The story

George G. Henry ID-1560 - History


George G. Henry ID-1560

George G. Henry

A former name retained.

I

(ID-1560: dp. 13,179 (n.); 1. 435'; b. 56'; dr. 26'6"; s.
11 k.; cpl. 59; a. 1 5"; 1 3")

George a. Henry was built in 1917 by the Union Iron Works of San Francisco, chartered by the Navy from the Los Angeles Petroleum Transportation Co., 23 August 1918; and commissioned at New York the same day, Lt. Comdr. Henry F. Weeden, USNRF, in command.

Assigned to NOTS, George G. Henry departed New York 29 August 1918 with aviation gasoline and Army medical stores which she delivered at Le Havre, France, then touched Spithead and Plymouth,England, on returning to New York.

In the mid-Atlantic on the morning of 29 September, the tanker spotted a German submarine off her port beam and opened fire on U-152 some 5,000 yards away, then raced away at flank speed, maneuvering radically to evade the enemy shells; nevertheless, a hit which destroyed her after magazine enveloped her stern in flames, and left only two powder charges for her after deck gun. As the crew worked to control the fires, the tanker sheered to bring her forward gun to bear on the pursuer, keeping the U-boat just out of range with well-placed salvos, and dropped six smoke screens that hid her from the enemy for some 20 minutes.

The U-boat soon passed to the weather side of the smoke and renewed the action. Shrapnel hit the tanker inflicting minor injuries on 14 men. Two shells which had survived the explosion of the after magazine were freed from the tanker's after gun at 10:15 a.m.; and ten minutes later the submarine gave up the chase. Credit for her survival was shared by her gunners and her engine room force under Ens. George F. Thompson, USNRF, who, despite flames and dense, acrid smoke, stayed at the posts to maintain speed throughout the running fight.

Having escaped one danger, George G. Henry encountered another before reaching New York. Shortly after midnight of 3 October 1918, about 110 miles east of Cape Sable, she made an emergency turn to avoid an oncoming convoy; but, before she could swerve to safety, a red light and mast headlight came close under her port bow and the tanker cut into Navy collier Herman Frasch forward of the poop deck and below the water line. Within minutes Herman Frasch's bow rose high out of the water, fell back crushing down on George G. Henry port rail, hung suspended for a moment, then slid off and sank. The tanker lowered life rafts and boats and swept the sea with her searchlights looking for survivors. By dawn 65 members of the ill-fated collier's crew had been hauled from the sea to safety.

George G. Henry arrived at New York on 6 October for repairs and sailed on 11 November with gasoline and quartermaster supplies which were unloaded at Le Havre, and Rouen, France. She returned by way of England to New York on 21 December 1918, then made three transatlantic voyages from Avondale, La., with cargoes of gasoline and military stores delivered to the French ports of Paulliac, Furth, Blaye, Le Havre, and Rouen. She returned to New York 5 May 1919; was overhauled in the Shewans Dry Dock; decommissioned and was returned to her owner 21 May 1919.

George G. Henry continued operations under her original owner until 1932 when she was acquired by the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey. In July 1940, due to passage of the Neutrality Act, she transferred to Panamanian registry and operated by the Panama Transport Co. On 15 December 1941 she was time chartered by the U.S. Navy to visit Balikpapan and Surabaya, N.E.I.; and Port Darwin and Fremantle, Australia. On 14 April 1942 while off Melbourne, Australia, George G. Henry reverted back to Standard Oil Co. ownership, and the next day was taken over by the U.S. Navy on a bareboat basis and placed in commission, Lt. Jens G. Olsen, USNR, in command.

On 20 April, erroneous word was received to name the ship Victor. She sailed for Sydney, Australia, 22 April for conversion to a naval oiler, arriving 25 April to learn her correct name to be Victoria. Conversion completed November 1942, Victoria (AO-46) (g.v.) was placed in service, Lt. Comdr Jens G. Olsen, USNR, in command.


USS Leopard (IX-122)

USS Leopard (IX-122), an Armadillo-class tanker designated an unclassified miscellaneous vessel, was the Nth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the leopard, a large and ferocious spotted cat of southern Asia and Africa. Her keel was laid down as William B. Bankhead on 5 October 1943 by Delta Shipbuilding Company, in New Orleans, Louisiana, under a Maritime Commission contract (T. Z-ET1-S-C3). She was renamed Leopard on 27 October 1943, launched on 15 November 1943 sponsored by Mrs. William B. Bankhead, acquired by the Navy 24 December 1943, and commissioned on 26 December 1943 with Lieutenant G. C. Foltz in command.

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March�, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force.

The leopard is one of the five extant species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae. It occurs in a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa, in small parts of Western Asia, on the Indian subcontinent to Southeast and East Asia. The leopard is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because leopard populations are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and are declining in large parts of the global range. In Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuwait, Syria, Libya, Tunisia and most likely in Morocco, leopard populations have already been extirpated. Contemporary records suggest that the leopard occurs in only 25% of its historical global range. Leopards are hunted illegally, and their body parts are smuggled in the wildlife trade for medicinal practices and decoration.

Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its country's military forces. The ceremonies involved are often rooted in centuries old naval tradition.

Originally designed to carry dry cargo, Leopard was converted to a tanker, and departed Key West, Florida, on 18 January 1944 for the southwest Pacific. Arriving Bora Bora, Society Islands, on 27 February, she performed harbor fueling operations out of Australia and New Guinea until mid-April when she sailed for the Admiralty Islands. For the rest of the war, Leopard continued harbor fueling duties in the vicinity of New Guinea.

Bora Bora is a 30.55 km 2 (12 sq mi) island group in the Leeward group in the western part of the Society Islands of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the Pacific Ocean. The main island, located about 230 kilometres northwest of Papeete, is surrounded by a lagoon and a barrier reef. In the center of the island are the remnants of an extinct volcano rising to two peaks, Mount Pahia and Mount Otemanu, the highest point at 727 metres. It is part of the commune of Bora-Bora, which also includes the atoll of Tūpai.

The Society Islands are an archipelago located in the South Pacific Ocean. Politically, they are part of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France. Geographically, they form part of Polynesia.

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Following V-J Day, the tanker departed Seeadler Harbor on 30 August 1945 and arrived Manila Bay on 9 September where she performed similar services. Leopard remained in the Philippines until she sailed for the United States on 19 March 1946 arriving Norfolk, Virginia, on 11 May. She decommissioned there 21 June 1946 and was delivered to the War Shipping Administration the same day for disposal. Her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 3 July 1946.

Victory over Japan Day is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect bringing the war to an end. The term has been applied to both of the days on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made – to the afternoon of August 15, 1945, in Japan, and because of time zone differences, to August 14, 1945 – as well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred, officially ending World War II.

Seeadler Harbor, also known as Port Seeadler, is located on Manus Island, Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea and played an important role in World War II. In German, "Seeadler" means sea eagle, pointing to German colonial activity between 1884 and 1919 in that area. The bay was named in 1900 after the German cruiser SMS Seeadler .

Manila Bay is a natural harbour which serves the Port of Manila, in the Philippines. Strategically located around the capital city of the Philippines, Manila Bay facilitated commerce and trade between the Philippines and its neighbouring countries, becoming the gateway for socio-economic development even prior to Spanish occupation. With an area of 1,994 km 2 (769.9 sq mi), and a coastline of 190 km (118.1 mi), Manila Bay is situated in the western part of Luzon and is bounded by Cavite and Metro Manila on the east, Bulacan and Pampanga on the north, and Bataan on the west and northwest. Manila Bay drains approximately 17,000 km 2 (6,563.7 sq mi) of watershed area, with the Pampanga River contributing about 49% of the freshwater influx. With an average depth of 17 m (55.8 ft), it is estimated to have a total volume of 28.9 billion cubic metres. Entrance to the bay is 19 km (11.8 mi) wide and expands to a width of 48 km (29.8 mi). However, width of the bay varies from 22 km (13.7 mi) at its mouth and expanding to 60 km (37.3 mi) at its widest point.


Early life

Henry was the eldest son of Henry, earl of Derby (afterward Henry IV), by Mary de Bohun. On his father’s exile in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge, treated him kindly, and knighted him in 1399. Henry’s uncle, Henry Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, seems to have been responsible for his training, and, despite his early entry into public life, he was well educated by the standards of his time. He grew up fond of music and reading and became the first English king who could both read and write with ease in the vernacular tongue. On October 15, 1399, after his father had become king, Henry was created earl of Chester, duke of Cornwall, and prince of Wales, and soon afterward, duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster. From October 1400 the administration of Wales was conducted in his name, and in 1403 he took over actual command of the war against the Welsh rebels, a struggle that absorbed much of his restless energy until 1408. Thereafter he began to demand a voice in government and a place on the council, in opposition to his ailing father and Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury. The stories of Prince Henry’s reckless and dissolute youth, immortalized by Shakespeare, and of the sudden change that overtook him when he became king, have been traced back to within 20 years of his death and cannot be dismissed as pure fabrication. This does not involve accepting them in the exaggerated versions of the Elizabethan playwrights, to which the known facts of his conduct in war and council provide a general contradiction. Probably they represent no more than the natural ebullience of a young man whose energies found insufficient constructive outlet. The most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, Sir William Gascoigne, was a Tudor invention, first related in 1531.

Henry succeeded his father on March 21, 1413. In the early years of his reign his position was threatened by an abortive Lollard rising (January 1414) and by a conspiracy (July 1415) of Richard of York, earl of Cambridge, and Henry, Lord Scrope of Masham, in favour of Edmund Mortimer, earl of March. On each occasion Henry was forewarned and the opposition was suppressed without mercy. Neither incident long distracted him from his chief concern: his ambitious policy toward France. Not content with a demand for possession of Aquitaine and other lands ceded by the French at the Treaty of Calais (1360), he also laid claim to Normandy, Touraine, and Maine (the former Angevin holdings) and to parts of France that had never been in English hands. Although such demands were unlikely to be conceded even by the distracted government of France under King Charles VI, Henry seems to have convinced himself that his claims were just and not a merely cynical cover for calculated aggression. Yet if “the way of justice” failed, he was ready to turn to “the way of force,” and warlike preparations were well advanced long before the negotiations with Charles, initiated during the reign of Richard II, were finally broken off in June 1415.


Cabinet Members

Washington was well aware that he had been given the power to shape the American presidency. "I walk on untrodden ground," was a frequent comment he made in the days leading up to his first inauguration.

Video

Washington's Cabinet

Historian Ron Chernow discuses Washington's style in administering his cabinet.

Video

Washington's Cabinet

Washington Library Founding Director Douglas Bradburn discusses Washington's method of forming his cabinet.

While the current presidential cabinet includes sixteen members, George Washington&rsquos cabinet included just four original members: Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph. Washington set the precedents for how these roles would interact with the presidency, establishing the cabinet as the chief executive's private, trusted advisors.

SECRETARY OF STATE

Thomas
Jefferson
(March 22, 1790 - December 31, 1793)

Edmund
Randolph
(January 2, 1794 - August 20, 1795)

Timothy
Pickering
(August 20, 1795 - May 12, 1800)

SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY

Alexander
Hamilton
(September 11, 1789 - January 31, 1795)

Oliver
Wolcott, Jr.
(February 2, 1795 - December 31, 1800)

SECRETARY OF
WAR

Henry
Knox
(September 12, 1789 - December 31, 1794)

Timothy
Pickering
(January 2, 1795 - February 5, 1796)

James
McHenry
(February 6, 1796 - May 31, 1800)

ATTORNEY GENERAL

Edmund
Randolph
(February 2, 1790 - January 2, 1794)

William
Bradford
(January 27, 1794 - August 23, 1795)

Charles
Lee
(December 10, 1795 - March 3, 1801)

* John Jay, Secretary of State, September 26, 1789 - March 22, 1790

A cabinet is not mandated by either the Constitution or established law.

While there are currently sixteen cabinet level positions, George Washington&rsquos original cabinet consisted of only four members.

In order to establish both credibility and balance, George Washington chose a cabinet that included members from different regions of the country.

On September 11, 1789, George Washington sent his first cabinet nomination to the Senate. Just minutes later, the Senate approved the appointment of Alexander Hamilton unanimously as the Secretary of the Treasury.

The group came to be known as the cabinet based on a reference made by James Madison, who described the meetings as &ldquothe president&rsquos cabinet.&rdquo

The constitutional reference utilized to serve as justification for the creation of the cabinet reads that the President: &ldquomay require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices.&rdquo

When Washington signed the Judiciary Act of 1789, he not only created the federal judiciary but also founded the office of Attorney General. Unlike Washington&rsquos other cabinet officials, the Attorney General did not head an executive department.

Washington held his first full cabinet meeting on November 26, 1791, with Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph.

One prominent individual who did not attend cabinet meetings was Vice President John Adams. In fact, Adams found his role as vice president to be so tedious that he once referred to it as "the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived."

The cabinet was often filled with tension, particularly between Jefferson and Hamilton, surrounding the question of a national bank. Despite the acrimony, Jefferson believed that the tone had little impact on governance, explaining that "The pain was for Hamilton and myself, but the public experienced no inconvenience."


Francis II

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Francis II, (born January 19, 1544, Fontainebleau, France—died December 5, 1560, Orléans), king of France from 1559, who was dominated throughout his reign by the powerful Guise family.

The eldest son of Henry II and Catherine de Médici, Francis was married in April 1558 to Mary Stuart, queen of Scots and niece of François, duc de Guise, and of Charles, cardinal of Lorraine. A sickly and weak-willed young man, Francis became a tool of the Guises, who saw an opportunity for power and a chance to break the Huguenot strength within the kingdom. To defeat the Guises, Louis de Bourbon, prince de Condé and Huguenot leader, planned the conspiracy of Amboise (March 1560), an abortive coup d’etat in which some Huguenots surrounded the Château of Amboise and tried to seize the King. The conspiracy was savagely put down, and its failure strengthened the power of the Guises. This in turn frightened Francis’ mother, Catherine, who then tried to balance the situation by securing the appointment of the moderate Michel de L’Hospital as chancellor.

In the hopes of gaining peace and rehabilitating court finances, the States General was summoned, but Francis died soon after the session began at Orléans. His death temporarily ended the Guises’ dominion and saved Condé, who had been sentenced to death for high treason. Francis was succeeded by his brother, Charles IX.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.


Reign

Henry was crowned at Westminster on August 5, 1100, three days after his brother, King William II, William the Conqueror’s second son, had been killed in a hunting accident. Duke Robert Curthose, the eldest of the three brothers, who by Norman custom had succeeded to his father’s inheritance in Normandy, was returning from the First Crusade and could not assert his own claim to the English throne until the following year. The succession was precarious, however, because a number of wealthy Anglo-Norman barons supported Duke Robert, and Henry moved quickly to gain all the backing he could. He issued an ingenious Charter of Liberties, which purported to end capricious taxes, confiscations of church revenues, and other abuses of his predecessor. By his marriage with Matilda, a Scottish princess of the old Anglo-Saxon royal line, he established the foundations for peaceable relations with the Scots and support from the English. And he recalled St. Anselm, the scholarly archbishop of Canterbury whom his brother, William II, had banished.

When Robert Curthose finally invaded England in 1101, several of the greatest barons defected to him. But Henry, supported by a number of his barons, most of the Anglo-Saxons, and St. Anselm, worked out an amicable settlement with the invaders. Robert relinquished his claim to England, receiving in return Henry’s own territories in Normandy and a large annuity.

Although a Crusading hero, Robert was a self-indulgent, vacillating ruler who allowed Normandy to slip into chaos. Norman churchmen who fled to England urged Henry to conquer and pacify the duchy and thus provided moral grounds for Henry’s ambition to reunify his father’s realm at his brother’s expense. Paving his way with bribes to Norman barons and agreements with neighbouring princes, in 1106 Henry routed Robert’s army at Tinchebrai in southwestern Normandy and captured Robert, holding him prisoner for life.

Between 1104 and 1106 Henry had been in the uncomfortable position of posing, in Normandy, as a champion of the church while fighting with his own archbishop of Canterbury. St. Anselm had returned from exile in 1100 dedicated to reforms of Pope Paschal II, which were designed to make the church independent of secular sovereigns. Following papal bans against lay lords investing churchmen with their lands and against churchmen rendering homage to laymen, Anselm refused to consecrate bishops whom Henry had invested and declined to do homage to Henry himself. Henry regarded bishoprics and abbeys not only as spiritual offices but as great sources of wealth. Since in many cases they owed the crown military services, he was anxious to maintain the feudal bond between the bishops and the crown.

Ultimately, the issues of ecclesiastical homage and lay investiture forced Anselm into a second exile. After numerous letters and threats between king, pope, and archbishop, a compromise was concluded shortly before the Battle of Tinchebrai and was ratified in London in 1107. Henry relinquished his right to invest churchmen while Anselm submitted on the question of homage. With the London settlement and the English victory at Tinchebrai, the Anglo-Norman state was reunified and at peace.

In the years following, Henry married his daughter Matilda (also called Maud) to Emperor Henry V of Germany and groomed his only legitimate son, William, as his successor. Henry’s right to Normandy was challenged by William Clito, son of the captive Robert Curthose, and Henry was obliged to repel two major assaults against eastern Normandy by William Clito’s supporters: Louis VI of France, Count Fulk of Anjou, and the restless Norman barons who detested Henry’s ubiquitous officials and high taxes. By 1120, however, the barons had submitted, Henry’s son had married into the Angevin house, and Louis VI—defeated in battle—had concluded a definitive peace.

The settlement was shattered in November 1120, when Henry’s son perished in a shipwreck of the “White Ship,” destroying Henry’s succession plans. After Queen Matilda’s death in 1118, he married Adelaide of Louvain in 1121, but this union proved childless. On Emperor Henry V’s death in 1125, Henry summoned the empress Matilda back to England and made his barons do homage to her as his heir. In 1128 Matilda married Geoffrey Plantagenet, heir to the county of Anjou, and in 1133 she bore him her first son, the future king Henry II. When Henry I died at Lyons-la-Forêt in eastern Normandy, his favourite nephew, Stephen of Blois, disregarding Matilda’s right of succession, seized the English throne. Matilda’s subsequent invasion of England unleashed a bitter civil war that ended with King Stephen’s death and Henry II’s unopposed accession in 1154.


Accession to the throne

Henry was the second son of Henry VII, first of the Tudor line, and Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV, first king of the short-lived line of York. When his elder brother, Arthur, died in 1502, Henry became the heir to the throne of all the Tudor monarchs, he alone spent his childhood in calm expectation of the crown, which helped give an assurance of majesty and righteousness to his willful, ebullient character. He excelled in book learning as well as in the physical exercises of an aristocratic society, and, when in 1509 he ascended the throne, great things were expected of him. Six feet tall, powerfully built, and a tireless athlete, huntsman, and dancer, he promised England the joys of spring after the long winter of Henry VII’s reign.

Henry and his ministers exploited the dislike inspired by his father’s energetic pursuit of royal rights by sacrificing, without a thought, some of the unpopular institutions and some of the men that had served his predecessor. Yet the unpopular means for governing the realm soon reappeared because they were necessary. Soon after his accession, Henry married Catherine of Aragon, Arthur’s widow, and the attendant lavish entertainments ate into the modest royal reserves.

More serious was Henry’s determination to engage in military adventure. Europe was being kept on the boil by rivalries between the French and Spanish kingdoms, mostly over Italian claims and, against the advice of his older councillors, Henry in 1512 joined his father-in-law, Ferdinand II of Aragon, against France and ostensibly in support of a threatened pope, to whom the devout king for a long time paid almost slavish respect.

Henry himself displayed no military talent, but a real victory was won by the earl of Surrey at Flodden (1513) against a Scottish invasion. Despite the obvious pointlessness of the fighting, the appearance of success was popular. Moreover, in Thomas Wolsey, who organized his first campaign in France, Henry discovered his first outstanding minister. By 1515 Wolsey was archbishop of York, lord chancellor of England, and a cardinal of the church more important, he was the king’s good friend, to whom was gladly left the active conduct of affairs. Henry never altogether abandoned the positive tasks of kingship and often interfered in business though the world might think that England was ruled by the cardinal, the king himself knew that he possessed perfect control any time he cared to assert it, and Wolsey only rarely mistook the world’s opinion for the right one.

Nevertheless, the years from 1515 to 1527 were marked by Wolsey’s ascendancy, and his initiatives set the scene. The cardinal had some occasional ambition for the papal tiara, and this Henry supported Wolsey at Rome would have been a powerful card in English hands. In fact, there was never any chance of this happening, any more than there was of Henry’s election to the imperial crown, briefly mooted in 1519 when the emperor Maximilian I died, to be succeeded by his grandson Charles V. That event altered the European situation. In Charles, the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), and Austria were united in an overwhelming complex of power that reduced all the dynasties of Europe, with the exception of France, to an inferior position. From 1521, Henry became an outpost of Charles V’s imperial power, which at Pavia (1525), for the moment, destroyed the rival power of France. Wolsey’s attempt to reverse alliances at this unpropitious moment brought reprisals against the vital English cloth trade with the Netherlands and lost the advantages that alliance with the victor of Pavia might have had. It provoked a serious reaction in England, and Henry concluded that Wolsey’s usefulness might be coming to an end.


Presidents related to royalty

Presidents related to British royalty

    (descendant of Edward III of England) (descendant of Edward III of England) (descendant of Edward I of England) (descendant of Edward III of England) (descendant of Edward III of England) and his grandson, Benjamin Harrison (descendants of Edward I of England) (descendant of Edward I of England) (descendant of Henry I of England) (descendant of William I of Scotland) (descendant of Edward I of England) (descendant of James I of Scotland and Edward III of England) (descendant of Edward III of England) (descendant of Henry II of England) (descendant of Edward I of England) (descendant of Edward III of England) (descendant of James II of Scotland) (descendant of Robert III of Scotland) (descendant of Henry II of England) (descendant of Edward I of England) (descendant of Henry II of England) and his son, George W. Bush (descendants of Edward I of England and Robert II of Scotland) (descendant of Edward I of England and William the Lion of Scotland) (descendant of Edward III of England)

As a result, all of the listed people are direct descendants of Alfred the Great. All but one of them are also descended from William the Conqueror with the exception of Rutherford Hayes. Most of these royal ancestors were born before the Black Death killed much of the population of Britain in 1349.

In addition, according to Genealogics and Roglo, HM Queen Elizabeth II is among the closest living relatives of George Washington, through their descent from Augustus Warner, Burgess of Virginia.


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Kings and Queens of England 👑🤴🏼👸🏼

ADDucation&rsquos timeline includes all the Kings and Queens of England since 1066 AD along with the house/family each of the kings and queens of England belonged to. We&rsquove also included the English civil war period between 1649 and 1660, during which there was no ruling English monarch.

ADDucation Tips: Click column headings with arrows to sort the kings and queens of England. Reload page for original sort order. Resize your browser to full screen and/or zoom out to display as many columns as possible. Click the ➕ icon to reveal any hidden columns. Start typing in the Filter table box to find anything about the kings and queens of England inside the table.

🤴🏼King / 👸🏼Queen / Monarch + Family Ruled Born &ndash Died # Where born Pedigree Demise Countries ruled 🤴🏼👸🏼Kings and Queens of England Facts, Events and Trivia
The Normans 1066 &ndash 1154 Until 1603 the English and Scottish Crowns were separate.
King William I (William the Conqueror / William the Bastard) 1066 &ndash 1087 1028 &ndash 9 Sep 1087 1 Château de Falaise, France. Son of Robert I. illness. England Invaded England and killed King Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 Oct 1066. Responsible for The Doomsday Book, effectively the first national census.
King William II (William Rufus / William the Red) 1087 &ndash 1100 1056 &ndash 2 Aug 1100 2 Normandy, France. Son of William I. killed by arrow in New Forest. England So called because of his reddish hair. The Rufus Stone, in the New Forest, marks the place where he fell. Whether his death was deliberate or accidental remains unclear.
King Henry I (Henry Beauclerc) 1100 &ndash 1135 Sep 1058 &ndash 1 Dec 1135 3 Selby, England. William Rufus&rsquo brother. illness. England Naming his daughter Matilda as successor caused a crisis after his death which led to civil war.
King Stephen 1135 &ndash 1154 1092 &ndash 25 Oct 1154 4 Blois, France. Nephew of Henry I. stomach illness. England
The Plantagenets 1154 &ndash 1399 The Plantagenets were a huge powerful family not just in England but throughout Europe. There were 8 Plantagenet Kings of England.
King Henry II 1154 &ndash 1189 5 Mar 1133 &ndash 6 Jul 1189 5 Le Mans, France. Grandson of Henry I. bleeding ulcer. England Controlled more of France than the King of France! Appointed Thomas A Becket as Chancellor then Archbishop of Canterbury and possibly ordered Becket&rsquos assassination in Canterbury Cathedral on 29 December 1170.
King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart / Richard Coeur de Lion) 1189 &ndash 1199 8 Sep 1157 &ndash 6 Apr 1199 6 Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, England. Third son of Henry II. arrow wound which became gangrenous. England Only in England for ten months and spent most of his life as a brave warrior king fighting The Crusades in the Holy Land to liberate them from Islamic rule.
King John 1199 &ndash 1216 24 Dec 1166 &ndash 19 Oct 1216 7 Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England. Fifth son of Henry II. dysentery. England King John approved the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215 using his seal.
King Henry III (Henry of Winchester) 1216 &ndash 1272 1 Oct 1207 -16 Nov 1272 8 Winchester Castle, England. Son of John. illness. England, de-facto Wales Longest reign of any English monarch. Was crowned twice. The first on 28th October 1216 in his mother&rsquos chaplet then on 17th May 1220 at Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt during his reign in Gothic style.
King Edward I (Edward Longshanks / The Hammer of the Scots) 1272 &ndash 1307 17 Jun 1239 &ndash 7 Jul 1307 9 Westminster, London, England. Son of Henry III. dysentery. England, Wales (1284 onwards) So called because he was over six foot tall and because he fought against Scots King, Robert the Bruce. Formed the Model Parliament on 13 November 1295. Edward conquered Wales between 1277 and 1283 resulting in the annexation of the Principality of Wales and the last remaining independent Welsh principalities in 1284 which became united with England.
King Edward II (Edward of Caernarfon) 1307 &ndash deposed Jan 1327 25 Apr 1284 &ndash 21 Sep1327 10 Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfon, Wales. Son of Edward I. murdered. England, Wales Deposed by his wife Isabella of France. Probably murdered in prison at Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire.
King Edward III (Edward of Windsor) 1327 &ndash 1377 13 Nov 1312 &ndash 21 Jun 1377 11 Windsor Castle, Windsor, England. Son of Edward II. stroke. England, Wales Popular monarch who restored royal authority and asserted military power in Europe. Founded the Order of the Garter.
Richard II 1377 &ndash 1399 deposed 1399, died around 14 Feb 1400 12 Bordeaux, France. Grandson of Edward III. Son of the Black Prince. murdered. England, Wales Probably murdered in prison by his cousin Henry IV who took over the throne.
The House of Lancaster 1399 &ndash 1461 There were 3 House of Lancaster kings of England between 1399 &ndash 1461.
Henry IV (Henry of Bolingbroke) 1399 &ndash 1413 3 Apr 1366 &ndash 20 Mar 1413 13 Bolingbroke Castle, England. Grandson of Edward III. Son of John of Gaunt. protracted unknown illness. England, Wales Seized the crown by forcing Richard II to abdicate. His reign experienced many rebellions. His coronation on 13 Oct 1399 was the first time English was spoken since the Norman conquest.
Henry V (The Warrior King) 1413 &ndash 1422 16 Sep 1386 &ndash 31 Aug 1422 14 Monmouth, Monmouthshire, Wales. Son of Henry IV. dysentery or toxic megacolon. England, Wales First English king who could read and write English comfortably. Henry V fought in the Battle of Agincourt (25 Oct 1415), famous for English use of the longbow, one of the greatest victories in the Hundred Years War against France.
Henry VI (Henry of Windsor) 1422 &ndash deposed 1461 6 Dec 1421 &ndash 21 May 1471 15 Windsor Castle, Windsor, England. Son of Henry V. officially melancholy, more likely murdered. England, Wales Succeeded to throne aged just 9 months, the youngest ever English king. The coronation was on 6 Nov 1429. Founded Eton College in 1440 and Kings College, Cambridge. Crowned King of France in Paris at Notre Dame on 16 Dec 1431.
The House of York 1461 &ndash 1485 There were 4 House of York kings of England between 1461 &ndash 1485.
King Edward IV 1461 &ndash deposed 3 Oct 1470 28 Apr 1442 &ndash 9 Apr 1483 16 Rouen, France. Great grandson of Edmund of York. Edward III&rsquos youngest
son.
England, Wales Came to the throne in 1461 after defeating Henry VI at the Battle of Towton, in Yorkshire. He was just 19 years old. Tried to bring peace to the country. During his reign the first printing press was established in Westminster by William Caxton.
Henry VI AGAIN 1470 &ndash 1471 15 Son of Henry V. England, Wales
King Edward IV AGAIN 1471 &ndash 1483 11 April 1471 &ndash 9 Apr 1483 16 Great grandson of Edmund of York. Edward III&rsquos youngest
son.
illnesses. England, Wales
King Edward V 1483 (9 April to 26 June) 2 Nov 1470 &ndash 26 Jun 1483 17 Westminster, London, England. Great grandson of Edmund of York. Edward III&rsquos youngest
son.
unknown. England, Wales Reigned for just six weeks. It&rsquos likely Edward and his brother Richard were murdered in the Tower of London
King Richard III 1483 &ndash 1485 2 Oct 1452 &ndash 22 Aug 1485 18 Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, England. Uncle of Edward V. killed on battlefield. England, Wales Killed during the Battle of Bosworth Field against Henry VII (Henry Tudor) which ended the War of the Roses. Probably killed the two princes Edward and Richard.
The Tudors 1485 &ndash 1603 There were 5 Tudor kings and queens of England between 1485 &ndash 1603.
King Henry VII 1485 &ndash 1509 28 Jan 1457 &ndash 21 Apr 1509 19 Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Wales. Grandson of Henry V. Henry VII was the second husband of his wife. tuberculosis. England, Wales Gained the throne after killing Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 which ended the War of the Roses between the House of Lancaster and House of York. Prosperous reign.
King Henry VIII 1509 &ndash 1547 28 June 1491 &ndash 28 Jan 1547 20 Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England. Henry VII&rsquos second son. obesity. England, Wales, Ireland (after 1542) Henry had six wives: Catherine Parr (married 1543&ndash1547), Catherine Howard (married 1540&ndash1541), Anne of Cleves (married 1540&ndash1540), Jane Seymour (married 1536&ndash1537), Anne Boleyn (married 1533&ndash1536) and Catherine of Aragon (married 1509&ndash1533).
Use this mnemonic to remember the fate of Henry&rsquos wives: Divorced, Beheaded, Died. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived. Which is great but you also need this mnemonic to remember the names of Henry VIII&rsquos six wives in order along with many more. In 1542 Henry VIII was proclaimed King of Ireland in the Crown of Ireland Act by the Irish Parliament.
King Edward VI 1547 &ndash 1553 12 Oct 1537 &ndash 6 Jul 1553 21 Hampton Court Palace, Molesey, England. Henry&rsquos son by Jane Seymour. uncertain, possibly tuberculosis or broncho-pneumonia. England, Wales, Ireland Son of Henry VIII and his fourth wife Jane Seymour, died aged 15.
Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 &ndash 1558 18 Feb 1516 &ndash 17 Nov 1558 22 Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England. Henry&rsquos daughter by Queen Catherine. influenza. England, Wales, Ireland Daughter of Henry VIII and Katharine of Aragon. First woman to successfully claim the throne of England. Married Phillip of Spain. She was a king&rsquos daughter a king&rsquos sister a king&rsquos wife, a queen, and by the same title a king. Mary persecuted Protestants which led to her being called Bloody Mary.
Queen Elizabeth I (Good Queen Bess, Gloriana, Bess, The Virgin Queen, The Faerie Queen) 1558 &ndash 1603 07 Sep 1533 &ndash 24 Mar 1603 23 Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, England. Henry&rsquos daughter by Anne Boleyn. melancholy, old age or blood poisoning. England, Wales, Ireland Elizabeth is the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn and the last Queen of England. Defeated the Spanish Armada. James VI was organized as her successor uniting England and Scotland as the United Kingdom.
The Stuarts 1603 &ndash 1714 There were 7 House of Stuart kings and queens of England which spanned the Commonwealth of England period.
James I (King James VI of Scotland) 1603 &ndash 1625 19 June 1566 &ndash 27 March 1625 24 Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland. Great-great-grandson of Henry VII. dysentery. England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland James was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and the first monarch to rule both countries as the de-facto king of Great Britain. He was a popular monarch. During his reign the Gunpowder Plot was foiled in 1605. The King James bible translation was authorized. Sir Walter Raleigh was executed.
Charles I 1625 &ndash 1649 19 Nov 1600 &ndash 30 Jan 1649 25 Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline, Scotland. Second son of James I. execution, beheaded. England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland Charles was a short, quiet man with a stammer. He was an art lover. Charles believed in the divine right of kings to rule and constantly argued with Parliament. Using Royal Prerogative he locked MP&rsquos out of Parliament between 1629 and 1640 in the Eleven Years Tyranny. In 1637 he Imposed a new prayer book on the Scots which led them to invade England and Charles was forced to recall and deal with Parliament to finance a war to force the Scots out of England. King and Parliament were on a collision course and after attempting to arrest his critics in Parliament civil war was inevitable which eventually led to his execution.
The English Civil War 1642 &ndash 1651 Roundheads (supporters of parliament) and Cavaliers (Royalists who supported the king) led to the trial and execution of Charles I and replacement of the English monarchy.
The Commonwealth of England 1649 &ndash 1653 On 19th May 1649 the monarchy was replaced by a Republic called &ldquoThe Commonwealth of England&rdquo. During this period there were no British kings and queens of England and it was ruled by Parliament.
Protectorate declared 1653 &ndash 1659 Parliament appointed Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of the Commonwealth in 1653 and was then dissolved. Cromwell governed England, which included Wales, Scotland and Ireland until his death in 1658. His son Richard Cromwell succeeded him as Lord Protector but abdicated when he couldn&rsquot control the army and lost the confidence of Parliament which led to the restoration of the monarchy.
The Restoration 1660 &ndash 1685 England, Scotland and Wales were eventually united as Great Britain by the 1707 Act of Union and the monarchy was restored to be followed by kings and queens of England.
Charles II 1660 &ndash 1685 29 May 1630 &ndash 6 Feb 1685 26 St James&rsquos Palace, London, England. Oldest son of Charles I. sudden apoplectic fit. England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland Charles had already been King of Scotland since 1651 and returned to London and ruled England (including Wales) and Scotland. Charles was brilliant and seen as a lovable rogue and merry monarch. He was a patron of the arts and science founding the Royal Observatory, a supporter of the Royal Society (whose members included Sir Isaac Newton) and personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren (who built St. Paul&rsquos Cathedral). The anniversary of the Restoration (and Charles&rsquos birthday on 29th May) was celebrated in England as Oak Apple Day until it was formally abolished in 1859 but is still celebrated in some parts of the country.
James II (James VII King of Scotland) 1685 &ndash 1688 14 Oct 1633 &ndash 16 Sep 1701 27 St James&rsquos Palace, London, England. Brother of Charles II. brain hemorrhage. England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland James was a convert to Catholicism and made himself unpopular by pursuing religious tolerance policies. He put down a rebellion led by the Duke of Monmouth (which resulted in savage punishments imposed by Judge Jeffreys in the Bloody Assizes) led to conflict with parliament which he suspended In 1685. Fearing a Catholic succession Protestants led by William of Orange invaded England with a dutch fleet in 1688 (The Glorious Revolution) and James fled abroad &ndash which Parliament declared an abdication.
Queen Mary II and King William III 1688 &ndash 1694 30 Apr 1662 &ndash 28 Dec 1694 28 St James&rsquos Palace, London, England. Daughter of James II. smallpox. England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland Of all the kings and queens of England William and Mary were the only joint sovereigns until Mary&rsquos death in 1694. She deferred to William, as a dutiful wife in those times, but in his absence proved capable and was respected. Together they were an effective team.
William III (King William II of Scotland and &ldquoKing Billy&rdquo in Ireland) aka William of Orange
1694 &ndash 1702 14 Nov 1650 &ndash 8 Mar 1702 28 Binnenhof, Netherlands. Grandson of Charles I. pneumonia (a complication of a broken collarbone after falling from horse, Sorrel). England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland William and Mary&rsquos reign in England ended the bitter conflict between Crown and Parliament. William deeply mourned Mary&rsquos death and wasn&rsquot a popular sole monarch.
Queen Anne (Anne Stuart) 1702 &ndash 1714 6 Feb 1665 &ndash 1 Aug 1714 29 St James&rsquos Palace, London, England. Sister of Mary II. ill health then stroke. Great Britain Anne suffered from ill health most of her life and all 17 of her children died. Although the influence of the crown diminished during her reign she attended more cabinet meetings than most rulers before or since. It was both prosperous and stable and saw political and diplomatic achievements including the 1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England which means Anne was the first ruler of Great Britain.
The House of Hanovarians 1714 &ndash 1901 There were 6 Hanovarian kings and queens of England between 1714 &ndash 1901.
King George I (George Louis / Georg Ludwig) 1714 &ndash 1727 28 May 1660 &ndash 11 June 1727 30 Hanover, Germany. Great-grandson of James I. stroke. Great Britain and Ireland George married his cousin Sophia and they had two children together after which he divorced her for alleged infidelity and imprisoned her in a castle until she died in 1726. In the early years of his reign George was active in British foreign policy helping to forge the Treaty of Hanover in 1718 with Great Britain, France and Prussia to counterbalance the Austro-Spanish Treaty of Vienna. In 1721 Robert Walpole was appointed first lord of the Treasury, effectively Britain&rsquos first prime minister.
King George II (George Augustus / Georg August) 1727 &ndash 1760 30 Oct 1683 &ndash 25 Oct 1760 31 Hanover, Germany. Son of George I. aortic aneurysm. Great Britain and Ireland George II was more interested in hunting than politics but he had a grasp of foreign policy and prevented, or sidelined, the appointment of commanders or ministers he disliked. George II saw British interests expand around the world and ended the Jacobite challenge to the Hanoverian dynasty. George II was the last English King to be on the battlefield at the Battle of Dettingen against the French in 1743.
King George III (George William Frederick) 1760 &ndash 1820 4 Jun 1738 &ndash 29 Jan 1820 32 London, England. Grandson of George II. dementia. United Kingdom George III married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1761. They were happily married and had 9 sons and 6 daughters together. George III suffered recurring fits of madness and his son (George IV) acted as regent after 1810. The American Colonies proclaimed their independence on 4th July 1776. Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single nation, the United Kingdom, by the 1801 Act of Union. Wars with France continued until Napoleon was defeat at Waterloo in 1815.
King George IV (George Augustus Frederick) 1820 &ndash 1830 12 Aug 1762 &ndash 26Jun 1830 33 St James&rsquos Palace, London, England. Son of George III. heart attack. United Kingdom George IV was was obese, indulgent, and a heavy drinker. George IV was so unpopular he was ridiculed when he appeared in public. In 1828 the Duke of Wellington becomes British Prime Minister and in 1829 The Metropolitan Police Force is set up by Robert Peel and The Catholic Relief Act is passed, which allowed Catholics to become Members of Parliament.
King William IV (William Henry) 1830 &ndash 1837 21 Aug 1765 &ndash 20 Jun 1837 34 Buckingham House, London, England. Brother of George IV. heart attack. United Kingdom William IV joined the Royal Navy at 13 years old and was nicknamed the &ldquoSailor King&rdquo. William IV saw service at the Battle of St Vincent in 1780 against the Spanish and in New York during the American War of Independence. Slavery was abolished in the colonies in 1833. George IV&rsquos illegitimate children with Mrs Jordan were the main beneficiaries of his will. Notable descendants include Prime Minister David Cameron, author Duff Cooper and TV presenter Adam Hart-Davis.
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) 1837 &ndash 1901 24 May 1819 &ndash 22 Jan 1901 35 Kensington Palace, London, England. Niece of William IV. cerebral hemorrhage. United Kingdom Under Victoria&rsquos rule British influence and the British Empire reached their highest point. Victoria had nine children with Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha who was the love of her life and became her main advisor. Victoria reigned longer than any of the previous kings and queens of England.
The House of Saxe &ndash Coburg Gotha 1901 &ndash 1910 To date there have been 6 Saxe-Coburg and Gotha kings and queens of England between 1901 &ndash 2021
King Edward VII (Albert Edward) 1901 &ndash 1910 9 Nov 1841 &ndash 6 May 1910 36 Buckingham Palace, London, England. Son of Victoria and Albert. pneumonia. United Kingdom Edward enjoyed a playboy indulgent lifestyle during Victoria&rsquos reign and she had a low opinion of him. As king, in 1904, he contributed to the Anglo-French &ldquoEntente Cordiale&rdquo and the Triple Entente between Britain, France and Russia and he became known as Edward the Peacemaker.
The House of Windsor 1910 to date The family name was changed to Windsor in 1917 because of general anti-German feeling.
King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) 1910 &ndash 1936 3 Jun 1865 &ndash 20 Jan 1936 37 Marlborough House, London, England. Second son of Edward VII. euthanasia. United Kingdom The 1911 Parliament Act established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the House of Lords, which was un-elected. Ruled Britain through WW1 1914 &ndash 1918. The Irish Sinn Fein Easter Rising in 1916 led to an independent Parliament in Ireland in 1918. The 1918 Representation of the People Acts in 1918 and 1928 extended votes to all women over the age of 21. In 1924 the first Labour ministry was appointed. In 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognized the Empire dominions as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations.
King Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David) 1936 (20 Jan &ndash 11 Dec) 23 Jun 1894 &ndash 28 May 1972 38 White Lodge, London, England. Son of George V. cancer of the larynx. United Kingdom King Edward VIII ruled for just 325 days before abdicating to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson. Because Mrs. Simpson was an American divorcee with two living ex-husbands. Edward VIII was forced to abdicate because he was not able to marry a divorced woman and remain king.
King George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) 1936 &ndash 1952 14 Dec 1895 &ndash 6 Feb 1952 39 Sandringham House, Norfolk, England. Second son of
George V.
lung cancer. United Kingdom George wasn&rsquot expecting to be king and dreaded public speaking because of a stammer. With the help of Lionel Logue, an Australian-born speech therapist, he improved enough to open the new Parliament House in Canberra, Australia in 1927. He ruled during WW2 (1939 &ndash 1945) and remained in London during the Blitz with Elizabeth and Margaret at Windsor Castle and restored the popularity of the monarchy. The George Medal and Cross were founded his suggestion to recognize acts of exceptional civilian bravery.
Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) 1953 to date 21 Apr 1926 &ndash 40 Mayfair, London, England. Daughter of George VI. United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II is the 40th monarch since William the Conqueror in 1066 and her coronation on 2nd June 1953 was televised for the first time. She married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh on 20th November 1947 and has now reigned longer than all kings and queens of England.

Do You Seriously Expect Me To Be The First Prince Of Wales In History Not To Have A Mistress? &ndash Prince Charles

A surprisingly open quote by Prince Charles from the Daily Mail newspaper 1994. The heir to the throne could be considered fairly well-behaved compared to Henry VIII and his six wives, and if you can&rsquot remember the fate of each of Henry VIII&rsquos wives this mnemonic should help.

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