The story

21 April 1942


21 April 1941

April 1942

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France

General Giraud escapes from a Prisoner of War camp



Fort Devens Airport, MA – April 21, 1942

Fort Devens Airport was active at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, during World War II. It was later named Moore Field after Chief Warrant Officer 2 Douglas Moore, who was killed in Vietnam. The field closed in 1995.

At 7:55 p.m., on April 21, 1942, an Army O-52 observation plane (Ser. No. 40-2702) was returning to Fort Devens Airport after a reconnaissance flight when the aircraft crashed in four feet of water at the edge of a pond. The plane fell from an altitude of 500 feet while making a turn in preparation for landing. Both the pilot and observer were killed.

The dead were identified as 1st Lt. Gerald Patrick Kennedy, 26, of Providence, R.I., and 2nd Lt. Robert Wright Booker, 24, of Illiopolia, Ill.

Lt. Booker, the pilot, is buried in Macon County Memorial Park, Section 14, in Harristown, Illinois. He received his pilot’s wings on October 31, 1941.

Lt. Kennedy is buried in St. Francis Cemetery, Section 51, in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.

Later in the evening Lt. Kennedy was scheduled to attend a party in his honor due to his recent promotion to first lieutenant. As a point of fact, Lt. Booker wasn’t scheduled to be on that flight, but he’d taken the place of another officer.

Today there is a hanger named for Lt. Kennedy at T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, R.I. (Formerly Hillsgrove)

The men were assigned to the 152nd Observation Squadron, and it was reported that these men were the first airplane related fatalities in the history of the 152nd. The 152nd had been stationed at Hillsgrove Airport in Warwick, R.I. prior to being transferred in the summer of 1941 to Fort Devens.

U.S. Army Air Corps Technical Report Of Aircraft Accident #42-4-21-23

Woonsocket Call, “Army Probing Devens Plane Crash In Which 2 Met Death”, April 22, 1942, Pg. 1


Fort Devens, MA – April 21, 1942

At about 7:45 p.m. on April 21, 1942, a U.S. Army O-52 (40-4702) was returning from a training flight when it suddenly crashed near a small pond at Fort Devens killing both occupants.

The dead were identified as 1st Lt. Gerald Patrick Kennedy, 26, of Providence, R.I., and 2nd Lt. Robert Wright Hoeker, 24, of Illiopolia, Ill. Later in the evening Kennedy was scheduled to attend a party in his honor due to his recent promotion to first lieutenant. As a point of fact, Lt. Hoeker wasn’t scheduled to be on that flight, but he had taken the place of another officer.

The aircraft was part of the 152nd Observation Squadron, and it was reported that these were the first airplane related fatalities in the history of the 152nd. The 152nd had been stationed at Hillsgrove Airport in Warwick, R.I. prior to being transferred in the summer of 1941 to Fort Devens.

Today there is a hanger named for Lt. Kennedy at T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, R.I. (Formerly Hillsgrove)

Woonsocket Call, “Army Probing Devens Plane Crash In Which 2 Met Death”, April 22, 1942, Pg. 1


Off Bridgeport, CT – April 21, 1942

On April 21, 1942, 2nd Lt. Willard J. Webb was piloting a P-38E, (Ser. No. 41-2111) at 15,000 feet over the Bridgeport Airport on a performance test flight. He’d just completed the flight and was starting to head down to the field when the aircraft began to violently shudder and shake. The following is an excerpt from the Army crash investigation technical report in Lt. Webb’s own words.

“At 12:58, I was directly over the field at 15,000 ft., at which time I recorded the completion of the performance test. I turned at 90 degrees to the right, and 90 degrees to the left, making a combination of a lazy 8 and a power let-down, at which time the plane began to shake violently and automatically going completely out of control. The violent shaking of the airplane left me without any control over the airplane. I cut my gun, rolled stabilizer back with no results. At this time, the speed was tremendous, so my next decision was to jump.”

Lt. Webb managed to bail out as the aircraft plunged into Long Island Sound. Ha too came down in the water and was rescued by a boat and brought ashore where he was treated for a dislocated shoulder.

At the time of his accident, Lt. Webb was assigned to the 61st Pursuit Squadron (I). He received his pilot’s wings October 31, 1941.


April 1942 Alternate Indian Ocean

1000 Hours, 25 May 1942, HMS Indomitable, Colombo Harbor, Ceylon – After going over the photographs and crew reports from the reconnaissance mission to Sabang along with reports from the submarines HMS Trusty and K-XV an attack plan for OPERATION COCKPIT was beginning to take shape. Every stream of reporting suggested that shipping at the base was fairly light and that in all probability Boyd's pilots would encounter a few merchant ships and some small combatants. However, it was also clear that the air base at Sabang hosted at least two squadrons of the deadly long range torpedo bombers that everyone in the Royal Navy was all too familiar with following the Force Z debacle in December 1941.

To Rear Admiral Boyd, hitting the enemy's planes on the ground and hitting them hard represented the number one priority for the operation. Not only were these bombers the greatest threat to his carriers, they were the enemy's primary offensive weapon at the base. The Royal Dutch Shell oil storage tanks were also viewed as an important target that would need to be hit. Despite a lack of major warships in the areas, Somerville still wanted some aircraft detailed to hitting ships in port as well as merchant ships were vital to the ability of the Japanese to supply their forces in Burma and the Andaman Islands.

With an overall notion of targeting priorities in mind, the Eastern Fleet's planners began working with the aircrews from No. 215 Squadron and the 10th US Air Force to formulate a plan of attack for the operation.

Johnboy

Fearless Leader

I suppose without a threat to the Aleutians, that will change USN deployments around Midway as well. 5 cruisers, 11 destroyers, and 6 submarines to play around with could change things. Certainly the two oilers up north could help the USN deploy a larger force around Midway.

Not having the S-boats being Diverted to Alaska would mean that Christie's submarine squadron out of Brisbane is much stronger than OTL and numerically superior to Lockwood in Fremantle. I'd wager that Lockwood gets to hang on to a few more submarines for a bit longer than OTL.

Zheng He

Note - Miwa's comment is OTL.

1000 Hours, 26 May 1942, HIJMS Yamato, Hashirajima Anchorage, Japan - With most of the forces participating in OPERATION MI due to sortie the next day, one last meeting was held onboard the battleship Yamato. The main concern was the location of the American carriers. Aerial reconnaissance had fixed Enterprise and Hornet in the South Pacific ten days earlier but that was not necessarily conclusive regarding their current location. Radio traffic intercepts suggested American carriers were still operating in the South Pacific and in the vicinity of American bases well to the south of the Hawaiian chain indicating that at least some American carriers were not in Hawaiian waters. However, this did not mean carriers were not near Hawaii either, particularly since it was unknown if the carrier USS Wasp had transferred to the Pacific from the Atlantic Fleet. It was also possible one of the carriers believed sunk had only been damaged. Overall nobody on the Combined Fleet's staff could understand why they were getting hits on possible American carriers operation in such a dispersed manner. Captain Miwa Yoshitake, air officer for the Combined Fleet summed up the general attitude, "This kind of enemy movement makes us feel that their tactics are poor. Since they are employing carriers in dispersion, they are being beaten into a corner."

Given the manner in which the Royal Navy's Eastern Fleet had operated during OPERATION C there was real concern among the officers gathered that the Pacific Fleet's carriers would try similar indirect tactics during OPERATION MI. Several scenarios came up such as what if the Americans launched a mass carrier strike against Rabaul or even Truk while the main strength of the Combined Fleet was occupied near Midway. There was also concern that since the plan called for Nagumo's carriers to operate north of Midway, any American carriers to the south would have free run at the Midway Invasion Force and the covering ships from Admiral Kondo's Second Fleet.

While no one would say it outright, it was a belief among many of the officers present to include Admiral Yamamoto that if the upcoming operation unfolded in that manner it was just fine. After all, the primary goal of OPERATION MI was to lure Nimitz's carriers into an ambush, if the invasion force and its supporting warships ended up serving as the bait that ensnared American flattops coming up from the south, then so be it.

Not surprisingly the one officer who was not happy with this arrangement was Vice Admiral Kondo Nobutake, commander of the Second Fleet and the Midway Invasion Force and its supporting task forces. Already skeptical of OPERATION MI, the notion that his forces could end taking it on the chin from American carriers in much the same way that Ozawa's ships got pummeled by the British during OPERATION C did not sit well with the cerebral Kondo.

Unfortunately for Kondo, his concerns were largely brushed off. Yamamoto and most of the other officers in the room felt that since Kondo commanded a much more powerful force than Ozawa did and would have one light carrier and three seaplane carriers at his disposal, his ships could handle themselves against the Americans until Nagumo's carriers came riding to the rescue. In such a scenario it was also hoped that Kondo's forces could attrite the Americans to some extent.

In order to try and better ascertain the location of the American carriers, Yamamoto agreed to expand OPERATION K, the planned aerial reconnaissance mission against Pearl Harbor to also include long range flights by H8K flying boats from Wotje and Tarawa against Johnston and Palmyra Atolls south of Hawaii.

Riain

Fearless Leader

Zheng He

Does anyone know what we had at Johnston at that time? I know we had a detachment of PBYs but were there any fighters? VMF-211 was at Palmyra but I haven't been able to find anything about Johnston.


21 April 1942 - History

Planes Taking Off the Hornet

Two weeks after Pearl Harbor President Roosevelt expressed a desire to strike back at the Japanese. The goal was two fold, to improve American morale and show the Japanese that they were not invulnerable. Navy Captain Francis Low who reported to Admiral King came up with the idea of flying a medium bombers off aircraft carriers to make an attack on Japan. After examining different alternatives it was determined that the B-25 a new medium bomber would be able to take off from carrier decks and would have the range to attack Japan.

Lieutenant Colonel James “Jimmy” Doolittle who had been a test pilot was put in charge of the project. After 2 B-25 successfully were launched from a carrier planning began in earnest. 25 planes were initially modified for the mission, 16 planes ended up being loaded on the USS Hornet on April 1, 1942. The Hornet was joined by the Enterprise and three cruisers sailed towards Japan.

At 7:38 in the morning with the Task Force still 650 nautical miles from Japan, it was spotted by a Japanese patrol craft. The boat was sunk. Doolittle and Captain of the Hornet Marc Mitscher decided not to take a chance and launch the planes 200 miles further than planned. All 16 aircraft launched successfully. Six hours later they began arriving over Japan. The planes split into different targets with one group bombing 10 military and industrial targets in Tokyo two in Yokohama and one each in Yokosuka, Nagoya, Kobe and Osaka. None of the bombers were shot down. Because of the early launch none would have the fuel to reach the planned they would all have to ditch or paratroop out. One plane headed to Russia and the crew was held for a year. All but ten of the rest of the crew managed to make their way to Chinese lines. Three crewman died while ditching their planes. Eight were captured by the Japanese and put on trial. Two were put to death and others were imprisoned for the rest of the war.

The raid was great success. Although it did not destroy significant military assets, it impacted Japanese moral and forced the Japanese to divert resources to defend the home islands. In the United States it successfully gave a much needed boost to moral and made a hero out of Doolittle.


21 April 1942 - History

This dispatch, passed by military authorities, is the first close-up report from a newspaperman who has visited one of the Japanese concentration centers in California.— The Editor.

BY HARRY FERGUSON
United Press Staff Correspondent
MANZANAR, Cal., April 21.—This is the youngest, strangest city in the world— inhabited by Japanese who hoist American Flags, put up pictures of George Washington and pray to the Christian God for the defeat of Japan’s armed forces.

It is a settlement that grew— in the magic time of three weeks— out of the sagebrush of the Mojave Desert. This is one of the places where the 118,000 Japanese who are being moved out of the strategic area of the Pacific Coast are being resettled.

Three weeks ago this was empty land between two mountain ranges.

Today it is a city of 3303 population with a fire department, a hospital, a police force, an English- language newspaper, baseball teams and community recreation centers.

It probably is the fastest growing town in the world because soon its population will be doubled and eventually quadrupled.

Most of the inhabitants are Japanese who have tasted American democracy and found it good. Probably 95 per cent at least of the Japanese here are loyal to the United States. They are the ones like S. Akamatsu, who moved into Building No. 6 and immediately put up pictures of George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and President Roosevelt.

Many of the loyal ones came here with fear and doubt in their hearts, expecting a Nazi- type concentration camp. Instead they found comfortable wooden buildings covered with tar paper, bathhouses and showers and plenty of wholesome food.

There is no fence around Manzanar now and while U.S. soldiers guard the main gate, there is nothing to prevent a Japanese from slipping away at night except the knowledge that he undoubtedly would be caught. Nobody has tried it. Emon Tatsui who was brought here from Los Angeles, looked around the camp a few days ago and decided to write a letter to his former employer, Murphy McHenry, Hollywood motion picture executive:

“Dear Sir: Kindly send my money to new address by U.S. Post Office money order. It may be too much trouble for you but we do not have bank open yet here. I like to tell you about this camp. Nice place to live. It better than Hollywood. Snow on mountains. Fresh air. Snow is bright. Every day is 80 to 85.

“No blackout in here. There are liberty, safe and build up new life. Hundreds of carpenter, hundreds plummer Hundreds so and so working hard to build up. One thousand Japanese coming to this camp almost every day now. Good ball ground. Baseball field. Swimming pool. School building. Danceroom is about start building then movie is next.

“Yours truly,
“EMON TATSUI.

“P.S. Over 300 miles away from your city but still in Los Angeles city limit.”

No attempts have been made to separate the loyal from the disloyal. Those whose sympathies lie with Japan are keeping quiet about it. Eventually there will be a police force of 75 Japanese and the camp management believes the loyal will maintain surveillance over the disloyal.

There are all types of Japanese here— rich, poor, old, young issei, mostly old persons born in Japan nisei, the younger group born in this country, and kibei, born in this country but sent back to Japan to be educated.

Democracy is at work among them. An election has been held to choose block leaders. Eventually from these block leaders will be chosen an advisory committee of five to work with the camp management in preserving order and arranging for the planting of crops. Manzanar hopes to become a self- sufficient community when irrigation is brought to the rich but arid land.

The lives of the inhabitants have fallen quickly into the normal pattern of living. The Japanese firemen play solitaire while waiting for an alarm. A baby has been born and named Kenji Ogawa. Howard Kumagai, a mechanical engineer, has fallen in love with Kimiki Wakamura, former beauty shop operator, has proposed and been accepted. Boys and girls make dates for dances and for the movies where James Cagney is extremely popular.

Some volunteered to evacuate their homes and come here. Among them is Miss Chiye Mori of Los Angeles, news editor of The Manzanar Free Press, the settlement’s mimeographed newspaper.

She was asked if she could write a brief statement explaining the feelings of the Japanese who were loyal to the United States. She turned to her portable typewriter and tapped this out on a sheet of paper:


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Search Term Record

Namesake:
Dr. Dero Goodman Downing, the fourth president of WKU, was born September 10, 1921, in Fountain Run, Kentucky. Dr. Downing began his long affiliation with WKU as a student in 1939, earning his undergraduate degree in mathematics in 1943. He was a prominent student leader during his undergraduate career and served as president of the senior class. He was also a star member of one of Coach E.A. Diddle's finest basketball teams, including the first WKU team to participate in the National Invitational Tournament.

Downing met his wife Harriet Elizabeth Yarnell, when she was a freshman at WKU. He enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1942, completing Midshipman School shortly before the couple married on October 22, 1943. After graduation, Downing servced as an officer on a ship carrying troops and supplies in the first wave to hit the beaches at Normandy on D-Day. He was engaged in naval activity across the English channel between England and France until the end of World War II and was released from active service with the rank of Lieutenant JG.

In 1946, Downing returned to WKU as a mathematics teachers and basketball coach at College High School, a division of Western's Training School. He completed his Master of Arts degree in 1947 and was named director of the College High Training School in 1956. Downing received his Ed. S. degree from Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville. He served as Registrar, Director of Admissions, Dean of Business Affairs, and Vice President for Administration before being named WKU's fourth President in 1969. He remained President until 1979, at which time he took the helm of the College Heights Foundation. He served as President of the Foundation until 1997, and then stayed actively involved as Chairman of the CHF Board of Directors until his death on April 4, 2011.

The WKU spirit filled Dero Downing's personal and professional life. He and Harriet shared a partnership that started on the hill when they met as students and resulted in 67 years of marriage and five children who all became graduates of WKU. Downing's faith and passions were forged by beliefs planted deep within his Kentucky roots, while his strong values and loyalties were shaped by predecessors to the office he held for ten years. His life was lived in witness to and with significant influence on those rare and rich traditions that distinguished WKU in American higher education.

Selected education and honors:

AB degree from Western, 1943
MA degree from Western, 1947
Ed. S. degree from Peabody College, 1958
Downing University Center named, 1970
Honorary Doctor of Humanities from Kentucky Wesleyan, 1970
Honorary Doctor of Laws from Murray, 1972
Honorary Doctor of Humanities from Morehead, 1974
Honorary Doctor of Laws from Eastern, 1979
President emeritus from Western, 1979
WKU Sofia-Downing International Center named, 2002
WKU ROTC Hall of Fame, 2007

History:
Downing University Center aka DUC is a 172,000 square foot, air-conditioned building. "The first floor will contain student shops, mechanical rooms and storage areas. The main floor will include a cafeteria seating about 500 persons, a grill accommodating about 560, a 750-seat theater and the main entrance lobby. On the third floor will be a university store, browsing library and reading room, offices of the Associated Students, music and television rooms, a rehearsal room, meeting rooms, and classrooms. Bowling lanes, billiards, table tennis and shuffleboard facilities provided on the fourth floor. ["University Center Bids Due in Sept.," Park City Daily News] It replaced the Garrett Conference Center as the Student Union.

For more information regarding student union buildings see Cedar House and Garrett Conference Center.

Additions:
1997 - McDonald's, Chik-fil-A, Freshens, Topper Café were added

1999 - renovations on 4th floor due to major storm in 1998, also entire building received new lighting, a dance floor with a sound system, an expanded outdoor eating area, and a huge arcade. This was the first major renovation since 1970 when the building was completed.

2003 - enclosed walkway around south end of DUC with brick and glass, expanded dinning space by 400 seats, added second floor space

2005 - construction of Student Success Center which includes Academic Advising Center, Career Services Center, and Students with Disabilities Services

2012-2014 - renovation of entire building, building renamed Downing Student Center

College Heights Herald:
1968 September 19, p. 27
1969 March 20, p. 8
1970 October 10, p. 2 November 17, p. 1
1971 October 5, p. 4 October 16, p. 3B
1972 March 28 p. 1
1973 January 16, p. 1 January 19, p. 1, August 28, p. 15A
1974 August 27, p. 3A October 1, p. 1
1975 August 26, p. 10B
1976 August 24, p. 11A
1977 February 11, p. 9 February 18, p. 6
1978 August 31, p. 12 October 12, p. 7
1979 February 20, p. 8
1981 October 13, p. 19
1984 October 16, p. 13
1985 August 27, p. 7B
1986 February 25, p. 11 October 14, p. 16
1987 February 5, p. 1 March 3, p. 5 Sept. 1, p. 11 Nov. 3, p. 7
1992 October 6, p. 1
1993 November 11, p. 1
1994 February 8, p. 8
1995 January 12, p. 12
1997 August 28, p. 6
1998 April 21 p. 1A April 23, p. 1 September 1, p. 11
1999 February 4, p. 7 Feb. 23, p. 8 April 13, pp. 1 & 5 August 31, p. 5 2000 January 13, p. 10 August 31, p. 3 October 31, p. 5
2001 November 15, p. 6

Park City Daily News:
"$12.5 Million in Steel and Concrete," Aug. 4, 1968
"$3.98 Million Low Bid on WKU Center," Sept. 20, 1968
Mink, Jenna. "Dero Downing Dies at Age 89," April 5, 2011
"University Center Bids Due in Sept.," Aug. 4, 1968
"WKU Center Bids Total $1.2 Million," Sep. 13, 1968

Louisville Courier-Journal:
Brown, Mike. "New Western Center Draws Students," Nov. 23, 1970
"New Center in Western Kentucky's Future," Nov. 2, 1968
"Western to Build $4 Million Center," Aug. 4, 1968

1967 - August 4
1968 - September 21
1969 - July 8 - building named
1982 - April 24

UA3/1/1 Kelly Thompson Correspondence / Subject File - inventory

UA30/1/1 Planning, Design & Construction - Blueprints, Drawings & Plans - inventory


21 April 1942 - History

Many of the arguments against women in combat contain the cry that women should not be prisoners of war - well get real folks - civilian and military women have already been prisoners of war!

Major Pauline Cushman was arrested and imprisoned by the Confederacy and sentenced to hang for being a spy. The arrival of Union troops saved her from the gallows.

Nancy Hart served as a Confederate scout, guide and spy, carrying messages between the Southern Armies. Nancy was twenty years old when she was captured by the Yankees and jailed. Nancy gained the trust of one of her guards, got his weapon from him, shot him and escaped.



Often ignored by history is the story of the women prisoners of war taken captive during World War Two. Sixty seven Army nurses and sixteen Navy nurses spent three years as prisoners of the Japanese. Many were captured when Corregidor fell in 1942 and were subsequently transported to the Santo Tomas Internment camp in Manila, in the Philippines. Santo Tomas was not liberated until February of 1945. Five Navy nurses were captured on Guam and interned in a military prison in Japan.

Here is a rare WWII poster featuring the Nurses on Corregidor in a Japanese POW camp. One seriously doubts that they would be in whites with red and blue capes while prisoners but the point was being made to appeal to defense workers.

Two days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, 5 Navy nurses on Guam were taken prisoner by the Japanese. Lieutenants (jg) Leona Jackson, Lorraine Christiansen, Virginia Fogerty and Doris Yetter, under the command of Chief Nurse Marion Olds. Later in 1942 their captors transported them to Japan. They were held for three months in Zentsuji Prison on Shikoku Island and were then moved to Eastern Lodge in Kobe. They were repatriated in August of 1942.

Clara Gordon Main, a stewardess on the SS President Harrison, captured by the Japanese on December 7, 1941, while rescuing U.S. Marines from China, was among the first American Prisoners of War.
For more about women in the U.S. Maritime Service please visit: http://www.usmm.org/women.html

In May of 1943 Navy Lieutenants (jg) Mary Chapman, Bertha Evans, Helen Gorzelanski, Mary Harrington, Margaret Nash, Goldie O'Haver, Eldene Paige, Susie Pitcher, Dorothy Still and C. Edwina Todd, under the command of Chief Nurse Laura Cobb, were sent to the prison camp at Los Banos. They established an infirmary although they had virtually no medicine or supplies and continued to nurse the sick until Los Banos was liberated in February of 1945.

The new book featured below is quite high on my recommended reading list. It is heartwarming and at the same time heartbreaking. Told in a style that puts the reader directly into the lives of these valiant nurses - it takes you on a journey through the horrors of World War Two in the Pacific - as if you were there. The author draws you into the Malinta Tunnel underground hospital on Corregidor and describes the almost superhuman endurance of the military nurses working there to save their patients - and she does it with balanced style. She reveals their triumphs and their humor, along with the dreary and miserable conditions under which they worked. When the Japanese capture the nurses and send them to Santo Tomas internment camp you journey with them through their three years as prisoners and their ultimate liberation.
The author, Dr Elizabeth Norman, has done a remarkable job - using interviews, diaries, letters, and a wealth of research - in telling this story that has been hidden by history.

We Band of Angels Elizabeth Norman.The Untold Story of American Nurses Trapped on Bataan by the Japanese. The only group of American military women captured and imprisoned by an enemy. For excerpts, reviews, photos and a timeline for this particular book: (Note - this will open a new browser window, to return simply close it.) Book Info

For more of the story of one of the former prisoners -1st Lt. Frankie T. Lewey, USANC - please visit Lt. Lewey

In Europe Lt Reba Whittle, (later Tobiason), Army Nurse Corps, was flying on an air evac mission when the plane was shot down by the Germans in September 1944. . She and her crew were captured and imprisoned. Lt Whittle was wounded yet performed nursing duties for the prisoners in the camp. They were repatriated to Switzerland. Lt Whittle was awarded the Air Medal and the Purple Heart. At the time of her capture she had flown over forty missions. Her injuries subsequently disqualified her from flying and her status as a POW was not revealed until much later.

In Europe U.S.-born Mildred Harnack-Fish, a German Resistance fighter was captured, interned, and executed in Berlin's Plotzense Prison in 1943.

Agnes Newton Keith was imprisoned in several Japanese camps from 1941 until the end of the war. Her story was told in the movie "Three Came Home" starring Claudette Colbert.

The true story of the women who were the wives and daughters of British, Dutch and Australian colonialists and who formed a vocal orchestra while prisoners of the Japanese in Sumatra was portrayed in the film "Paradise Road" with Glenn Close.

During the Vietnam War Monika Schwinn, a German nurse, was held captive for three and a half years - at one time the only woman prisoner at the "Hanoi Hilton".

The following missionaries were POWs:
Evelyn Anderson, captured and later burned to death in Kengkok, Laos, 1972. Remains recovered and returned to U.S.

Beatrice Kosin was captured and burned to death in Kengkok, Laos, 1972. Remains recovered and returned to U.S.

Betty Ann Olsen was captured during a raid on the leprosarium in Ban Me Thuot during Tet 1968. She died in 1968 and was buried somewhere along Ho Chi Minh Trail by fellow POW, Michael Benge.

Eleanor Ardel Vietti was captured at the leprosarium in Ban Me Thuot, May 30, 1962. She is still listed as POW.

Operation Desert Storm saw the capture and imprisonment of an Army Flight Surgeon, Major Rhonda Cornum and an Army Transportation Specialist-Sp4 Melissa Rathbun-Nealy.
The real story of Major Cornum's experiences as a prisoner is told in her own words in this excellent book "She Went to War". It is a remarkable narrative by a courageous military officer - who happens to be a woman, wife and mother as well as a physician, pilot and soldier.

To be sure there are many more women who have been prisoners of war. Military women and civilian women from nations around the world, from wars long forgotten, and from covert operations never revealed. They have been denied recognition, denied awards and decorations, and denied their rightful place in history. The American military refuses to acknowledge their combat status. The American public thinks it never happened. The righteous radicals leave it out in their rhetoric against women in the military.

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