Searchable Index — Index of marriages from the Minnesota Department of Health and the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics, Office of the State Registrar in St. Paul. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 2,414,039 Records as of 19 September 2012.

          Minnesota, Marriages, 1849-1950 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Minnesota. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 443,743 Records as of 28 May 2014.

          Mississippi, Marriages, 1800-1911 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Mississippi. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 411,408 Records as of 8 March 2012.

          Mississippi, Tippah County Marriages, 1858-1979 — Browsable Images — Collection of marriages recorded by the Probate Court and the Circuit Court in Tippah County, Mississippi, 1858-1950. The records were filmed at the county courthouse in Ripley, Mississippi. To find out more, please visit the wiki or browse the collection. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 17,039 Images as of 5 July 2011.

          Missouri, Cole County Circuit Court Case Files, 1820-1927 — Browsable Images — Digital images of case files primarily regarding disputed estates and divorces. – There are 185,934 Images as of 16 September 2014.

          Missouri, County Marriage, Naturalization, and Court Records, 1800-1991 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Digital images of records created in Missouri counties including recorded marriages, marriage applications, licenses, and certificates, naturalizations and other court records. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 515,186 Records and 2,512,894 Images as of 30 September 2015 up 356230 Records and 5,386 Images since 1 May 2015.

          Missouri, Marriages, 1750-1920 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Missouri. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 473,531 Records as of 8 March 2012.

          Montana, Big Horn County Records, 1884-2011 — Searchable Index & Browsable Images — Deeds, homesteads, probate, naturalization and vital records located at the county clerk/recorder’s and clerk of court’s offices in Hardin. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 59,997 Records and 73,081 Images as of 27 February 2015 up 8,231 Records since 28 August 2014.

          Montana, Chouteau County Records,1876-2011 — Browsable Images — Images of Chouteau County records held at various repositories. Records located in the Museum of the Northern Plains (River and Plains Society) include voter registers, school district records, St. Paul’s Episcopal Church records, Riverside Cemetery records and newspapers clippings of births, marriages and deaths. Records held by the Chouteau County Courthouse include birth, death, probate, naturalization, deeds and school census records. This collection is being published as image become available.– There are 241,430 Images as of 0 January 1900.

          Montana, County Marriages, 1865-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of Montana county marriage records acquired from local courthouses.– There are 338,104 Records and 207,644 Images as of 17 June 2011.

          Montana, Granite County Records, 1865-2009 — Browsable Images — Images of probate, land and property, naturalization, divorce and vital records from the County Clerk’s Office in Philipsburg. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 108,688 Images as of 8 September 2015.

          Montana, Lake County Records, 1857-2010 — Searchable Index & Browsable Images — Deeds, school census, mining, vital records, probate, and divorce records located at the county courthouse in Polson. This collection is being published as images become available. Birth and Death records indexed. – There are 35,202 Records and 101,948 Images as of 18 November 2014 up 11,217 Records since 18 September 2014.

          Montana, Judith Basin County Records, 1887-2012 — Searchable Index & Browsable Images — Images of birth, death, marriage, naturalization, and probate records from the county clerk/recorder’s and clerk of court offices in Stanford.This collection is being published as images become available. The birth and death certificates are being indexed first. – There are 2,491 Records and 24,372 Images as of 27 February 2015 up 633 Records since 11 September 2014.

          Montana, Marriages, 1889-1947 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Montana. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 20,784 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          Montana, Rosebud County Records — Browsable Images — Land records, vital records, voter lists and probate case files located at Rosebud County courthouse, Forsyth, Montana. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 97,864 Images as of 12 July 2011.

          Montana, Sanders County Records, 1866-2010 — Searchable Index & Browsable Images — Images of county birth, death, marriage, veteran burials, voter, naturalization, land and probate records located in the county courthouse in Thompson Falls. This collection is being published as images become available. The death certificates have been indexed. – There are 6,943 Records and 55,148 Images as of 6 April 2015 up 1,527 Records since 18 November 2014.

          Montana, Teton County Records, 1881-2012 — Browsable Images — Images of vital records, naturalization index, land index and probate records from the clerk of court, clerk and recorder offices in Choteau. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 11,394 Records and 117,351 Images as of 28 September 2015 up 11,394 Records from 9 April 2014.

          Montana, Yellowstone County Records, 1881-2011 — Browsable Images — Images of vital, probate, deeds and discharge records from the county courthouse in Billings. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 124,478 Images as of 29 November 2012.

          Nebraska, Marriages, 1855-1995 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Nebraska. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 142,224 Records as of 15 April 2013.

          Nevada, County Marriages, 1862-1993 — Browsable Images — Images of county marriages from Carson City, Clark, Douglas, Elko, Esmeralda, Eureka, Humboldt, Lander, Lincoln, Lyon, Mineral, Nye, Pershing, Storey, and White Pine counties. Coverage varies between counties.– There are 123,409 Images as of 20 June 2012.

          Nevada, Marriage Index, 1956-2005 — Searchable Index — Index of marriages from the Nevada State Health Division, Office of Vital Records. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 5,069,679 Records as of 6 November 2013.

          New Hampshire Marriage Certificates, 1948-1959 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and images of New Hampshire marriage records. These records consist of cards giving the names of the bride and groom with the town and date of the marriage and often much more information. With the town and date, the original records can usually be located. Note – there are two images for each marriage.– There are 96,665 Records and 96,581 Images as of 15 October 2015.

          New Hampshire, Marriage Records, 1637-1947 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and images of New Hampshire marriage records. These records consist of cards giving the names of the bride and groom with the town and date of the marriage and often much more information. With the town and date, the original records can usually be located. Note – there are two images for each marriage.– There are 501,128 Records and 1,020,845 Images as of 25 February 2011.

          New Hampshire, Marriages, 1720-1920 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of New Hampshire. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 442,376 Records as of 21 March 2012.

          New Hampshire, Town Clerk, Vital and Town Records, 1636-1947 — Browsable Images — Vital and town records acquired from local town clerk offices.– There are 402,443 Images as of 6 November 2012.

          New Jersey, County Marriages, 1682-1956 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index of county marriage records for New Jersey. Currently this collection is 100% complete. Due to contract restrictions some images from the following counties may not be available for view: Atlantic, Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland, Gloucester, Middlesex, Monmouth, Passaic, Salem, Somerset, Union, and Warren.– There are 300,071 Records and 90,538 Images as of 14 May 2014 up 33,799 images since 2 April 2012.

          New Jersey, Marriages, 1678-1985 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of New Jersey. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 802,437 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          New Mexico, County Marriages, 1885-1954 — Browsable Images — Images of county marriage records acquired from the state archives and county courthouses. This collection consists of records for the following counties: Sandoval, Socorro, and Valencia.– There are 21,708 Images as of 10 April 2013.

          New Mexico, Marriages, 1751-1918 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of New Mexico. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 93,308 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          New York, Buffalo, St. Paul’s Episcopal Church Records, 1812-1970 — Browsable Images — Images of baptisms, confirmations, marriages, and burials from St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Buffalo, New York. Only burial records go beyond the 1950s. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 3,240 Images as of 4 December 2012.

          New York, County Marriages, 1847-1848 1908-1936 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of New York county marriage records. New York state began requiring marriage records for each county in 1908. The collection includes the following counties: Allegany, Broome, Cattaraugus, Cayuga, Chautauqua, Chemung, Chenango, Clinton, Columbia, Delaware, Essex, Fulton, Genesee, Greene, Hamilton, Jefferson, Lewis, Livingston, Madison, Monroe, Montgomery, Nassau, Niagara, Oneida, Ontario, Orange, Orleans, Oswego, Otsego, Putnam, Rockland, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schuyler, Seneca, St. Lawrence, Steuben, Sullivan, Tioga, Tompkins, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Westchester, Wyoming, and Yates. The collection does not include New York City nor its boroughs. Only part of this set of images is currently Indexed. Indexing of the remaining images is in process and will be added as it is completed. – There are 1,111,266 Records and 955,515 Images as of 15 October 2015 up 474,679 Records since 23 April 2015.

          New York, Frank S. Rowland Church Register, 1889-1917 — Browsable Images — Digital images of a church register kept by Frank S. Rowland (1859-1917), Methodist (Episcopal) minister. Reverend Rowland served congregations in Hornellsville, Hartsville, Rochester, Buffalo, and Olean, New York Detroit, Michigan and Winona, Minnesota. The register contains marriages and burials.– There are 97 Images as of 11 January 2013.

          New York, Marriages, 1686-1980 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of New York. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 768,885 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          New York, New York City, Church of the Transfiguration Records, 1847-1938 — Browsable Images — Marriage records and index cards from an Episcopal Church in Manhattan. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 79,398 Images as of 22 January 2014.

          New York, New York City Marriage Records, 1866-1938 — Searchable Index — Index to marriage records from New York City including Manhattan, Brooklyn, Bronx, Queens, and Richmond boroughs.– There are 1,740,063 Records as of 20 March 2015.

          New York, New York City, Saint Peter’s Lutheran Church Records, 1862-1955 — Browsable Images — Digital images of baptism, marriage, and burial records from Saint Peter’s Lutheran Church in New York City. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 3,561 Images as of 13 September 2011.

          New York, Yates County, Swann Vital Records Collection, 1723-2009 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of the Swann Vital Records Collection from the Yates County Genealogical and Historical Society in Penn Yan, New York. A collection of compiled genealogy, newspaper clippings, bible pages, and family records. The Society named the collection after Frank L. Swann (1894-1987) who was the Yates County Historian from 1956 to 1980. Additional indexed records will be published as they become available.– There are 97,772 Records and 87,588 Images as of 10 September 2015 up 15,328 records since 6 June 2014.

          North Carolina, County Marriages, 1762-1979 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of marriage records from North Carolina county courthouses. These records include licenses, marriage applications, marriage bonds, marriage certificates, marriage packets and cohabitation registers. Currently, portions of the following counties are represented in this collection: Alamance, Alexander, Anson, Ashe, Beaufort, Bladen, Buncombe, Cabarrus, Caldwell, Camden, Carteret, Caswell, Catawba, Chatham, Cherokee, Chowan, Cleveland, Columbus, Craven, Cumberland, Currituck, Dare, Davidson, Davie, Duplin, Durham, Edgecombe, Forsyth, Franklin, Gaston, Gates, Granville, Halifax, Hanover, Hyde, Johnston, Lincoln, Macon, McDowell, Mecklenburg, Montgomery, Northampton, Pitt, Richmond, Rowan, Surry, Wilkes. This collection is 46% complete. Additional records will be added as they are completed.– There are 1,838,985 Records and 889,672 Images as of 16 October 2015 up 794,839 Records and 423,328 Images since 12 May 2014.

          North Carolina, Davidson County Vital Records, 1867-1984 — Browsable Images — Images of death records and marriage licenses recorded in Davidson County, North Carolina. Some of the individual volumes include an index and there are comprehensive indexes to some of the records.– There are 79,128 Images as of 12 October 2012.

          North Carolina, Marriages, 1759-1979 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of North Carolina. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 2,128,230 Records as of 21 March 2012.

          Ohio, Cleveland, Trinity Lutheran Church Records, 1853-2013 — Browsable Images — This collection contains church records from the Trinity Lutheran Church in Cleveland, Ohio and includes baptisms, marriages, deaths, burials, communions, congregational registers and other miscellaneous records. – There are 1,702 Images as of 15 June 2013.

          Ohio, County Marriages, 1789-2013 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of county marriage records acquired from local courthouses. Currently this collection is 79% complete. Additional records will be added as they are completed.– There are 4,616,425 Records and 1,582,333 Images as of 15 October 2015 up 79,936 Records and 19,171 Images since 20 March 2015.

          Ohio, Crawford County Church Records, 1853-2007 — Browsable Images — Baptism, marriage, and burial records from churches in North Robinson, Ohio. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 695 Images as of 7 November 2014.

          Ohio, Diocese of Toledo, Catholic Parish Records, 1796-2004 — Browsable Images — Images of parish registers recording the events of baptism, first communion, confirmation, marriage, and death in the Diocese of Toledo (Ohio), Roman Catholic Church. In addition to traditional parish registers, this collection includes miscellaneous cemetery records, Books of the Elect, Professions of Faith, Sick Call registers, etc.– There are 101,982 Images as of 24 March 2010.

          Ohio, Geauga County Records, 1860-1970 — Browsable Images — Digital images of marriages, naturalization, probates, deeds from the Geauga County Archives and Records Center. This collection is being published as images become available. There are 24,059 Images as of 12 November 2014.

          Ohio, Hamilton County Records, 1791-1994 — Browsable Images — Court records from the County Recorder and the Probate Court in Cincinnati, Ohio. The collection includes land records, military records, naturalization records, probate records, and vital records This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 1,566,282 Images as of 13 November 2014 up 640 Images since September 2014.

          Ohio, Marriages, 1800-1958 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Ohio. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 2,198,987 Records as of 21 March 2012.

          Ohio, Trumbull County Records, 1795-2010 — Browsable Images — Various records from the courthouse in Warren, Ohio. This collection is being published as images become available. Includes marriage and naturalization records – There are 666,927 Images as of 24 October 2014.

          Ohio, Washington County Court Records, 1810-1930 — Browsable Images — Digital images of court records filmed at the Washington County Court of Common Pleas in Marietta, Ohio. The collection includes records from several courts including the District Court, Chancery Court, Supreme Court, and the Court of Common Pleas. – There are 84,948 Images as of 14 November 2014.

          Oklahoma Marriages, 1870-1930 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Oklahoma. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 9,655 Records as of 8 March 2012.

          Oklahoma, County Marriages, 1890-1995 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and images of marriage records from counties in Oklahoma. Currently this collection is 47% complete. Additional records by county will be added as they are completed.– There are 1,063,286 Records and 345,859 Images as of 16 October 2015 up 49,517 Records since 3 December 2014.

          Oregon, County Marriages, 1851-1975 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Index and images of marriage records from counties in Oregon. These records include licenses amd marriage certificates and are arranged by county, volume, and date. Currently this collection is 49% complete. Additional records will be added as they are completed. – There are 163,484 Records and 105,700 Images as of 14 October 2014 up 58,983 Records and 62,285 Images since 9 December 2011.

          Oregon, Deschute County Records, 1871-1985 — Browsable Images — Digital images of county records filmed at the county courthouse in Bend, Oregon. The collection includes marriage, probate and land records and is being published as images become available. – There are 110,521 Images as of 14 October 2014.

          Oregon, Douglas County Records, 1791-1994 — Browsable Images — This collection includes deed records and indexes, 1852-1920. It also includes marriage records and indexes from 1913-1952. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 515,750 Images as of 27 August 2014.

          Oregon, Marriages, 1853-1935 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Oregon. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 28,780 Records as of 2 October 2014.

          Oregon, Tillamook County Records, 1854-1967 — Browsable Images — Images of Tillamook County records including marriages and land and property records.– There are 64,546 Images as of 18 June 2014.

          Pennsylvania Civil Marriages, 1677-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — This collection includes civil marriage records created in Pennsylvania counties. The records include registers, affidavits and marriage licenses. In some instances, divorce records are recorded with marriages.– There are 241,745 Records and 1,117,101 Images as of 15 October 2015.

          Pennsylvania, County Marriages, 1885-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — This collection includes civil marriage records created in Pennsylvania counties. The records include registers, affidavits and marriage licenses. In some instances, divorce records are recorded with marriages.– There are 2,246,248 Records and 1,900,516 Images as of 15 May 2014 up 13,566 images since 30 January 2014.

          Pennsylvania, Marriages, 1709-1940 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Pennsylvania. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 476,245 Records as of 8 March 2012.

          Pennsylvania, Obituary and Marriage Collection, 1977-2010 — Browsable Images — Newspaper clippings collected by the Old Buncombe County, North Carolina Genealogical Society. – There are 122,063 Images as of 11 April 2014.

          Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Marriage Indexes, 1885-1951 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Marriage indexes are arranged by the names of brides and grooms with the year of the marriage and the license number. The surname of the spouse is shown in parentheses. Use the license numbers listed in this index to find copies of the marriage license records. Marriage license records for years 1885-1915 are available on microfilm at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Marriage license records for years 1916-1951 are available at the City Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.– There are 1,830,468 Records and 25,846 Images as of 27 March 2010.

          Rhode Island, Marriages, 1724-1916 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Rhode Island. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 209,502 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          South Carolina Marriages, 1709-1913 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of South Carolina. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 4,154 Records as of 8 March 2012.

          South Dakota, Department of Health, Index to Births 1843-1914 and Marriages 1950-2014 — Searchable Index — Indexes provided by the South Dakota Department of Health. – There are 693,053 Records as of 2 September 2015.

          Tennessee, Cocke County Records, 1860-1930 — Browsable Images — This collection includes marriage records, 1870-1929 wills, 1860-1929 and chancery court records, 1860-1930. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 95,979 Images as of 4 November 2014 up 3,659 Images since 6 December 2013.

          Tennessee, County Marriages, 1790-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name indexes and images of Tennessee county marriages from 1790 through 1950 acquired from local courthouses. This collection contains searchable index data and images for marriage registers, marriage licenses, marriage bonds, and marriage certificates. Currently this collection is 21% complete. Additional records by county will be added as they are completed. Some images may not be viewable due to contract restrictions.– There are 4,599,297 4,590,990 Records and 2,953,561 Images as of 15 October 2015 up 8,307 Records since 26 June 2015.

          Tennessee, Marriages, 1796-1950 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Tennessee. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,674,368 Records as of 21 March 2012.

          Tennessee, Putnam County Marriages, 1930-1961 — Browsable Images — This collection includes digital images marriage records from Putnam County which were filmed at the Tennessee State Archives. This collection is being published as images are available.– There are 3,620 Images as of 6 December 2013.

          Tennessee, State Marriage Index, 1780-2002 — Searchable Index — Index of marriages from the Tennessee State Library and Archives. Index provided by Ancestry.com– There are 3,331,398 Records as of 10 January 2012.

          Texas, County Marriage Index, 1837-1977 — Searchable Index — Index to a variety of marriage records (registers, licenses, intentions to marry, etc.) from select counties in Texas. – There are 1,677,801 Records as of 31 August 2015.

          Texas, County Marriage Records, 1837-1977 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Collection of various types of marriage records (registers, licenses, intentions to marry, etc.) from 183 of the 254 counties in Texas. – There are 1,854,339 Records and 538,510 Images as of 24 March 2015 up 399,834 Records and 464,964 Records since 24 March 2015.

          Texas, Divorce Index, 1968-2010 — Searchable Index — This collection contains indexes of Divorce Decrees and Annulments to Marriage submitted to district courts throughout the state of Texas. The indexes were prepared by the Vital Statistics Unit of the Department of State Health Services and have been published on the Department’s website.– There are 3,599,300 Records as of 5 June 2012.

          Texas, Marriages, 1837-1973 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Texas. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,695,783Records as of 10 August 2015.

          Texas, Marriages, 1966-2010 — Searchable Index — This collection contains indexes of marriage license applications from all counties in the state of Texas. The indexes were prepared by the Vital Statistics Unit of the Department of State Health Services and have been published on the Department’s website.– There are 7,606,159 Records as of 5 June 2012.

          Texas, Mills County Clerk Records, 1841-1985 — Browsable Images — Records of the Mills County Clerk including births, marriages, deaths, court records, deed records, divorce records, naturalization records, probate records, and indexes for each of these record sets. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 153,275 Images as of 3 February 2014.

          Texas, Swisher County Records, 1879-2012 — Browsable Images — Images of county records for Swisher County, Texas. Records include vital records, military discharges, probate records, deed records, marks and brands, court records and civil case files from the county and district courts. It is being published as images become available. – There are 93,603Images as of 18 June 2014.

          United States Freedmen’s Bureau Marriages, 1815-1869 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — These records consist of unbound marriage certificates, marriage licenses, monthly reports of marriages and other proofs of marriages. The records are part of the records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, part of National Archives Record Group 105 and were compiled from 1861 through 1872. Includes records from the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. NARA publication: M1875: Marriage records of the Office of the Commissioner, Washington Headquarters of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1861-1869 and M1913: Records of the field offices for the state of Virginia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1872 (only marriages).– There are 7,796 Records and 2,965 Images as of 25 August 2010.

          United States Marriages, 1733-1990 — Searchable Index — Name index to small sets of marriage records from a few states within the United States. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 9,880 Records as of 30 March 2012.

          Utah, County Marriages, 1887-1937 — Searchable Index — Name index of marriage records from local county courthouses. The records consist of bound volumes, applications, licenses, certificates, etc. This collection is currenlty 71% complete and more records will be added as they are completed.– There are 398,852 Records as of 16 July 2012.

          Utah, Davis County Records, 1869-1953 — Browsable Images — Images of naturalization, birth, deaths, land and cemetery records from the county courthouse in Farmington. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 40,381 Images as of 17 January 2014.

          Utah, Marriages, 1887-1966 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Utah. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 245,379 Records as of 11 July 2012.

          Utah, Uintah County Marriage Records, 1888-2015 — Browsable Images —Images of marriage applications and certificates located in the county courthouse in Vernal. – There are 8,687 Images as of 15 June 2015.

          Utah, Utah County Records, 1850-1962 — Browsable Images — Images of naturalization, land and vital records located at the Utah County Records Center in Spanish Fork. This collection is being published as images become available. – There are 105,474 Images as of 14 November 2014 up 5,474 Images since 23 May 2014.

          Utah, Weber County Marriages, 1887-1939 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images —Images of marriage applications, licenses and certificates located at the Weber County Courthouse in Ogden. – There are 94,859 Records and 94,722 Images as of 28 September 2015 up 94,859 Records and 2,098 Images since 21 November 2014.

          Vermont, Marriages, 1791-1974 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Vermont. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 15,363 Records as of 7 March 2012.

          Vermont, Town Clerk, Vital and Town Records, 1732-2005 — Browsable Images — Vital and town records acquired from local town clerk offices.– There are 1,386,297 Images as of 24 June 2015 up 458,533 Images since 21 June 2012.

          Vermont, Town Records, 1850-2005 — Browsable Images — Images of Vermont vital records from various counties and towns. Currently includes only records from the following counties: Bennington, Caledonia, Chittenden, Essex, Franklin, Grand Isle, Lamoille, Orange, Orleans, and Washington.– There are 75,597 Images as of 12 September 2011.

          Vermont, Vital Records, 1760-1954 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images (index cards) of town clerk transcriptions of births, marriages and deaths, 1760-1954. This collection is complete for years 1871-1908.– There are 2,327,930 Records and 3,087,354 Images as of 6 January 2014.

          Vermont, Vital Records, 1760-2003 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images from microfilm of births, marriages and deaths. This collection includes images for the years 1955-2003. The records for 1955-1979 are arranged alphabetically. Index and images courtesy of Ancestry.com and the Vermont State Archives.– There are 1,974,197 Records and 1,162,117 Images as of 10 June 2013.

          Virginia, Isle of Wight County Records, 1634-1951 — Browsable Images — Images from original records at the Circuit Court in Isle of Wight, Virginia. Records include marriages, guardianship, military lists, court orders, dockets, bonds, fees, and judgments. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 110,540 Images as of 4 November 2014 up 115 Images since 17 June 2014.

          Virginia, Marriages, 1785-1940 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Virginia. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 1,219,044 Records as of 30 April 2012.

          Virginia, Orange County Marriage Records, 1757-1938 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Name index and images of marriage registers for Orange County, Virginia, 1757-1938– There are 11,823 Records and 922 Images as of 30 April 2012.

          Virginia, Surry County Marriage Records, 1735-1950 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Various marriage records for Surry County, Virginia. Records include certificates to obtain a marriage license, marriage bonds and consents, marriage licenses, and marriage returns. All records are from the Register of Deeds Office, Surry, Virginia.– There are 18,329 Records and 19,782 Images as of 26 October 2012.

          Washington, County Divorce Records, 1852-1950 — Browsable Images — This collection includes digital images of divorce records from the civil courts in Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Thurston and Wahkiakum counties. It also includes divorce records from Washington Territory from the years 1854-1871.– There are 127,147 Images as of 24 September 2012.

          Washington, County Marriages, 1855-2008 — Searchable Index and Browsable Images — Images and partial index of marriage records from Washington counties. The index includes marriage records for Clallam, Lewis, Pacific, Snohomish, Thurston, and Wahkiakum Counties. Images for both indexed and non-indexed counties are available in the browse. Additional records from other counties will be added to this collection as they become available.– There are 376,989 48,385 Records and 812,604 804,984 Images as of 15 October 2015 up 328,604 Records and 7,620 Images since 29 January 2015.

          Washington, Pierce County Marriage Returns, 1891-1950 — Browsable Images — This collection includes marriage records recorded in Pierce County, Washington. This collection is being published as images become available.– There are 13,521 Images as of 4 November 2014 up 732 Images since 30 August 2012.

          West Virginia Marriages, 1780-1970 — Searchable Index — Name index of West Virginia county marriage records. Data is searchable for all counties. However, records within each county may not be available for the full year range.– There are 1,504,135 Records as of 23 January 2014.

          West Virginia Marriages, 1854-1932 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of West Virginia. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 200,367 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          Wisconsin, Divorce Index, 1965-1984 — Searchable Index — Index of divorces from the Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services. Index provided by Ancestry.com.– There are 231,499 Records as of 7 March 2012.

          Wisconsin, Marriage Index, 1973-1997 — Searchable Index — Index of marriages from the Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services in Madison. Index provided by Ancestry.com– There are 948,961 Records as of 9 February 2012.

          Wisconsin, County Marriages, 1836-1911 — Searchable Index — Index to marriage records in Wisconsin. The record content varies by county. Names are being published as they become available. We do not have rights to publish the images. – There are 213,905 Records as of 3 August 2015.

          Wisconsin, Marriages, 1836-1930 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Wisconsin. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and FamilySearch Centers. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later.– There are 734,522 Records as of 31 July 2015.

          Wyoming, Marriages, 1877-1920 — Searchable Index — Name index to marriage records from the state of Wyoming. Microfilm copies of these records are available at the Family History Library and Family History Centers. This set contains 14,070 records. Due to privacy laws, recent records may not be displayed. The year range represents most of the records. A few records may be earlier or later. – There are 13,941 Records as of 4 March 2012.

          To view the complete listing of all items currently posted in the FamilySearch Historical Records Collections, Click here.


          Commonwealth of Independent States

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          Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Russian Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, free association of sovereign states that was formed in 1991 by Russia and 11 other republics that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) had its origins on December 8, 1991, when the elected leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus (Belorussia) signed an agreement forming a new association to replace the crumbling Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.). The three Slavic republics were subsequently joined by the Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, by the Transcaucasian republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, and by Moldova. (The remaining former Soviet republics— Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—declined to join the new organization.) The CIS formally came into being on December 21, 1991, and began operations the following month, with the city of Minsk in Belarus designated as its administrative centre.

          The CIS’s functions are to coordinate its members’ policies regarding their economies, foreign relations, defense, immigration policies, environmental protection, and law enforcement. Its top governmental body is a council composed of the member republics’ heads of state (i.e., presidents) and of government (prime ministers), who are assisted by committees of republic cabinet ministers in key areas such as economics and defense. The CIS’s members pledged to keep both their armed forces and the former Soviet nuclear weapons stationed on their territories under a single unified command. In practice this proved difficult, however, as did the members’ efforts to coordinate the introduction of market-type mechanisms and private ownership into their respective economies.

          In August 2008, following an escalation of hostilities between Russia and Georgia over the separatist region of South Ossetia, Georgia announced its intention to withdraw from the CIS. The withdrawal was finalized in August 2009. A similar proxy war broke out in eastern Ukraine in 2014 after Russia’s illegal annexation of the Ukrainian autonomous republic of Crimea. By 2018 at least 10,000 people had been killed in clashes between Ukrainian armed forces and Russian-backed paramilitary units in the Donets Basin. In May of that year, Ukrainian Pres. Petro Poroshenko officially withdrew Ukraine’s membership from the CIS.

          The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.


          Civil War: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

          "The matter of publishing the official records of the Civil War seems to have been considered by Congress as early as May 19, 1864 (Stat. L. v. 13, p. 406)." Other acts followed from time to time, and the work was carried on in a more or less desultory fashion until December 14, 1877, when Captain Robert N. Scott, later lieutenant-colonel, was detailed to take charge of the work. At that time, 47 of the 79 volumes, later known as "preliminary prints" (W45.9:) had been compiled and 30 copies of each had been printed.

          Under Colonel Scott, the work was systematized and the plan finally adopted which has been carried on throughout the entire set know as the Official records. According to this plan, 4 series were issued as follows:

          Series 1 Formal reports, both Union and Confederate, of the first seizures of United States property in the Southern States, and of all military operations in the field, with the correspondence, orders, and returns relating especially thereto. Series 2 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns, Union and Confederate, relating to prisoners of war and, so far as the military authorities were concerned, to state or political prisoners. Series 3 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns of the Union authorities, embracing their correspondence with the Confederate officials, not relating especially to the subjects of the 1st and 2d series. It embraces the annual and special reports of the Secretary of War, of the General-in-Chief, and of the chiefs of the several staff corps and departments the calls for troops and the correspondence between the national and the several State authorities. Series 4 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns of the Confederate authorities, similar to that indicated for the Union officials, as of the 3d series, but excluding the correspondence between the Union and Confederate authorities given in that series.

          After the death of Colonel Scott, Col. H. M. Lazelle was placed in charge, and later a Board of Publication carried on the work under direction of the Secretary of War. The name most closely associated with the work from its inception to its completion is that of Joseph W. Kirkley, the compiler under whose personal examination each volume passed. In 1902, a revised edition of the additions and corrections, already printed with the general index (W45.5:130), was issued, a separate pamphlet for each volume, for insertion in the volumes of the set. The War Records Office (W45.) was merged into the Record and Pension Office, July 1, 1899. Previous to that time, of the total number of volumes of the Rebellion records, 116 volumes, that is, serial numbers 1 to 118, had been published by the War Records Office. The remaining 11 volumes and the general index were issued by the Record and Pension Office. It has seemed wise not to divide the few last volumes from the remainder of the set, hence, they are all entered under W45.5: The serial numbers as given below are the numbers assigned to the set by the issuing office as found in circular issued July 1, 1902, and also in preceding circulars. Most of the sets issued were bound in black cloth and, after series 1, v. 23 (serial no. 35), had the serial number stamped on the back, consequently, in the following list the serial numbers beginning with 36 are not bracketed.1909 Checklist, p. 1391.

          (W45.7: and W45.8:) ["The atlas of the Official records consists of maps of battlefields, cities and their defenses, and parts of the country traversed by the armies. Parts 1, 25, and 26 contain view of besieged cities, forts, etc., and pt. 35 gives the uniforms and flags or the two armies, and other information. The location of Confederate troops or defenses is swhown in red and that of the Union troops in blue. This compilation was the work of Calvin D. Cowles. A sheet of additions and corrections was issued in 1902 to be inserted in the part containing the title-page, index, etc." W45.7:Part 1 and W45.7:Part 2 and Serial set 29981 and Serial set 29982.] 1909 Checklist, p. 1394. The atlas is not included in the reprint edition.


          Which European countries are not part of the EU?

          Currently, 23 countries located in the continent of Europe, are not part of the European Union.

          However, five of them are in the process of integrating the EU legislation into national law, while two others are potential candidates, which have yet not fulfilled all the requirements for EU membership.

          The European countries that are not members of the EU:

          • Albania*
          • Andorra
          • Armenia
          • Azerbaijan
          • Belarus
          • Bosnia and Herzegovina**
          • Georgia
          • Iceland
          • Kosovo**
          • Liechtenstein
          • Moldova
          • Monaco
          • Montenegro*
          • North Macedonia*
          • Norway
          • Russia
          • San Marino
          • Serbia*
          • Switzerland
          • Turkey*
          • Ukraine
          • United Kingdom (left EU on January 31, 2020)
          • Vatican City

          * Countries that are in the process of integrating the EU legislation into national law.
          ** Potential candidate countries that do not yet fulfil the requirements for EU membership.

          Frequently Asked Questions about EU

          How many countries are in the EU?

          The European Union (EU) consists of 27 member states.

          How many citizens does the European Union have?

          As of 1 January 2017, the population of the EU is about 511.6 million people.

          Is Ukraine in the EU?

          No. Ukraine is not a member of the EU.

          Is Hungary in the EU?

          Yes. Hungary is a member country of the EU since May 1, 2004.

          What is the difference between Schengen countries and EU countries

          EU countries and Schengen countries are both European countries.

          EU countries are those European countries which are a part of the European Union and have signed the treaties of the European Union. EU countries have to maintain their own national military and foreign policies, but are bound to judicial and legislative institutions of the EU.

          Schengen countries are those European countries which have signed the Schengen Agreement. These countries operate as a single state with no border controls required when traveling within the countries, but have the same international border control rules.

          What is The European Economic Area (EEA)?

          What is EFTA?

          EFTA stands for the European Free Trade Association. It is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. None of these countries are part of the European Union, but aside of Switzerland, others are all part of the European Economic Area.

          Its free trade agreements foresee the elimination of import duties on industrial goods and fish. In addition, the EFTA States have added substantive rules and commitments on services, investment and/or public procurement to the agreements as a response on globalization.


          Watch the video: Trump gives his first State of the Union address (November 2021).