The story

Major Wheeler Str - History

Major Wheeler

(Str: dp. 7,020,; 1. 319'911; b. 46'; dr. 22'2"; s. 10.5 k.;
cpl. 70; a. 2 4")

Major Wheeler was launched by Hanlon Drydock & Shipbuilding Co., Oakland, Calif., 4 July 1918; acquired by the Navy from USSB 30 September 1918; and commissioned 8 October 1918.

The new freighter departed San Pedro, Calif., 3 November 1918 for Callao, Peru, where she exchanged a general cargo for nitrates needed for manufacturing munitions. Steaming via Arica, Chile, and Cape Horn she arrived Charleston, S.C., 26 December. She departed New York 15 February 1919 and arrived, via Trinidad, at Santos, Brazil, 16 March. After calls along the Brazilian coast she returned to New York 9 May. Major Wheeler decommissioned there 19 May 1919 and returned to USSB. In 1922 she was sold to Baltimore, SS Co.

An American Family History

John Wheeler was born in 1630 in England.

He may have married Mary Cockshutt (Causine), but she seems to have married Henry Adams.

John Wheeler (1654),
James Wheeler (1656, married Elizabeth Theobald),
Mary Wheeler (1658),
Thomas Wheeler (1660),
Winnifred Wheeler (1663),
Ignatius Wheeler (1665), and
Francis Wheeler (1670).

Wheeler's Choice in Charles County was surveyed for him on August 23, 1662. It was 400 acres.

In 1684 John Wheeler, Sr. made Richard and Matthew Beard, sons of Richard Beard Jr., the reversionary heirs to Timberneck, so when he died, Timberneck reverted to Richard and Matthew.

James Wheeler was born on December 16, 1656, in Charles County, Maryland. He was the son of John and MaryWheeler.

Elizabeth and James' children included:
Anne Wheeler (about 1687),
John Wheeler (about 1687), and
James Wheeler (about 1680).

In March, 1679 James sued Thomas Hussey for a debt of 400 pounds of tobacco. In December, 1680 he sued Thomas Hussey for execution on the earlier judgement. In April, 1681, John Hussey counter-sued James for 3,000 pounds of tobacco.

During Fendall's Rebellion in August, 1661

Whereupon Godfrey said he would goe to Church next Sonday, and gett what men he could there to joyne with those men he had already sent for to meete him in armes at Church that soe they might meete the troope at the head of Portobacco Creeke on Monday,

and then they would take Capt Randolph Brandt and tye him, and turne James Wheeler out of the troope, (they being the onely Roman Catholicks in the troope) that they might rescue ffendall, that he the sd Boyden came late to Church on Sonday purposely for feare of being engaged by Godfrey

Elizabeth died on May 11, 1682 in Charles County, Maryland.

After Elizabeth died, James married Catherine.

James died in December, 1684.

Catherine married Moses Jones. She passed away shortly after, and Moses Jones then married Elizabeth Jenkins.

James died in December, 1684.

from The Genealogical and Encyclopedic History of the Wheeler Family in America by Albert Gallatin Wheeler, American College of Genealogy

John Wheeler. He is the only original ancestor of the Maryland branch of the family of whom anything is known definitely. The time of his immigration and the place in Virginia to which he immigrated are matters of conjecture. The Maryland Archives show that a John Wheeler "denizated" in Maryland in the year 1662. . .

John Wheeler next appears in the Land Records of Maryland, Liber 5, folio 400, where it is recorded that Wheeler's Choice was surveyed for him on Aug. 23, 1662, and patented to him July 10, 1663. This property was situated in Charles County and consisted, according to the record of survey, of 400 acres. He was first a captain and then a major in the Maryland Militia of Charles County. Archives of Maryland, vol. 2, p. 551 states that he was granted 2000 lbs. of tobacco for services, he being mentioned at this time as "Captain."

In Council Proceedings, Maryland Archives vol. 7, p. 79, A. D. 1681, Major John Wheeler petitions for an allowance of charges in suing out mandamus on certain land. It is recorded in the Proceedings of the General Assembly, Oct. and Nov. 1683, Archives vol. 7, p. 611, that John Wheeler of Charles County was appointed Commissioner for Port Towns. In Council Proceedings for 1685 (Archives vol. 7, p. 386) Major John Wheeler is named Justice for Charles County, and (ibid. vol. 8, p. 7) the same person was appointed Commissioner of Court in Charles County in 1687. In proceedings of the General Assembly for 1689 Major John Wheeler is spoken of as belonging to the militia of Charles County. . .

It. I give unto my Grandson James Wheeler the son of my son James Wheeler deceased to him his heirs forever two hundred acres of land itt being another part of the five hundred acres afore sd beginning at the end of John Wheelers afore sd .

It. I give and bequeath unto my Grand Daughter Ann Wheeler the daughter of my son James Wheeler deceased one hundred acres of land it being the remainer part of the five hundred acres of land called Wheelers purchase the other fore hundred to be given to John Wheeler & James Wheeler to her and her heirs forever alsoe I give to my Gran Daughter Ann Wheeler one hundred and sixty five acres of land cauld Wheelers delight & if the sd. Ann Wheeler should dye without heirs of the body lawfully begotten therm to fall to Richard Wheeler the son of my son Thomas and his heirs forever together with one filey to be delivered at my death . . .

John Wheeler, born 1654.
James Wheeler, born Dec. 16, 1656.
Mary Wheeler, born March 22, 1658.
Thomas Wheeler, born March 18, 1660.
Winnifred Wheeler, born March, 1663.
Ignatius Wheeler, born May, 1665.
Francis Wheeler.

James Wheeler, son of John (9000). Born Dec. 16, 1656. He died before Nov. 11, 1693, the date of his father's will in which his children are spoken of as the children of "my son James Wheeler deed."

He married Katherine, who after his decease married for her second husband, Moses Jones. Children: (mentioned in their grandfather's will.)

James Wheeler 9.188 A CH £33.19.1 #13404 Aug 16 1686
The amount of the inventory is equivalent to #8149.
Payments to: Ignatius Warren, William Newman, William Dent, George Brent, Thomas Gavan, Thomas Hussy, Edward Rookard, Mrs. Mary Chandler, Cornelius Haddocks, Richard Harrison, Thomas Wheeler, Roger Dickenson, Humphrey Warren, Dr. John Lemair, John Wheeler, Ralph Shawe, Mr. Robert Doyne, Henry Hardy per receipt of Mr. Burford, Samuel Cockett, John Booker, Robert Taylour.
Executrix: Katharine Jones, wife of Moses Jones

James Wheeler 10.1 I £16.10.0 Mar 24 1687
Appraisers: John Clarke, John Godshall.

James Wheelar (planter) 10.364 A CH £16.10.0 #11340 (May 1693)
The amount of the inventory is equivalent to #3960.
Payments to: Joshua Wilkingson, Cornelious Maddock, Henry Maries, Joseph Gray, James Royston, Edward Rookewood, Hugh Aspitall, William Saunders, John Probert, Joseph Bullet, Capt. Phillip Hoskins, Robert Midleton,, Nicholas Nichollson, Thomas Frederick, John Posey, Thomas Jenkins, Phillip Lynes, John Gray, Richard Harrison, James Barret, John Cornish, Clebourne Lomax, John Clarke & John Godshall, Michaell Ashford, Capt. Philip Hoskins & Philip Lynes, John Pryor, John Martin, Richard Boughton, Robert Doyne, William Dent, Cornelious Maddock, Richard Newton, Maj. James Smallwood.
Mentions: Maj. John Wheelar & Moses Jones at difference on behalf of orphans (James and Anne).
Executrix: Katharine Jones (relict), deceased wife of Moses Jones.

February 6, 1942 – This Day During World War ll – U-107 sank US freighter Major Wheeler

February 6, 1942 – German submarine U-107 sank US freighter Major Wheeler off the east coast of the United States, killing the entire crew of 35. Off Bermuda
Major Wheeler, a 3431 gross ton (7020 tons displacement) freighter, was built at Oakland, California. Completed in September 1918, she was commissioned in the Navy on 8 October 1918 as USS Major Wheeler (ID # 3637).
At 16.08 hours on 6 February 1942 the unescorted and unarmed Major Wheeler (Master Frank Walter Losey) was hit on starboard side underneath the aft mast by one G7e torpedo from U-107 while steaming on a nonevasive course in good weather about 130 miles east-southeast of Cape Hatteras. The U-boat had spotted another freighter, but disengaged to chase the Major Wheeler which developed a list to starboard after being hit and sank in two minutes by the stern. None of the eight officers and 27 crewmen survived. SS Major Wheeler


The Mississippi is one of the world’s great rivers. It spans 3,860 miles (6,210 km) of length as measured using its northernmost west fork, the Missouri River, which starts in the Rocky Mountains in Montana, joining the Mississippi proper in the state of Missouri. The Ohio River and Tennessee River are other tributaries on its east, and the Arkansas, Platte and Red River of Texas on the west. The Mississippi itself starts at Lake Itasca in Minnesota, and the river wends its way through the center of the country, forming parts of the boundaries of ten states, dividing east and west, and furthering trade and culture.

Steamboats on the Mississippi benefited from technology and political changes. The US bought the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803. At the time, a semi-bankrupt Napoleon was attempting to extend his hegemony over Europe in what came to be known as the Napoleonic Wars. As a result, the US was then free to expand westward out of the Ohio valley and into the Great Plains and the Southwest. The success of the Charlotte Dundas in Scotland in 1801 and Robert Fulton's Clermont on the Hudson River in 1807 proved the concept of the steamboat. At this time, walking beam mill engines, of the Boulton and Watt variety, were dropped onto wood barges with paddles to create an instant powerboat.The overhead engines of the "walking beam" type became the standard Atlantic Seaboard paddle engine for the next 80 years. For smaller boats, Watt perfected the side-lever engine with the engine cut down using side bell-cranks to lower the center of gravity. Sidewheel paddlers were the first to enter the scene. In 1811 the steamer New Orleans was built in Pittsburgh for Fulton and Livingston. Fulton started steamboat service between Natchez and New Orleans.

The War of 1812 caused political upheaval in the south, particularly with the Royal Navy blockade of the US Gulf Coast ports but after the Treaty of Ghent and resumption of peace, New Orleans was firmly American, after passing through French and Spanish hands. New Orleans became the great port on the mouth of the Mississippi.

The historical roots of the prototypical Mississippi steamboat, or Western Rivers steamboat, can be traced to designs by easterners like Oliver Evans, John Fitch, Daniel French, Robert Fulton, Nicholas Roosevelt, James Rumsey and John Stevens. [1] [2] In the span of just six years the evolution of the prototypical Mississippi steamboat would be well underway.

    , or Orleans, was the first Mississippi steamboat. [3] Launched in 1811 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania for a company organized by Robert Livingston and Robert Fulton, her designer, she was a large, heavy side-wheeler with a deep draft. [1][4][5] Her low-pressure Boulton and Watt steam engine operated a complex power train that was also heavy and inefficient. [1] was the second Mississippi steamboat. [6] Launched in 1813 at Pittsburgh for Daniel D. Smith, she was much smaller than the New Orleans. [7] With an engine and power train of Daniel French's design and manufacture, the Comet was the first Mississippi steamboat to be powered by a light weight and efficient high-pressure engine turning a stern paddle wheel. [8]
  • Vesuvius was the third Mississippi steamboat. [9] Launched in 1814 at Pittsburgh for the company headed by Robert Livingston and Robert Fulton, her designer, she was very similar to the New Orleans. [10] , or Enterprize, was the fourth Mississippi steamboat. [11] Launched in 1814 at Brownsville, Pennsylvania for the Monongahela and Ohio Steam Boat Company, she was a dramatic departure from Fulton's boats. [1] The Enterprise - featuring a high-pressure steam engine, a single stern paddle wheel, and shoal draft - proved to be better suited for use on the Mississippi than Fulton's boats. [1][12][13] The Enterprise clearly demonstrated the suitability of French's design during her epic voyage from New Orleans to Brownsville, a distance of more than 2,000 miles (3,200 km) performed against the powerful currents of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. [14]
  • Washington was launched in 1816 at Wheeling, West Virginia for Henry Shreve and partners. [15] George White built the boat and Daniel French constructed the engine and drive train at Brownsville. [16] She was the first steamboat with two decks, the predecessor of the Mississippi steamboats of later years. [12] The upper deck was reserved for passengers and the main deck was used for the boiler, increasing the space below the main deck for carrying cargo. [12] With a draft of 4 feet (1.2 m), she was propelled by a high-pressure, horizontally mounted engine turning a single stern paddle wheel. [12] In the spring of 1817 the Washington made the voyage from New Orleans to Louisville in 25 days, equalling the record set two years earlier by the Enterprise, a much smaller boat. [17]

In the 1810s there were 20 boats on the river by the 1830s there were more than 1200. By the 1820s, with the Southern states joining the Union and the land converted to cotton plantations so indicative of the Antebellum South, methods were needed to move the bales of cotton, rice, timber, tobacco, and molasses. The steamboat was perfect. America boomed in the age of Jackson. Population moved west, and more farms were established. In the 1820s steamers were fueled first by wood, then coal, which pushed barges of coal from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. Regular steamboat commerce began between Pittsburgh and Louisville.

Vessels were made of wood—typically ranging in length from 40 to nearly 300 feet (91 m) in length, 10 to 80 feet (24 m) wide, drawing only about one to five feet of water loaded, and in fact it was commonly said that they could "navigate on a heavy dew." [19] The boats had kingposts or internal masts to support hogchains, or iron trusses, which prevented the hull from sagging. A second deck was added, the Texas Deck, to provide cabins and passenger areas. All was built from wood. Stairs, galleys, parlors were also added. Often the boats became quite ornate with wood trim, velvet, plush chairs, gilt edging and other trimmings sometimes featured as per the owner's taste and budget. Wood burning boilers were forward center to distribute weight. The engines were also amidships, or at the stern depending on if the vessel was a sternwheeler or sidewheeler. Two rudders were fitted to help steer the ship.

Vessels, on average, only lasted about five years due to the wooden hulls being breached, poor maintenance, fires, general wear and tear, and the common boiler explosion. Early trips up the Mississippi River took three weeks to get to the Ohio. Later, with better pilots, more powerful engines and boilers, removal of obstacles and experienced rivermen knowing where the sand bars were, the figure was reduced to 4 days. Collisions and snags were constant perils.

Natchez I Edit

The first Natchez was a low pressure sidewheel steamboat built in New York City in 1823. It originally ran between New Orleans and Natchez, Mississippi, and later catered to Vicksburg, Mississippi. Its most notable passenger was Marquis de Lafayette, the French hero of the American Revolutionary War, in 1825. Fire destroyed it, while in New Orleans, on September 4, 1835.

Natchez II Edit

Natchez II was the first built for Captain Thomas P. Leathers, at Crayfish Bayou, and ran from 1845 to 1848. It was a fast two-boiler boat, 175 feet (53 m) long, with red smokestacks, that sailed between New Orleans and Vicksburg, Mississippi. It was built in Cincinnati, Ohio, Leathers sold it in 1848. It was abandoned in 1852.

Natchez III Edit

Natchez III was funded by the sale of the first. It was 191 feet (58 m) long. Leathers operated it from 1848 to 1853. On March 10, 1866, it sank at Mobile, Alabama due to rotting.

Natchez IV Edit

Natchez IV was built in Cincinnati, Ohio. It was 270 feet (82 m) long, had six boilers, and could hold 4,000 bales of cotton. It operated for six weeks. On January 1, 1854, the ship collided with the Pearl at Plaquemine, Louisiana, causing the Pearl to sink. A wharf fire on February 5, 1854 at New Orleans caused it to burn down, as did 10-12 other ships.

Natchez V Edit

Natchez V was also built in Cincinnati, as Captain Leathers returned there quickly after the destruction of the third. It was also six boilers, but this one could hold 4,400 cotton bales. This one was used by Leathers until 1859. In 1860 it was destroyed while serving as a wharfboat at Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Natchez VI Edit

Natchez VI was again a Cincinnati-built boat. It was 273 feet (83 m) long. The capacity was 5,000 cotton bales but the power remained the same. It helped transport Jefferson Davis from his river plantation home on the Mississippi River after he heard he was chosen president of the Confederacy. Even after the war, Davis would insist on using Leather's boats to transport him to and from his plantation, Brierfield. Natchez VI was also used to transport Confederate troops to Memphis, Tennessee. After Union invaders captured Memphis, the boat was moved to the Yazoo River. On March 13, 1863, it was burned either by accident or to keep it out of Union hands at Honey Island. Remains were raised from the river in 2007.

Natchez VIII Edit

Natchez VIII was launched August 2, 1879 by the Cincinnati Marine Ways. It was 303.5 feet (92.5 m) long, with a beam of 45.5 feet (13.9 m), 38.5 feet (11.7 m) floor, and 10 feet (3.0 m) hold depth. It had eight steel boilers that were 36 feet (11 m) long and had a diameter of 42 inches (1,100 mm), and thirteen engines. It had 47 elegant staterooms. Camp scenes of Natchez Indians wardancing and sunworshipping ornamented the fore and aft panels of the main cabin, which also had stained glass windows depicting Indians. The total cost of the boat was $125,000. Declaring that the War was over, on March 4, 1885, Leathers raised the American flag when the new Natchez passed by Vicksburg, the first time he hoisted the American flag on one of his ships since 1860. By 1887 lack of business had stymied the Natchez. In 1888 it was renovated back to perfect condition for $6000. In January 1889 it burned down at Lake Providence, Louisiana. Captain Leathers, deciding he was too old to build a new Natchez, retired. Jefferson Davis sent a letter of condolences on January 5, 1889, to Leathers over the loss of the boat. Much of the cabin was salvageable, but the hull broke up due to sand washing within.

In 1824 Congress passed an "Act to Improve the Navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" and "to remove sand bars on the Ohio and planters, sawyers, and snags on the Mississippi". The Army Corps of Engineers was given the job. In 1829, there were surveys of the two major obstacles on the upper Mississippi, the Des Moines Rapids and the Rock Island Rapids, where the river was shallow and the riverbed was rock. The Des Moines Rapids were about 11 miles (18 km) long and, traveling upriver, began just above the mouth of the Des Moines River at Keokuk, Iowa. The Rock Island Rapids were between Rock Island and Moline, Illinois. Both rapids were considered virtually impassable. The Army Corps of Engineers recommended the excavation of a 5 ft (1.5 m) deep channel at the Des Moines Rapids, but work did not begin until after Lieutenant Robert E. Lee endorsed the project in 1837. In 1848, the Illinois and Michigan Canal was built to connect the Mississippi River to Lake Michigan via the Illinois River near Peru, Illinois. The Corps later also began excavating the Rock Island Rapids. By 1866, it had become evident that excavation was impractical, and it was decided to build a canal around the Des Moines Rapids. That canal opened in 1877, but the Rock Island Rapids remained an obstacle.

St. Louis became an important trade center, not only for the overland route for the Oregon and California trails, but as a supply point for the Mississippi. Rapids north of the city made St. Louis the northernmost navigable port for many large boats. The Zebulon Pike and his sisters soon transformed St. Louis into a bustling boom town, commercial center, and inland port. By the 1830s, it was common to see more than 150 steamboats at the St. Louis levee at one time. Immigrants flooded into St. Louis after 1840, particularly from Germany. During Reconstruction, rural Southern blacks flooded into St. Louis as well, seeking better opportunity. By the 1850s, St. Louis had become the largest U. S. city west of Pittsburgh, and the second-largest port in the country, with a commercial tonnage exceeded only by New York. James Eads was a famed engineer who ran a shipyard and first built riverboats in the 1850s, then armed riverboats and finally the legendary bridge over the Mississippi. His Mound City Ironworks and shipyard was famous, and featured often in the naming of vessels.

Memphis became another major port on the Mississippi. It was the slave port. Hence the city was contested in the Civil War.

The First Battle of Memphis was a naval battle fought on the Mississippi River immediately above the city of Memphis on June 6, 1862, during the American Civil War. The engagement was witnessed by many of the citizens of Memphis. It resulted in a crushing defeat for the Rebels, and marked the virtual eradication of a Confederate naval presence on the river. Despite the lopsided outcome, the Union Army failed to grasp its strategic significance. Its primary historical importance is that it was the last time civilians with no prior military experience were permitted to command ships in combat.

Tom Lee Park on the Memphis riverfront is named for an African-American riverworker who became a civic hero. Tom Lee could not swim. Nevertheless, he single-handedly rescued thirty-two people from drowning when the steamer M.E. Norman sank in 1925.

Washington, Louisiana, is not located directly on the Mississippi River it is more than 30 miles west of the Mississippi on Bayou Courtableau. Nevertheless, the port there was the largest between New Orleans and St. Louis during much of the 19th century. [20] Products such as cotton, sugar, and livestock were brought to Washington overland or by small boat and then transferred to the steam packets for shipment to New Orleans. By the mid-19th century, Washington developed a thriving trade and became the most important port in the vicinity of St. Landry Parish. This can be seen in the number of steamers that used the port and in the volume of freight. In 1860 there were 93 steam packets operating in the Bayou Courtableau trade, as compared with 90 in Bayou Lefourche and 94 in Bayou Teche. An 1877 tabulation showed the total quantity of goods shipped from Washington to New Orleans: 30,000 bales of cotton, 32,000 sacks of cotton seed, 3,000 hogsheads of sugar, 5,800 barrels of molasses, 30,000 dozen poultry, As many as 93 packets came to Washington during the steamboat era which ended in 1900.

Many of the works of Mark Twain deal with or take place near the Mississippi River. One of his first major works, Life on the Mississippi, is in part a history of the river, in part a memoir of Twain's experiences on the river, and a collection of tales that either take place on or are associated with the river. Twain's most famous work, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is largely a journey down the river. The novel works as an episodic meditation on American culture with the river having multiple different meanings including independence, escape, freedom, and adventure.

Twain himself worked as a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi for a few years. A steamboat pilot needed a vast knowledge of the ever-changing river to be able to stop at any of the hundreds of ports and wood-lots along the river banks. Twain meticulously studied 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of the Mississippi for two and a half years before he received his steamboat pilot license in 1859. While training, he convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him. Henry died on June 21, 1858, when the steamboat he was working on, the Pennsylvania, exploded.

Between 1811 and 1853, an estimated 7,000 fatalities occurred as a result of catastrophic boiler explosions on steamboats operating on the Mississippi and its tributaries. Due to a combination of poor boiler construction and unsafe operation, steamboat explosions were a frequent occurrence. Charles Dickens remarked on the issue in his 1842 travelogue American Notes, writing, ". [American] steamboats usually blow up one or two a week in the season."

Boilers used in early Mississippi steamboats were constructed from many small pieces of riveted cast iron, as the process to produce larger, stronger sheets of metal had not yet been developed. Most suffered from poor workmanship in their construction, and were prone to failure. The inherent danger of these boilers was further compounded by widespread unsafe practices in their operation. Steamboat engines were routinely pushed well beyond their design limits, tended by engineers who often lacked a full understanding of the engine's operating principles. With a complete absence of regulatory oversight, most steamboats were not adequately maintained or inspected, leading to more frequent catastrophic failures. [21]

Due to the vast superiority riverboats then held over all forms of land transportation, passengers were willing to accept the high risk of a boiler explosion. Boat operators were not required to carry and kind of insurance and were not held liable for accidents, and so had little incentive to improve safety. Only after a great number of tragedies would this situation change. In 1825, the explosion of the "Teche" killed 60. The "Ohio" and the "Macon" both exploded the following year in 1826 the "Union" and the "Hornet" in 1827 the "Grampus" in 1828 the "Patriot" and the "Kenawa" in 1829 the "Car of Commerce" and the "Portsmouth" in 1830 and the "Moselle" in 1838.

Mark Twain described a boiler explosion which occurred aboard the steamboat "Pennsylvania" in 1858. Among the injured passengers was his brother, Henry Clemens, who had been fatally scalded by steam. Henry was taken to an improvised hospital, but died shortly after while accompanied by Twain. Twain later wrote of his brother's death, recounting, "For forty-eight hours I labored at the bedside of my poor burned and bruised but uncomplaining brother. and then the star of my hope went out and left me in the gloom of despair. "

On February 24, 1830, as the "Helen McGragor" prepared to pull away from the Memphis waterfront the starboard boiler exploded, most likely due to a failure to relieve excess pressure built up while the boat was stationary. The blast itself and flying debris killed a number of people, while about 30 others were scalded to death. On April 27, 1865, a damaged boiler on the "Sultana" exploded seven miles north of Memphis while carrying a massively overweight load of released Union army POWs. The initial blast along with the fire that immediately followed killed at least 1,192, making it the deadliest maritime disaster in U.S. history.

Gambling took many forms on riverboats. Gambling with one's life with the boilers aside, there were sharks around willing to fleece the unsuspecting rube. As cities passed ordinances against gaming houses in town, the cheats moved to the unregulated waters of the Mississippi aboard river steamers.

There was also gambling with the racing of boats up the river. Bets were made on a favorite vessel. Pushing the boilers hard in races would also cause fires to break out on the wooden deck structures.

One of the enduring issues in American government is the proper balance of power between the national government and the state governments. This struggle for power was evident from the earliest days of American government and is the underlying issue in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden. In 1808, Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston were granted a monopoly from the New York state government to operate steamboats on the state's waters. This meant that only their steamboats could operate on the waterways of New York, including those bodies of water that stretched between states, called interstate waterways. This monopoly was very important because steamboat traffic, which carried both people and goods, was very profitable. Aaron Ogden held a Fulton-Livingston license to operate steamboats under this monopoly. He operated steamboats between New Jersey and New York. However, another man named Thomas Gibbons competed with Aaron Ogden on this same route. Gibbons did not have a Fulton-Livingston license, but instead had a federal (national) coasting license, granted under a 1793 act of Congress.

The United States at this time was a loose confederation of states. The federal government was weak, and so regulating vessels, even for gaming statutes, was an imposition on States Rights. The Interstate Steamboat Commerce Commission was finally set up in 1838 to regulate steamboat traffic. Boiler inspections only began in 1852.

The 1838 law proved inadequate as steamboat disasters increased in volume and severity. The 1847 to 1852 era was marked by an unusual series of disasters primarily caused by boiler explosions, however, many were also caused by fires and collisions. These disasters resulted in the passage of the Steamboat Act of May 30, 1852 (10 Stat. L., 1852) in which enforcement powers were placed under the Department of the Treasury rather than the Department of Justice as with the Act of 1838. Under this law, the organization and form of a federal maritime inspection service began to emerge. Nine supervisory inspectors were appointed, each of them responsible for a specific geographic region. There were also provisions for the appointment of local inspectors by a commission consisting of the local District Collector of Customs, the Supervisory Inspector, and the District Judge. The important features of this law were the requirement for hydrostatic testing of boilers, and the requirement for a boiler steam safety valve. This law further required that both pilots and engineers be licensed by the local inspectors. Even though time and further insight proved the Steamboat Act inadequate, it must be given credit for starting legislation in the right perspective. Probably the most serious shortcoming was the exemption of freightboats, ferries, tugboats and towboats, which continued to operate under the superficial inspection requirements of the law of 1838. Again, disasters and high loss of life prompted congressional action through the passage of the Act of February 28, 1871.

A showboat (or show boat) was a form of theater that traveled along the waterways of the United States, especially along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. A showboat was basically a barge that resembled a long, flat-roofed house, and in order to move down the river, it was pushed by a small tugboat (misleadingly labeled a towboat) which was attached to it. It would have been impossible to put a steam engine on it, since it would have had to have been placed right in the auditorium.

British-born actor William Chapman, Sr. created the first showboat, named the "Floating Theatre," in Pittsburgh in 1831. He and his family performed plays with added music and dance at stops along the waterways. After reaching New Orleans, they got rid of the boat and went back to Pittsburgh in a steam boat in order to perform the process once again the year after. Showboats had declined by the Civil War, but began again in 1878 and focused on melodrama and vaudeville. Major boats of this period included the New Sensation, New Era, Water Queen, and the Princess. With the improvement of roads, the rise of the automobile, motion pictures, and the maturation of the river culture, showboats declined again. In order to combat this development, they grew in size and became more colorful and elaborately designed in the 20th century. These boats included the Golden Rod, the Sunny South, the Cotton Blossom, the New Showboat, and the Minnesota Centennial Showboat. Jazzmen Louis Armstrong and Bix Biederbecke played on Mississippi River steamers.

As the federal government removed the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek Nations to Oklahoma, the new immigrants and the military forces demanded supplies, creating a vigorous steamboat trade to the Mississippi River down to New Orleans or upstream to points north. At the peak of steamboat commerce, in the 1840s and 1850s, there were twenty-two landings between Fort Smith in present-day Arkansas, and Fort Gibson, with the most difficult point at Webbers Falls.

The American Civil War spilled over to the Mississippi with naval sieges and naval war using paddlewheelers. The Battle of Vicksburg involved monitors and ironclad riverboats. The USS Cairo is a wrecked survivor of the Vicksburg battle. Trade on the river was suspended for two years because of a Confederate blockade. The triumph of Eads ironclads, and Farragut's seizure of New Orleans, secured the river for the Union North.

The worst of all steamboat accidents occurred at the end of the Civil War in April 1865, when the steamboat Sultana, carrying an over-capacity load of returning Union soldiers recently freed from Confederate prison camp, blew up, causing more than 1,000 deaths. [22]

With the Union Victory and occupation of the south, transport was administered by the US Army and Navy. The year 1864 brought an all-time low water mark on Upper Mississippi mark for all subsequent measurements. Stern wheelers proved more adaptable than side wheelers for barges. Immediately after the war, passenger steamboats become larger, faster and floating palaces began to appear on the freight barges salt, hay, iron ore, and grain were carried. A few boats specialized in pushing huge log rafts downstream to lumber mills. By 1850, a system of moving barges and log rafts lashed alongside and ahead of the towboat was developed which allowed greater control than towing on a hawser. This type of service favored sternwheel propelled boats over sidewheelers and promoted other improvements as well. Towboats became a distinct type by 1860. Sand and gravel for construction was dredged up from river bottoms, and pumped aboard cargo barges. Simple hydraulic dredging rigs on small barges did the work. Towboats moved the dredge and sand barges around as needed.

Natchez VII was built in 1869. It was 301 feet (92 m) long, had eight boilers and a 5,500 cotton bale capacity. In its 9 + 1 ⁄ 2 -year service, it made 401 trips without a single deadly accident. It became famous as the participant against another Mississippi paddle steamer, the Robert E. Lee, in a race from New Orleans to St. Louis in June 1870, immortalized in a lithograph by Currier and Ives. This Natchez had beaten the previous speed record, that of the J. M. White in 1844. Stripped down, carrying no cargo, steaming on through fog and making only one stop, the Robert E. Lee won the race in 3 days, 18 hours and 14 minutes. By contrast, the Natchez carried her normal load and stopped as normal, tying up overnight when fog was encountered. Despite this she berthed only six hours later. When Leathers finally dismantled the boat in Cincinnati in 1879, this particular Natchez had never flown the American flag. [23]

Railroads were rebuilt in the south after the Civil War, the disconnected small roads, of 5-foot (1.5 m) broad gauge, were amalgamated and enlarged into big systems of the southern Illinois Central and Louisville and Nashville. Track was changed to the American Standard of 4 feet 8 and one half inches. This ways cars could travel from Chicago to the south without having to be reloaded. Consequently, rail transport became cheaper than steamboats. The boats could not keep up. The first railroad bridge built across the Mississippi River connected Davenport and Rock Island, IL in 1856, built by the Rock Island Railroad. Steamboaters saw nationwide railroads as a threat to their business. On May 6, 1856, just weeks after it was completed, a pilot crashed the Effie Afton steamboat into the bridge. The owner of the Effie Afton, John Hurd, filed a lawsuit against The Rock Island Railroad Company. The Rock Island Railroad Company selected Abraham Lincoln as their trial lawyer.

Barge traffic exploded with the growth of trade from the First World War.

Freight tonnage on the Upper Mississippi fell below 1 million tons per year in 1916 and hovered around 750,000 tons until 1931. A number of factors had led to this decline. Log rafts and raft towboats had disappeared and river cargo service had shifted to short-haul instead of long distance hauling. The First World War made crewmen scarce and helped to make the railroads stronger. The deficiencies of railroad transportation during World War I led to the Transportation Act of 1920.

In spite of these problems, the heavy transportation needs of wartime could not be met by railroads and river transport took off some of the pressure. In 1917, the United States Shipping Board allocated $3,160,000 to the Emergency Fleet Corporation to build and operate barges and towboats on the Upper Mississippi. Federal control was augmented by the Federal Control Act of 1918. The U.S. Railroad Administration formed the Committee on Inland Waterways to oversee the work. All floating equipment on the Mississippi and Warrior River systems was commandeered and $12 million was appropriated for new construction. Service was provided primarily on the Lower Mississippi.

New floating equipment was designed by prominent naval architects, and built by boat yards known for high-quality work. Modern terminal facilities were constructed to handle bulk and package freight. A special rate system was put into place to reflect the lower cost of river transportation in comparison with railroads. In spite of their innovative approach, the Railroad Administration lost money on river services and in 1920 the Federal Barge Fleet was transferred to the War Department.

The name was changed to the Inland and Coastwise Waterways Service and the experiment continued. The Waterways Service lost less money than the Railroad Administration and in 1924 was modified yet again to allow even more economical operation in a less restrictive environment. The government transferred $5 million worth of floating equipment to provide the capital stock for the new Inland Waterways Corporation.

Compression ignition or diesel engines were first used about 1910 for smaller sternwheel towboats, but did not gain ascendancy until the late 1930s, when diesel-powered propeller boats appeared. The introduction of screw propellers to the rivers came late because of their vulnerability to damage and the greater depth of water required for efficient operation. The Federal Barge Lines experiment was successful in restarting the river transportation industry.

Congress created the Inland Waterways Corporation (1924) and its Federal Barge Line. The completion of the nine-foot channel of the Ohio River in 1929 was followed by similar improvements on the Mississippi and its tributaries and the Gulf Intra-Coastal Canals. Each improvement marked a giant step by the U.S. Army Engineers (Corps of Engineers) in promoting inland waterways development. Private capital followed these improvements with heavy investments in towboats and barges. In the years before World War II, towboat power soared steadily from 600 to 1,200 to 2,400. The shift from steam to diesel engines cut crews from twenty or more on steam towboats to an average of eleven to thirteen on diesels. By 1945, fully 50 percent of the towboats were diesel by 1955, the figure was 97 percent. Meanwhile, the paddlewheel had given way to the propeller, the single propeller to the still-popular twin propeller.

Traffic on the Mississippi system climbed from 211 million short tons to more than 330 million between 1963 and 1974. The growth in river shipping did not abate in the final quarter of the century. Traffic along the Upper Mississippi rose from 54 million tons in 1970 to 112 million tons in 2000. The change from riveted to welded barges, the creation of integrated barges, and the innovation of double-skinned barges have led to improved economy, speed, and safety. Shipping on Mississippi barges became substantially less expensive than railroad transport, but at a cost to taxpayers. Barge traffic is the most heavily subsidized form of transport in the United States. A report in 1999 revealed that fuel taxes cover only 10 percent of the annual $674 million that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers spends building and operating the locks and dams of the Mississippi River. Barges figured there were a lot more corn and soybeans in Iowa than there was scrap iron! Until then, some had limited themselves to pushing scrap downstream and coal upriver, but those commodities were dwarfed by the potential downstream grain business. Overcoming the challenges of expansion, more players jumped into the booming barge industry.

Today 60% of U.S. grain exports travel by barge down the Mississippi River system to the Gulf. The barge industry handles 15% of the nation's inter-city traffic for just 3% of the nation's freight bill. Barge transportation is the safest surface mode of transportation and is more fuel efficient than rail. A single barge carries the equivalent of 15 railcars and on the Lower Mississippi some tows handle up to 40 plus barges.

The Mississippi 1927 flood began when heavy rains pounded the central basin of the Mississippi in the summer of 1926. By September, the Mississippi's tributaries in Kansas and Iowa were swollen to capacity. On New Year's Day of 1927, the Cumberland River at Nashville topped levees at 56.2 feet (17.1 m). The Mississippi River broke out of its levee system in 145 places and flooded 27,000 square miles (70,000 km 2 ) or about 16,570,627 acres (67,058.95 km 2 ). The area was inundated up to a depth of 30 feet (9.1 m). The flood caused over $400 million in damages and killed 246 people in seven states. The flood affected Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. Arkansas was hardest hit, with 14% of its territory covered by floodwaters. By May 1927, the Mississippi River below Memphis, Tennessee, reached a width of 60 mi (97 km).

The Mississippi River Commission was established in 1879 to facilitate improvement of the Mississippi River from the Head of Passes near its mouth to its headwaters. The stated mission of the Commission was to:

  • Develop and implement plans to correct, permanently locate, and deepen the channel of the Mississippi River.
  • Improve and give safety and ease to the navigation thereof.
  • Prevent destructive floods.
  • Promote and facilitate commerce, trade, and the postal service.

For nearly a half century the MRC functioned as an executive body reporting directly to the Secretary of War. The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 changed the mission of the MRC. The consequent Flood Control Act of 1928 created the Mississippi River and Tributaries Project (MR&T). The act assigned responsibility for developing and implementing the Mississippi River and Tributaries Project (MR&T) to the Mississippi River Commission. The MR&T project provides for:

  • Control of floods of the Mississippi River from Head of Passes to vicinity of Cape Girardeau, Missouri.
  • Control of floods of the tributaries and outlets of the Mississippi River as they are affected by its backwaters.
  • Improvement for navigation of the Mississippi River from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to Cairo, Illinois. This includes improvements to certain harbors and improvement for navigation of Old and Atchafalaya Rivers from the Mississippi River to Morgan City, Louisiana.
  • Bank stabilization of the Mississippi River from the Head of Passes to Cairo, Illinois.
  • Preservation, restoration, and enhancement of environmental resources, including but not limited to measures for fish and wildlife, increased water supplies, recreation, cultural resources, and other related water resources development programs.
  • Semi-annual inspection trips to observe river conditions and facilitate coordination with local interests in implementation of the project.

The President of the Mississippi River Commission is its executive head. The mission is executed through the Mississippi Valley Division, U.S. Army Engineer Districts in St. Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg, and New Orleans.

The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military personnel, making it the world's largest public engineering, design and construction management agency. Although generally associated with dams, canals and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works.

  • Navigation. Supporting navigation by maintaining and improving channels was the Corps of Engineers' earliest Civil Works mission, dating to Federal laws in 1824 authorizing the Corps to improve safety on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and several ports. Today, the Corps maintains more than 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of inland waterways and operates 235 locks. These waterways—a system of rivers, lakes and coastal bays improved for commercial and recreational transportation—carry about 1/6 of the Nation's inter-city freight, at a cost per ton-mile about 1/2 that of rail or 1/10 that of trucks. USACE also maintains 300 commercial harbors, through which pass 2 billion tons of cargo a year, and more than 600 smaller harbors.
  • Flood Damage Reduction. The Corps was first called upon to address flood problems along the Mississippi river in the mid-19th century. They began work on the Mississippi River and Tributaries Flood Control Project in 1928, and the Flood Control Act of 1936 gave the Corps the mission to provide flood protection to the entire country. Neither the Corps nor any other agency can prevent all flood damages and when floods cause damage, there is sure to be controversy.

The Corps maintained its own fleet of river steamers, derricks, dredges and cranes, all steam powered, for many years. See Montgomery (snagboat)

On May 18, 1933, Congress passed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act. Right from the start, TVA established a unique problem-solving approach to fulfilling its mission-integrated resource management. Each issue TVA faced—whether it was power production, navigation, flood control, malaria prevention, reforestation, or erosion control—was studied in its broadest context.

By the end of the war, TVA had completed a 650-mile (1,050 km) navigation channel the length of the Tennessee River and had become the nation’s largest electricity supplier. Again the TVA project needed the services of steamers to haul cement for the dams.

The Second World War put huge demands on shipping. Every floating vessel was put to work, retired or old. The Gulf Coast was turned into a huge industrial works. Shipbuilding, steel making in Alabama, forestry, and landing craft building in the Plains towns. The Prairie boats were moved down the river for re-staging in New Orleans. The Higgins boat put its mark on shipping.

The need for Landing Ships, Tank (LST), was urgent in the war, and the program enjoyed a high priority throughout the war. Since most shipbuilding activities were located in coastal yards and were largely used for construction of large, deep-draft ships, new construction facilities were established along inland waterways of the Mississippi. In some instances, heavy-industry plants such as steel fabrication yards were converted for LST construction. This posed the problem of getting the completed ships from the inland building yards in the Plains to deep water. The chief obstacles were bridges. The US Navy successfully undertook the modification of bridges and, through a "Ferry Command" of Navy crews, transported the newly constructed ships to coastal ports for fitting out. The success of these "cornfield" shipyards of the Middle West was a revelation to the long-established shipbuilders on the coasts. Their contribution to the LST building program was enormous. Of the 1,051 LSTs built during World War II, 670 were constructed by five major inland builders. The most LSTs constructed during WWII were built in Evansville, Indiana, by Missouri Valley Bridge and the International Iron & Steel Co.

The Great Depression, the explosion of shipbuilding capability on the river because of the war, and the rise of diesel tugboats finished the steamboat era. Boats were tied up as they had time expired, being built in the First World War or 1920s. Lower crew requirements of diesel tugs made continued operation of steam towboats uneconomical during the late 1940s. The wage increases caused by inflation after the war, and the availability of war surplus tugs and barges, put the older technology at a disadvantage. Some steam-powered, screw-propeller towboats were built but they were either later converted to diesel-power or retired. A few diesel sternwheelers stayed on the rivers after steam sternwheelers disappeared. Jack Kerouac noted in On the Road seeing many derelict steamers on the River at this time. Many steam vessels were broken up. Steam derricks and snagboats continued to be used until the 1960s and a few survivors soldiered on.

Today, few paddlewheelers continue to run on steam power. Those that do include the Belle of Louisville, Natchez, Minne-Ha-Ha, Chautauqua Belle, Julia Belle Swain, and American Queen. Other vessels propelled by sternwheels exist, but do not employ the use of steam engines. Overnight passage on steamboats in the United States ended in 2008. The Delta Queen could resume that service, but it requires the permission of the United States Congress. The American Queen was in the US Ready Reserve fleet and was purchased and relaunched in April 2012 and now carries passengers on 4 to 10 night voyages on the Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers as the flagship of the American Queen Steamboat Company.

On October 18, 2014, the Belle of Louisville became the first Mississippi River-style steamboat to reach 100 years old. To celebrate the unprecedented achievement there was a five-day festival in Louisville, KY called Belle's Big Birthday Bash.

Shapiro hammers 'stupid jackass' Portland Mayor Wheeler: 'Your city's been on fire for the past three months'

'Ingraham Angle' sneak peek: President Trump on ongoing violence in Portland, Oregon

Watch Laura Ingraham's exclusive interview with President Trump on Monday, August 31 at 10 p.m. ET on 'The Ingraham Angle.'

Portland Mayor Ted Wheeler's attempt to blame President Trump for the violent confrontation that led to the killing of a Patriot Prayer supporter in the Oregon city over the weekend represents "epic levels of gaslighting," Ben Shapiro said Monday.

Wheeler, "the worst mayor in America" by Shapiro, blamed Trump in a fiery press conference Sunday for creating "the hate" in his city and again rejected the president's offer to send in federal law enforcement, telling him to "stay the hell out of the way."

"He says Trump has to stay the hell out of the way," the "Ben Shapiro Show" host told listeners. "Weird, because Trump has mainly stayed the hell out of the way and your city's been on fire for the past three months, you stupid jackass."

Wheeler's comments come after Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden suggested that rioting and violence in cities across America is a hallmark of "Donald Trump's America," a sentiment Shapiro called "bullcrap."

"Notice among the list of problems they face in Portland, not the burning of the center of the city, or the complete takeover of thoroughfares by Antifa, or the ongoing violence each and every night . the only problem here is Trump," he asserted, "and the media buy this bullcrap hook, line and sinker."

Shapiro further criticized Wheeler's inability to control the downtown protests that have continued for more than 90 days and rejected the false assertion that "all evil starts and ends with Trump."

"If you believe that riots in America's major cities led by outside Antifa agitators and yes, Black Live Matter rioters and looters, that that violence is a product of President Trump's cruelty and malice and malicious evil, you're a rube," Shapiro said, "and they're treating you as a sucker."

Betrayal at Ebenezer Creek

Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis had few complaints about the able-bodied black men who were supplying the muscle and sweat to keep his Union XIV Corps on the move with Major General William T. Sherman’s 62,000-man army. The black ‘pioneers’ were making the sandy roads passable for heavy wagons and removing obstacles that Rebel troops had placed in his path. Davis was irritated, though, by the few thousand other black refugees following his force toward Georgia’s coast. He had been unable to shake them since the Union army stormed through Atlanta and other places in Georgia in late 1864, liberating them from their owners.

The army fed the pioneers in exchange for their labor. It also took care of the refugees who worked as teamsters, cooks, and servants. It did not, however, assume responsibility for the others. So every day, hundreds of black women, children, and older men wandered into the camps, begging for food. That was not so bad when forage was plentiful, but fall had turned to winter and the sandy soil closer to the ocean was not exactly fertile. Living well off the land was but a fond memory.

‘The rich, rolling uplands of the interior were left behind, and we descended into the low, flat sandy country that borders for perhaps a hundred miles upon the sea,’ recalled Captain Charles A. Hopkins of the 13th New Jersey Infantry. ‘…The country is largely filled with a magnificent growth of stately pines, their trunks free–for sixty or seventy feet–from all branches…. These pine woods, though beautiful, were not fertile and rations–particularly of breadstuffs–began to fail and had to be eked out [supplemented] by rice, of which we found large quantities but also found it, with our lack of appliances, very difficult to hull.’

Besides exacerbating the food-shortage problem, the refugees tested Davis’s volatile temper by slowing down his march. Davis was eager to reach Savannah, the destination of Sherman’s 250-mile destructive ‘March to the Sea’ from Atlanta to Georgia’s coast. But at every step of the 25 miles left in Davis’s march, the XIV Corps would have to contend with Major General Joseph Wheeler’s Confederate cavalry corps, a constant hindrance and annoyance. Quicker movement would make it easier to evade the Rebel horseman as well as to defend against them.

So as Davis’s men approached the 165-feet-wide and 10-feet-deep swollen and icy Ebenezer Creek on December 3, the general envisioned more than merely another mass pontoon-bridge crossing. He saw an opportunity to rid himself of the refugees in a manner he thought would be subtle enough to elude censure. Controversy might follow, but he was used to that.

General Jefferson Davis, known to some by the derisive nickname ‘General Reb’ because of his name, was a veteran Regular Army soldier who loved battle. Short-tempered and a proficient cusser, he had a nasty reputation and was infamous in his time for a furious, short-lived feud with Union Major General William Nelson. In August 1862 Nelson and Davis had got into a heated argument over the defense of Louisville, Kentucky, where Nelson was in command. Nelson ordered Davis, a brigadier general, to leave. The two men met again a few weeks later in a Cincinnati hotel. Davis demanded an apology from his superior, and Nelson stubbornly refused to give him one. Minutes later the angry brigadier shot and killed the major general at point-blank range. Davis was arrested but later released. Though plenty of questions went unanswered, no charges were ever filed against him.

As the XIV Corps prepared to cross Ebenezer Creek, Davis ordered that the refugees be held back, ostensibly ‘for their own safety’ because Wheeler’s horsemen would contest the advance. ‘On the pretense that there was likely to be fighting in front, the negroes were told not to go upon the pontoon bridge until all the troops and wagons were over,’ explained Colonel Charles D. Kerr of the 126th Illinois Cavalry, which was at the rear of the XIV Corps.

‘A guard was detailed to enforce the order, ‘ Kerr recalled. ‘But, patient and docile as the negroes always were, the guard was really unnecessary.’

Though what happened once Davis’s troops had all crossed remains in dispute, it seems fairly certain that Davis had the pontoon bridge dismantled immediately, leaving the refugees stranded on the creek’s far bank. Kerr wrote that as soon as the Federals reached their destination, ‘orders were given to the engineers to take up the pontoons and not let a negro cross.’

‘The order was obeyed to the letter,’ he continued. ‘I sat upon my horse then and witnessed a scene the like of which I pray my eyes may never see again.’

How many women, children, and older men were stranded cannot be determined precisely, but 5,000 is a conservative estimate. ‘The great number of refugees that followed us…could be counted almost by the tens of thousands,’ Captain Hopkins of New Jersey guessed. Major General Oliver O. Howard, commander of the right wing of Sherman’s army (which included Davis’s corps), recalled seeing ‘throngs of escaping slaves’ of all types, ‘from the baby in arms to the old negro hobbling painfully along the line of march negroes of all sizes, in all sorts of patched costumes, with carts and broken-down horses and mules to match.’ Because the able-bodied refugees were up front working in the pioneer corps, most of those stranded would have been women, children, and old men.

What happened next strongly suggests that Davis did not have the refugees’ best interest in mind when he delayed their crossing of the creek, to say nothing of his apparently having ordered that the bridge promptly be dismantled. Davis’s unabashed support of slavery definitely does not help his case, though Sherman insisted his brigadier bore no ‘hostility to the negro.’

Kerr saw Wheeler’s cavalry ‘closely pressing’ the refugees from the rear. Unarmed and helpless, the former slaves ‘raised their hands and implored from the corps commander the protection they had been promised,’ Kerr wrote. ‘…[but] the prayer was in vain and, with cries of anguish and despair, men, women and children rushed by hundreds into the turbid stream and many were drowned before our eyes.’

Then there were the refugees who stood their ground. ‘From what we learned afterwards of those who remained upon the land,’ Kerr continued, ‘their fate at the hands of Wheeler’s troops was scarcely to be preferred.’ The refugees not shot or slashed to death were most likely returned to their masters and slavery.

Kerr’s descriptions of the atrocity apparently met widespread skepticism, and he was forced to defend his integrity. ‘I speak of what I saw with my own eyes, not those of another,’ he asserted, ‘and no writer who was not upon the ground can gloss the matter over for me.’ Still, he left it to another officer, Major James A. Connolly of Illinois, to blow the whistle on Davis. ‘I wrote out a rough draft of a letter today relative to General Davis’ treatment of the negroes at Ebenezer Creek,’ Connolly wrote two weeks after the incident. ‘I want the matter to get before the Military Committee of the Senate. It may give them some light in regard to the propriety of confirming him as Brevet Major General. I am not certain yet who I had better send it to.’

Connolly decided to send the letter to his congressman, who evidently leaked it to the press. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton reacted to the subsequent bad publicity by steaming down to Savannah, which Sherman’s army had captured on December 21, to investigate the matter. Stanton did not preannounce his visit, but Sherman had received advance notice about it from President Abraham Lincoln’s chief-of-staff, Major General Henry W. Halleck. ‘They say that you have manifested an almost criminal dislike to the negro…, [that] you drove them from your ranks, preventing their following you by cutting the bridges in your rear and thus caused the massacre of large numbers by Wheeler’s cavalry,’ Halleck wrote.

Stanton arrived on January 11 and began asking questions. ‘Stanton inquired particularly about General Jeff. C. Davis, who he said was a Democrat and hostile to the negro,’ Sherman later wrote. Stanton showed Sherman a newspaper account of the affair and demanded an explanation. Sherman urged the secretary not to jump to conclusions and, in his postwar memoirs, reported that he ‘explained the matter to [Stanton’s] entire satisfaction.’ He went on to say that Stanton had come to Savannah mainly because of pressure from abolitionist Radical Republicans. ‘We all felt sympathy…for those poor negroes…,’ Sherman wrote, ‘but a sympathy of a different sort from that of Mr. Stanton, which was not of pure humanity but of politics.’

Sherman’s attitude toward black people is perhaps best illustrated in his own words, in a private letter he wrote to his wife, Ellen, shortly before he left Savannah to continue his march up the coast. ‘Mr. Stanton has been here and is cured of that negro nonsense,’ he wrote. ‘[Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P.] Chase and others have written to me to modify my opinions, but you know I cannot, for if I attempt the part of a hypocrite it would break out in every sentence. I want soldiers made of the best bone and muscle in the land, and won’t attempt military feats with doubtful materials.’ As he admitted in his memoirs, ‘In our army we had no negro soldiers and, as a rule, we preferred white soldiers.’

‘The negro question was beginning to loom up…and many foresaw that not only would the slaves secure their freedom, but that they would also have votes,’ his memoirs further reveal. ‘I did not dream of such a result then, but knew that slavery, as such, was dead forever [yet I] did not suppose that the former slaves would be suddenly, without preparation, manufactured into voters–equal to all others, politically and socially.’

In course, when considering Sherman and his actions, it’s important to remember that his ideas about black people, though shocking today, were hardly unique in his time. The majority of Union volunteers, and of Northerners in general, were at most ambivalent about emancipation and were vehemently opposed to black suffrage.

Given the prevailing beliefs of the time, it might be no surprise that Union authorities justified the incident at Ebenezer Creek as a ‘military necessity.’ None of the officers involved was even officially reprimanded. Most of them advanced in their military and, later, civilian careers.

Davis’s commander, Howard, who had been described as ‘the most Christian gentleman in the Union army,’ went on to found Howard University, a black college in Washington, D.C. He also became the first director of the Freedmen’s Bureau, which the Federal government set up to help the recently freed slaves make the transition from slave to citizen.

Wheeler’s cavalry was roundly condemned for its part in the affair, but the reputation of its young commander was evidently not harmed. Wheeler went on to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1885 to 1900 and as a major general of volunteers in the Spanish-American War in 1898.

Davis handled the Ebenezer Creek commotion with the same coolness that had taken him back to battlefield command so soon after the Nelson shooting. Again he was never punished or even reprimanded. In fact, he was later made a brevet major general.

Then there is William T. Sherman, the field commander ultimately responsible for Davis’s actions. Sherman was rewarded with the Thanks of Congress for the revolutionary ‘total war’ he waged during his March to the Sea. At the May 1865 Grand Review of the Armies, the huge parade through Washington, D.C., to celebrate Union victory, Sherman was hailed as a war hero. A few years later, newly elected President Ulysses S. Grant made Sherman a full general and general-in-chief of the U.S. Army.

Sometime during those postwar years, Sherman offered a rosy recollection of the reception he and his men had received as they marched through Georgia. ‘…the Negroes were simply frantic with joy,’ he said. ‘Whenever they heard my name, they clustered about my horse, shouted and prayed in their peculiar style, which had a natural eloquence that would have moved a stone.’ Apparently, though, it did not move Sherman deeply enough to make him seek justice for the soon-forgotten victims of the Ebenezer Creek incident.

This article was written by Edward M. Churchill and originally published in Civil War Times Magazine in October 1998.

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Karen Wheeler was born in the 1940's in Hawkins, Indiana somewhere in the early 60's she met and became engaged to a man named Ted Wheeler and they later got married.

It's believed Karen and Ted never truly loved each other, and that they only got married because she was young and Ted had a well-paying job. Karen herself appeared to be at least somewhat frustrated with her marriage.

On November 6, 1983, Mike and his friends played a Dungeons & Dragons campaign in the basement for ten hours straight, according to Mike. Karen seemed surprised by this and told them to stop playing as it was getting late and it was a school night.

After the disappearance of Will Byers, Karen told her children that they could not leave the house until he was found, forbidding Mike to search for Will and Nancy to go "study" at Barbara Holland's house.

Karen trying to reach out to Mike.

On November 8, Karen allowed Mike to skip school, believing he was sick, At the dinner table, Nancy lied that she was going to a special assembly at school to support Will and his family - this was a cover story so that she could hang out with Steve. After some reluctance, Karen gave her permission to go - as long as she was back by 10.

After Nancy returned from Steve's party, Karen scolded her for returning late. When Karen asked about the sweatshirt Nancy was wearing, she admitted that it belonged to Steve, but kept making up excuses to avoid talking about the party at Steve's house, her fight with Barb, or that Nancy had sex with Steve himself. Karen tried to tell Nancy that she could trust her and talk about anything that happened, but Nancy brushed her off.

The next day, Karen visited Joyce Byers at her home along with her daughter Holly, gifting her a casserole. Karen noticed that the house was decorated with Christmas lights, and Joyce gave the excuse that she hung them for Will because he loved Christmas. Noticing Holly had walked off from the dinner table, she and Joyce found her in Will's room. Joyce thanked Karen for the casserole but insisted that they leave the house. Later, Nancy revealed to Karen she was worried about Barb's disappearance. Later that night, Mike returned home with the news that Will's body was found, crying in her arms.

Before leaving the next day, Karen asked Mike if he wanted to come with her to rent a movie, even an R-rated one. Mike declined for fear of leaving Eleven alone in his house. Karen went off on her own to check up on Barb's parents.

After being questioned by the police about Barb's disappearance, Karen insisted Nancy was lying to the police about talking with Steve in his bedroom. Nancy finally admitted to Karen that she slept with him.

Karen, Ted, Nancy, and Mike all attended Will's funeral where Karen hushed Mike and his other friend, Dustin Henderson when they spotted Jennifer Hayes crying for Will.

Department of Energy agents arrived at the Wheeler house, looking for Eleven. When questioned, Karen answered that she did not know of any mysterious girl living in the house, and that if she had, she would know. She and Ted were eventually allowed to leave their house they arrived at Hawkins Middle School in their car, reuniting with their son. They were present at the hospital, waiting for news on Will's status following his recovery.

On Christmas Eve, Jonathan picked up Will from another Dungeons & Dragons campaign at the Wheelers'. As they left, Karen exchanged festive greetings with them.

On October 29, 1984, Karen was seen in the kitchen with her husband and Holly, watching Nancy chase Mike for taking change from her piggy bank. On the next day, while eating at the dinner table, Ted and Karen tell Mike to put some of his toys in two boxes as punishment for taking some of Nancy's change.

Four days later, while eating breakfast with her family, Karen hears Nancy say she's planning to go have a sleepover at a friend's house for the weekend and asks if it's okay which Karen says yes (unaware that Nancy plans to expose the Hawkins Lab with Johnathan's help, in order to avenge Barbara's death).

On the next day, while Karen was on the phone, Ted answers the door, after hearing the doorbell rang, and meets Dustin who asks for Mike. Ted says Mike is over at Will's, but Dustin says he can't reach anybody at Will's so he asks for Nancy. When Ted asks Karen where Nancy is, she says Nancy's supposedly at Ally's, causing an irritated Dustin to leave.

Later, while reading a erotic novel in her bubble bath, she answers the doorbell, after Ted had fallen asleep on his couch, and meets Billy. After flirting, she gives him the address to the Byers house and he leaves the house.

A month later, Karen attended Barb's funeral with Nancy and Ted. When Mike gets ready to go to the Snow Ball, Karen takes pictures of Mike, much to his annoyance as she keeps taking too many pictures of him.

Billy attempting to seduce Karen Wheeler

At the Hawkins Community Pool, Karen Wheeler and three other mature women are waiting for Heather Holloway, the lifeguard on duty, to step down so that Billy Hargrove can come forward, each woman ogling him. Billy compliments Karen’s swimsuit, and later after watching her swim, compliments her again and tells her she has perfect "form". After some prodding, Billy manages to convince her to come with him to Motel 6 for "swimming lessons", where it is "very private". That night, Karen beautifies herself and takes off her wedding ring, preparing to go to Billy, and goes and feels his little pervert mustache.

The next morning Karen takes a call from El to her son Mike Wheeler, staying on the line and becoming shocked when Mike lies about his nana being gravely ill. Hearing his mom on the other end of the line, Mike tells Karen to get off the phone so he can finish his conversation with his girlfriend, which Karen does. Later, Karen returns to the Hawkins Community Pool and apologizes to Billy about standing him up the night before. Billy however, was not present, and has been Flayed. He manages to control his unnatural urge to attack Karen, but only just, and instead tells Karen to stay away from him.

Karen’s daughter Nancy later returns home from being fired from The Hawkins Post, going to her room. She eventually comes out however and confides in Karen her concerns that Jonathan Byers might be right, that she just insists on being right even if she isn’t. Karen supports Nancy, saying that the journalists at The Post are "shitheads", and encourages Nancy to finish her story, that she might get picked up by a national outlet and go right over The Post’s heads.

With Ted and Holly, Karen later goes to the Fun Fair and bribes the operator of a Ferris wheel to stop the ride while she and her family are at its apex, enabling them to better view the Fourth of July fireworks. Holly however, is distracted by the trees moving seemingly of their own volition signs of the Mind Flayer’s passage. Hopper and Joyce later find Karen on an amusement park ride, asking where the kids are, but Karen doesn’t know where exactly they are as she has trouble keeping track. After the ride, Karen notices Joyce running off with Jim Hopper (unaware they're being pursued by Russian hitman Grigori), remarking they make an odd couple. Ted remarks there's always one for somebody and puts his hand on Karen's shoulder, much to her annoyance.

Three months later, after her son Mike says goodbye to El and Will, Mike returns home when Karen is cooking. She notices how depressed her son is so she gives him a hug to comfort him.

7. Most Oregon Trail pioneers didn’t settle in Oregon.

Only around 80,000 of the estimated 400,000 Oregon Trail emigrants actually ended their journey in Oregon’s Willamette Valley. Of the rest, the vast majority splintered off from the main route in either Wyoming or Idaho and took separate trails leading to California and Utah. The California Trail was eventually traveled by some 250,000 settlers, most of them prospectors seeking to strike it rich in the gold fields. The Utah route, meanwhile, shuttled roughly 70,000 Mormon pilgrims to the lands surrounding Salt Lake City.

Transport yourself to any year since our founding and you’ll find Honda associates with their gazes fixed on the future. We’ve never been afraid to take huge chances on tomorrow, and we’ll never stop daring to dream bigger.

The Future of Mobility

What will transportation look like in 2088? Our associates are currently imagining the answers to this question, working to create tomorrow’s smarter, more mobile world.

Ensuring Blue Skies for our Children

Honda is creating new products that improve the lives of people while protecting and preserving our environment. By 2050, the company aims to cut in half CO2 emissions from its products and business operations, including its production plants, in order to address greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change.

An Electrifying Vision of Tomorrow

Honda views electric vehicle as the key to a sustainable, ultra-low emissions mobility future. The Clarity series of electrified products are at the forefront of Honda’s drive toward the electrification of its products. By 2030, the company aim to have three-quarters of all the cars that it sells globally be electrified vehicles in one form or another – hybrids, plug-in hybrids, battery electric or fuel cell.

Our CO2 Emissions Lowered by 30%

We’re currently working toward this crucial goal. It’s all part of our mission to ensure Blue Skies for Our Children, protecting the Earth for future generations.

"We're not thinking just about today or tomorrow, but preparing for the next 50 years of mobility, and we continue to think about how we can advance all stages of human mobility: walking, riding, driving and flying."

&mdashFrank Paluch, President of Honda R&D Americas, Inc.

Saving Money and the Planet

With the goal of a carbon-free future in mind, we created the Honda SmartCharge TM beta program, the most advanced technology of its kind in the auto industry. Available to Honda Fit EV owners, the program empowers drivers to save money while reducing their environmental footprint when charging––on their time.

Honda Accord Named 2018 North American Car of the Year

The 2018 Honda Accord, the 10th generation of America's most popular car, earned the prestigious 2018 North American Car of the Year award. Accord was the first model from a Japanese automaker to be made in America, beginning in November 1982 in Marysville, Ohio, with cumulative U.S. production of Accord exceeding 11 million vehicles over more than 35 years.

Honda Ridgeline Named 2017 North American Truck of the Year

The 2017 Honda Ridgeline, the second generation of Honda's innovative, one-of-a-kind pickup truck with innovations such as the In-Bed Trunk and world's first Truck Bed Audio System was chosen by a panel of expert automotive journalists as the 2017 North America Truck of the Year.

Honda Clarity Series Looks to the Future.

In April 2017, Honda showed for the first time all three vehicles in its Clarity series – the Clarity Fuel Cell Vehicle, Clarity Electric and Clarity Plug-In Hybrid – pointing the way toward a cleaner and greener automotive future. The Clarity is the world’s first vehicle with three different electrified powertrains, offering drivers the advantages of a comprehensively-equipped, five-passenger sedan with advanced design and a range of low-emissions vehicle choices.

Honda Civic Named North American Car of the Year

The 2016 Honda Civic is selected as the North American Car of the Year by a panel of automotive journalists. This marks the second time a Civic has earned the honor – joining the 2006 Civic.

The Clarity Emits Only Water

As part of its vision to create a more sustainable mobility future, Honda introduced the Clarity Fuel Cell to customers in California in late 2016. Representing the leading edge of zero-emissions vehicle technology, the hydrogen-powered Clarity can travel up to 366 miles on a single tank of fuel, can be fully refueled in three to five minutes, and emits only water vapor.

Honda in Silicon Valley Expands

We set up shop in Silicon Valley over 15 years ago, and expanded our facility in the heart of Mountain View, CA. Honda developers partner with entrepreneurial technologists to dream up tomorrow’s transportation experiences advancing connectivity, telematics, safety, autonomous driving and more.

The First Power of Dreams Award

We are honored to name Audrey Stradford the first-ever recipient of The Power of Dreams Award, commending her 40 years of exceptional service as a faculty member and volunteer at Tennessee State University.

“The moment had come to start work on realizing another dream. Trying to win Formula 1 was for many trying to accomplish the impossible. But my decision was made, once and for all. I would have to put in the necessary time, but nothing could stop me from succeeding.”

Honda Rejoins Formula 1

The giant awakens. In partnership with McLaren, we return to our racing roots for the 2015 FIA Formula 1 (F1) World Championship. Dreams of racing glory have always been integral to our company, and we continue to thrive on the raw competition of the track.

HondaJet Cleared for Takeoff

The highly anticipated HondaJet achieves type certification from the Federal Aviation Administration and enters into service. First customer deliveries begin just two weeks later.

The New Acura NSX Supercar

It’s what car lovers live for. The unveiling of the powerful, strikingly beautiful Acura NSX supercar causes a sensation in the automotive world. Keep your eyes peeled for this stunning vehicle on a road near you.

Our Wind Turbines Start Spinning

Honda Transmission Mfg. of America fires up its brand-new wind turbines in Russells Point, Ohio. Honda is the first major automotive manufacturing facility in the U.S. to get a substantial amount of its electricity from onsite wind turbines.

“Everything starts with an idea or a dream or a thought. What goes on from there, where we take it — that’s really what the Power of Dreams represents.”

&mdash Steve Morikawa, VP, Corporate Community Relations

10-millionth North American Honda Accord is Built

On March 20, the 10-millionth Honda Accord built in North America rolls off the assembly line at our Marysville Auto Plant as Honda celebrates a total U.S. production of 20 million Honda and Acura automobiles.

ASIMO Meets President Obama

ASIMO always has a new trick to show off. Demonstrating an ever-growing repertoire, ASIMO meets President Obama and shows off his running, jumping and soccer skills.

50 Years of American Dreams

How time flies. This year (on June 11, to be exact) American Honda Motor Co., Inc. marks its 50th year of U.S. operations. From our first U.S. store in Los Angeles with six industrious employees, Honda continues to rise to astounding heights, all thanks to the dreams and dedication of our associates.

Next Chapter of Fuel Cell Technology

Honda breaks new ground introducing the 2009 FCX Clarity fuel cell vehicle. With a new, more compact fuel cell stack, Clarity is the world’s first fuel cell sedan capable of comfortably carrying four occupants.

New Production Plants for Land, Sea and Air

Honda Manufacturing of Indiana begins producing the Civic Sedan. Honda R&D Americas opens its Marine Engine Research Facility in Florida, and Honda Aero begins construction on its North Carolina headquarters.

"Without racing the automobile would not get better. Head-to-head competition in front of a crowd is the way to become number one in the world."

Acura Makes Le Mans Debut

Acura enters the American Le Mans Series. In its debut race at the 12 hours of Sebring, Acura wins 1st, 2nd and 4th place in the LMP2 class. These early successes inform future development of their vehicles and continued Le Mans class victories.

Acura Design Studio Opens in California

Honda R&D Americas opens its third design studio in California for the research and styling of future Acura production models.

Civic and Ridgeline Named Car and Truck of the Year

The 2006 Honda Civic and 2006 Honda Ridgeline Truck sweep the North American Car and Truck of the Year awards as selected by a panel of automotive journalists in North America.

“Non conformity is essential to an artist or inventor.”


ASIMO, which stands for Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility, is one of our forays into advanced humanoid robot design. Conceived to aid those with limited mobility, ASIMO will go on to become one of the most popular Honda public-facing personalities.

“The value of life can be measured by how many times your soul has been deeply stirred.”

Honda Insight is Hybrid Milestone

In December, the Honda Insight drives through uncharted territory to become the first hybrid vehicle available in North America. It remains the most fuel-efficient, non-plugin vehicle in its class for the next 17 years.

Introducing The Acura NSX

Acura takes a game-changing step into the supercar arena with the NSX. The first production car with an all-aluminum monocoque body, the NSX is an instant classic and will remain a sought-after vehicle for connoisseurs.

Acura Arrives

Honda launches Acura, the first luxury nameplate from a Japanese automaker, with sales of “precision crafted performance.” With its initial 60 U.S. Acura dealers, Acura goes on to earn four consecutive JD Power and Associates Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) awards.

Honda Sets the Standard on Grass, Too

Honda Power Equipment Mfg., Inc. introduces walk-behind Honda lawnmowers at a new plant in Swepsonville, North Carolina. Today, a Honda mower from North Carolina has been selected as the top-rated self-propelled, gas-powered lawn mower by a “leading consumer publication” for more than decade.

The American Honda Foundation Founded

This year marks a big milestone in our commitment to supporting the communities where we work and live. The American Honda Foundation will go on to award over $32 million to organizations in every state in the U.S.

All of Honda is in Accord

Our first Accord may be a humble hatchback, but it is a big hit. This initial model will be followed by an Accord Sedan in 1979. From its launch until today, Accord is the best-selling passenger car in America, with American car buyers purchasing over 12.5 million.

Leaving Blue Skies for Our Children

Driven by the rallying cry of “Blue skies for our children” Honda engineers create a groundbreaking CVCC engine that makes the Honda Civic the first vehicle to meet the strict emissions standards of the new U.S. Clean Air Act without the use of a catalytic converter.

Honda Makes Tidal Shift in Marine Engines

Honda introduces the world’s first fuel-efficient 4-stroke outboard marine engines, which are cleaner, quieter and more economical than comparable 2-stroke engines. And we’re still helping people have fun out on the water.

“What will happen to our streams, lakes and rivers if all that exhaust gas mixed with oil gets pumped into the water? I don’t care if everyone else is making two-strokes, Honda has to make four strokes.”

Minibikes, Big Change

Minibikes can transform lives. The National Youth Project Using Minibikes is an innovative program using minibikes to make positive changes in the lives of disadvantaged youths through fun activities and positive influence.

Our First Car Sells in U.S.

The Honda N600 is the first automobile we ever sold in America.

The Bike That Changed Everything

The introduction of the 4-cylinder Honda CB750 brings a new level of sophistication to mainstream motorcycles. In naming it “Motorcycle of the Century” in 2012, a leading industry publication called the CB750 the bike that changed everything.

We Sell Our Millionth Motorcycle in the U.S.

In less than a decade, Honda manages to change the face of motorcycle design and engineering. And we never stop leading the way.

Hello, USA. We’re Honda.

On June 11, American Honda Motor Co., Inc. is established in Los Angeles, California, as the first overseas subsidiary of Honda Motor Co., Ltd.

Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Formally Established

Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is established with co-founders Soichiro Honda and Takeo Fujisawa and introduces (in 1949) its first original designed and engineered product which Mr. Honda appropriately names the “Dream” D-type motorcycle.

"We have consistently chosen a most difficult path filled with hardships. We must possess the will to challenge difficulties and the wisdom to create new values without being bound by established standards. We do not wish to imitate others."

Honda “Green Path” Leads the Way to Sustainability

We're reducing CO2 emissions and harmful substances from production to dealerships and everything in between. Including cutting our CO2 emissions by 50% by the year 2050.

CO2-Neutral Honda Smart Home

In response to the greatest environmental challenge of our time, Honda Smart Home shows our vision for low-carbon living beyond lower vehicle emissions.

1st 100% Energy Grid Neutral Dealership

Family-owned Rossi Honda in Vineland, NJ made history as America's first energy grid neutral dealership. This milestone marks the first of many to come.

World’s First Fuel-Cell Car

We brought a brand-new Honda FCX to the Spallino family, making them the world&rsquos first customer for a fuel-cell car. In 2016, the FCX will come to market as the Clarity Fuel Cell sedan.

First Mass-Produced Hybrid

The 2002 Civic Hybrid became our first mass-produced automobile to apply gasoline-electric powertrain technology.


Strength Wars: The Movie is hitting digital on April 16, 2021 and will feature the biggest battles and the biggest names in the history of the competition series. For the first time ever, the event will focus on a full blown tournament.

Featuring top name athletes across multiple disciplines including Larry Wheels, Blaine Sumner, Terron Beckham, and many more. Strength Wars’ very own Tetzel has sat down with each of the competitors for one-on-one podcast interviews.

Get prepared for the biggest version of Strength Wars yet by listening to the Strength Wars Podcast!

Watch the video: Vert Wheeler AMV NEFFEX- Fight Back (November 2021).