The story

11,000-year-old site of Asikli Hoyuk in Turkey reveals early brain surgery and ancient craftsmanship


The ancient Neolithic settlement of Asikli Hoyuk (Aşıklı Höyük) boasts many important discoveries. Excavations have revealed crucial information on the history of brain surgery, early mining, astounding craftsmanship, and human transitions from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles. Yet Asikli Hoyuk, found 25 kilometers southeast of Aksaray, Turkey, is often overshadowed by popular sites like Göbekli Tepe .

Nevertheless, the site continues to astound archaeologists and visitors alike as it reveals the secrets of the original inhabitants dating back to 9000 B.C., even after 25 years of modern excavation.

Example of the semi-subterranean oval-shaped huts found at Aşıklı Höyük, Turkey ( Hurriyet Daily News )

Professor Mihriban Özbaşaran of İstanbul University, head of the research project at Asikli Hoyuk, has continued the excavations which began in 1989. According to Hurriyet Daily News , the major importance of the site is the role it played in the history of the region as early hunters and gatherers shifted from nomadic lifestyles to more permanent villages. They began producing their own goods with techniques that we still don’t fully understand today. Özbaşaran told Hurriyet Daily News, “Before, they were in small groups on the move. Here is the first time they started to be together for 24 hours as a community.” It was then that animal domestication, manufacturing and construction developed due to interaction with other populations.

Asikli Hoyuk was located near an obsidian source, and became a base of trade which stretched to modern day Cyprus and Iraq. Wikipedia notes that some 6,000 obsidian objects were retrieved from the surface layer of the site. This count eventually included fragments of a unique obsidian bracelet, significant due to its age and the high level of craftsmanship involved. The glossy piece, made of obsidian – a very hard volcanic glass - required highly specialized techniques, and experts still do not know how it was accomplished.

“Using high-tech methods developed by LTDS [Laboratoire de Tribologie et de Dynamiques des Systèmes] to study the bracelet's surface and its micro-topographic features, the researchers have revealed the astounding technical expertise of craftsmen in the eighth millennium BC. Their skills were highly sophisticated for this period in late prehistory, and on a par with today's polishing techniques,” reports Archaeology News Network .

Oldest obsidian bracelet ever identified, Asikli Hoyuk, Turkey. ( Source)

Remains have been found at the site, revealing many things about the ancient inhabitants. Several skeletons were located buried beneath houses, including many children, younger women and older men. Men seemed to live into their 50’s, while women frequently died much earlier, in their 20’s and 30’s. However, researchers provide no firm conclusions as to why men might have outlived the women in the settlement, nor whether burial style represented status. “Looking at the way they lived and burial rituals, we could not find any sign that would suggest the presence of a hierarchy in the community. We can’t discern a ruling class for instance,” Professor Özbaşaran told Hurriyet Daily News.

Archaeolgoists found skulls at Asikli Hoyuk demonstrating the earliest-known brain surgery. Trepanation, or drilling holes into the skull in an attempt to relieve or cure ailments or mental illness, has been found on skulls at the site.

Burial at Aşıklı Höyük of remains in a fetal (hocker) position, arms embracing the legs. S. Murray ( Wikipedia)

Excavations continue, and archaeologists suggest that the work and discoveries will continue for another 25 years in this location so full of history.

Researchers at Asikli Hoyuk have created streets and full-size replica houses, examples of the traditional semi-subterranean, mud-brick architecture, with the intention of creating an open air museum. This is hoped to bring humanity’s past into perspective, and give a glimpse into the lives and beliefs of Neolithic man during an era of transition.

Inside a reconstructed building at Asikli Hoyuk. Kvaestad

Featured Image: Excavations of the Neolithic site of Asikli Hoyuk. Katpatuka ( Wikipedia)

By Liz Leafloor


Kuelap: a second Machu Picchu about to get cable car

Pop quiz, hotshot! Name one gorgeous old important site situated in Peru.

Chances are you named the absolutely gorgeous, archaeological very important and must-see site of Machu Picchu. (If ever you have the chance to see it, please stay a night in Aguas Calientes so you don’t have to rush to take the bus back to reach the train station in time. Machu Picchu without tourists during sunset is an absolute gorgeous place.)

Machu Picchu is a very important historical site and its tourist attraction gives a huge boost to the Peruvian economy.
It’s important to protect such sites unlike what accidently happened in the past at this site. It has been closed down for a few weeks because so many tourists visited the place. Besides that, the taping of a beer commercial damaged an important stone on the site. It could not be repaired.

A crane damaged the top right of the stone during the shooting of the commercial. ©historicalbites

Now the Peruvian government has decided to grant permission to install cable cars at the Kuepla site in 2016 in order to improve accessibility of the site. According to the Peruvian President, Ollanta Humala, Kuepla can become a second Machu Picchu.

Kuepla is a site of the Chachapoya culture, was built in the sixth century and was occupied until the early sixteenth century. It’s a walled city with thick stone walls in which about 400 buildings are situated, making it the largest stone structure in South America. The city is situated on a ridge and is difficult to reach.
The money that can be made from the improved accessibility can help battle the deterioration it suffers from fires, rain, wind erosion and the lack of an effective drainage system though the original drainage system was doing its task till it got obstructed.

Not much is known about the site due to its difficult accessibility, just that it probably had a defensive function though it’s unknown if that’s its main function. For instance, the entrances in the wall are so small only one person can enter at a time. That is clearly a defensive function but does not mean the site is purely a fort.

The Chachapoya culture, one of the least understood cultures of South America, controlled land between the rivers Marañón and Utcubamba, up to the basin of the Abiseo river. It’s an isolated region though there’s evidence of trade with other cultures.
The Inca conquered the culture in the second half of the fifteenth century after which they rebelled and garrisons and forced resettlements in the region were needed to maintain the peace.
The Chachapoya are known to make circular stone constructions and raised platforms on slopes but the Inca style architecture was imposed after they were conquered. They also built purunmachu, seven feet tall clay persons in which they buried their people.[7]
This harsh repression caused the Chachapoya to take the Conquistadors’ side at the start of their conquest but a century later, none were left alive. Unfortunately, there are no written records of the Chachapoya so we only have knowledge of them through archaeology and written sources from their enemies. For instance, their name is from a Spanish corruption of the Inca words “sacha puyu”, meaning “cloud people” because clouds were often seen in the valleys below their settlements.

Notes on picture :

The second picture, the one from Kuelap is taken from Commons.Wikimedia and is, according to the taker of the picture, Gelber21, free to use. Still, I want to give credit where it is due.

The first picture, the one from Machu Picchu is taken by me. It is copy-righted. If you wish to use the picture, please contact me and I’m sure we’ll come to an arrangement.


ACHAMAN GUAÑOC

El antiguo asentamiento neolítico de Asikli Hoyuk (Asikli Höyük) cuenta con muchos descubrimientos importantes. Las excavaciones han revelado información crucial en la historia de la cirugía del cerebro, la minería temprano, la artesanía increíble, y las transiciones humanos de nómada a la vida sedentaria. Sin embargo Asikli Hoyuk, encontrado 25 kilómetros al sureste de Aksaray, Turquía, a menudo eclipsada por sitios populares como Gobekli Tepe . Sin embargo, el sitio sigue asombrando arqueólogos y visitantes por igual, ya que revela los secretos de los habitantes originales que datan de 9000 aC, incluso después de 25 años de excavación moderna.

Profesor Mihriban Özbaşaran de la Universidad de Estambul, jefe del proyecto de investigación en Asikli Hoyuk, ha continuado las excavaciones que comenzaron en 1989. Según Hurriyet Daily News , la gran importancia de que el sitio es el papel que desempeñó en la historia de la región tan pronto cazadores y recolectores cambiaron de estilo de vida nómada a más aldeas permanentes. Ellos comenzaron a producir sus propios bienes con técnicas que todavía no entendemos completamente hoy. Özbaşaran dijo a Hurriyet Daily News: "Antes, estaban en pequeños grupos en movimiento. Esta es la primera vez que empezaron a estar juntos durante 24 horas como una comunidad. "Fue entonces que la domesticación de los animales, la fabricación y la construcción desarrollado debido a la interacción con otras poblaciones. Asikli Hoyuk se encuentra cerca de una fuente de obsidiana, y se convirtió en una base de comercio que se extendía a día moderno Chipre e Irak. Wikipedia señala que unos 6.000 objetos de obsidiana fueron recuperados de la capa superficial del sitio. Este conteo finalmente incluyó fragmentos de un brazalete de obsidiana único, significativos debido a su edad y el alto nivel de la artesanía en cuestión. La pieza brillante, hecha de obsidiana - un vidrio volcánico muy difícil - requiere técnicas altamente especializadas, y los expertos aún no saben cómo se lleva a cabo. "El uso de métodos de alta tecnología desarrollados por LTDS [Laboratoire de tribologie et de Dynamiques des Systèmes] para estudiar la superficie de la pulsera y sus características de micro-topográfico, los investigadores han puesto de manifiesto la experiencia técnica asombrosa de los artesanos en el milenio VIII aC. Sus habilidades eran muy sofisticados para este período a finales de la prehistoria, ya la par con las técnicas de pulido de hoy en día ", informa la Red de Noticias de Arqueología .

Los restos se han encontrado en el sitio, que revela muchas cosas acerca de los antiguos habitantes. Varios esqueletos se encuentran enterrados debajo de las casas, entre ellos muchos niños, mujeres jóvenes y hombres de edad avanzada. Los hombres parecían vivir en sus años 50, mientras que las mujeres con frecuencia murieron mucho antes, entre los 20 y 30 años. Sin embargo, los investigadores no ofrecen conclusiones firmes en cuanto a por qué los hombres podrían haber sobrevivido a las mujeres en la solución, ni si el estilo entierro representados estado. "En cuanto a la forma en que vivían y los rituales de enterramiento, no pudimos encontrar ninguna señal que indique la presencia de una jerarquía en la comunidad. No podemos discernir una clase dominante, por ejemplo, "el profesor dijo Özbaşaran Hurriyet Daily News. Archaeolgoists encontraron cráneos en Asikli Hoyuk que demuestran la cirugía cerebral más antiguo conocido. Trepanation, o agujeros de perforación en el cráneo en un intento de aliviar o curar las dolencias o enfermedades mentales, se ha encontrado en cráneos en el sitio.

Las excavaciones continúan, y los arqueólogos sugieren que el trabajo y los descubrimientos continuarán por otros 25 años en este lugar tan lleno de historia. Investigadores de Asikli Hoyuk han creado réplicas de calles y casas de tamaño completo, ejemplos de la arquitectura de adobe semi-subterráneo tradicional, con la intención de crear un museo al aire libre. Esto se esperaba traer el pasado de la humanidad en perspectiva, y dar un vistazo a la vida y creencias del hombre neolítico durante una época de transición.


Human History Timeline I Created.

(Big fan and history nerd. I created this timeline on Facebook and thought I would share on here and Shadiversity. Unfortunately, Reddit thinks my post was spam. So I am resubbitting and changing some things. I would like to get people's input and feedback about things.)

Earth's orbit experiences a Orbital Eccentricity, 100,000 year cycle orbit and inclination variation, going from circular to elliptical, the hemispheres experience more or less sun or exposure to the sun for extended periods, causing ice ages. Scientists estimate we are near the minimum, a 6% change in solar energy. At peak, the earth experiences a change of 30%.

10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.

6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)

5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.

5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.

4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).

3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.

3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.

2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago) the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago) and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago

2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.

2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.

1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).

1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.

1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.

1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.

1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.

1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)

1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.

1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.

820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).

800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?

790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)

740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)

530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).

500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears. (Would become common 300,000 years ago.)

450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.

450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.

430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).

400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).

400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.

360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).

300,000 y a - Kenya, oldest evidence of Ochre rocks being used for pigment.

300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from. (40% of males do not reproduce.)

270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).

200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time. Scientists think that language with well formed, meaningful sentences was achieved (migration patterns, anatomy, tool making some argue that truly modern language is 50,000 years old).

194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.

190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)

190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.

170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing evidence of clothing)

140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.

130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.

125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.

110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.

100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.

100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, Blombos Cave, pigment (paint) creation kit found possible oldest evidence of abstract art.

75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.

75,000 y a - Art: Drilled snail shells found in South African cave.

73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.

72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.

70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world. Earliest evidence of Glue (sticky tree gum, ochre rocks, fat cooked over fire).

70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?

70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.

67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.

65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.

64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).

61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.

60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.

55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.

52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.

52-41,000 y a - France, Neanderthal site, bast (tree inner fiber) yarn found (evidence of basic math and organizational skills for patterns and sets, clothing, nets, tools)

50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).

50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.

50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).

45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)

44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.

44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.

43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.

42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.

40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.

40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.

38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter found buried with owners were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.

40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.

35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly) would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.

35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.

31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.

30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)

30-15,000 y a - DNA evidence of Denisovan interbreeding with Homo Sapiens.

30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Georgia, Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave. Fertile Crescent, Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.

28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.

25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.

27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.

26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)

23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).

23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.

21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.

20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.

19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.

17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.

18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.

18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.

15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.

15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.

14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.

14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.

14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.

14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.

13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.

15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.

12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)

11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.

13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.

13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.

12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum.

10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.

11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.

9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.

11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.

11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).

9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.

9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.

9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.

9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.

11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep Rammed Earth construction technique developed.

11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors) Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)

11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.

8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.

8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.

8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).

10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.

10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).

10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.

8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.

78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.

9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.

7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).

7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.

7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.

7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.

7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)

6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)

6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.

8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?

6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.

8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.

6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.

7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.

7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.

7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.

6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.

6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.

5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).

5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).

5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.

5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.

5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production) Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.

4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).

4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.

4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.

4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.

4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.

4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures manufacturing Papyrus Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use Mirrors made of Copper. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.

4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).

6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)

3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.

5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.

3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.

5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)

3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids) "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication Gold Smelting used a vertical Gnomon as a primitive Sundial? Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).

3500 - 3350 BCE - Earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles, Mesopotamia. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.

3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.

5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.

3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.

3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.

3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.

3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.

3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal) possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo) Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.

2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered.

2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.

2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.

2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.

2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.

2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.

2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).

2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.

2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.

2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit). China, oldest Gnomon (painted stick that casts a shadow for sundial purpose).

2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.

2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.

2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)

4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.

2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding) domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown.

1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.

1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).

1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.

1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.

1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.

1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.

1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs archaeologists find earliest Sundials found. China, Water Clocks.

1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.

1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”

1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.

1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)

1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).

1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.

1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.

1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."

1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.

1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.

1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.

1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?

1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.

1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.

1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.

930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.

800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.

800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.

700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.

700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.

600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.

600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy

550 BCE - The Illiad written down.

500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.


Despierta al futuro

Sin embargo, el sitio sigue asombrando arqueólogos y visitantes por igual, ya que revela los secretos de los habitantes originales que datan de 9000 aC, incluso después de 25 años de excavación moderna. Sus habilidades eran muy sofisticados para este período a finales de la prehistoria, ya la par con las técnicas de pulido de hoy en día “, informa la Red de Noticias de Arqueología . Sin embargo, los investigadores no ofrecen conclusiones firmes en cuanto a por qué los hombres podrían haber sobrevivido a las mujeres en la solución, ni si el estilo entierro representados estado. Trepanation, o agujeros de perforación en el cráneo en un intento de aliviar o curar las dolencias o enfermedades mentales, se ha encontrado en cráneos en el sitio.

Timeline of Human Development

(I used data of environment, archeological discovers, and even genetic evidence. I believe I have finished editing and adding information to this timeline. Hope you guys enjoy and find neat things to either add or discuss.)

10 million y a - Primate ancestors develop genes to digest alcohol.

6 million years ago - Primate ancestors split from Chimpanzee/Bonobo line (15 million DNA mutations have occurred since then each person born today has 100 mutations distinct to them, most don’t survive.)

5.3 m y a - Mediterranean Sea experiences the Messinian Salinity Crisis, for 600,000 years the Straight of Gibraltar closed off, causing the Mediterranean to shrink down to two inland seas with Italy and Greece separating them. Ends in the Zanclean Flood, a river of Atlantic sea water flows thru Gibraltar and fills the Mediterranean in 2 years.

5 m y a - Arabian-African continent reconnects with Asia.

4 - 3 m y a - Hominid ancestors acquire pubic lice from Gorillas (genetic evidence).

3.6 - 2.58 m y a - Considered the Neogene Period.

3.3 m y a - Stone tools found in Kenya and Ethiopia.

2.6 m y a - Mode One Stone Tools found in Ethiopia, would subsequently spread. Flourished to 1.7 million y a in southern and eastern Africa. Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) Era (2.6 m y a till end of last Ice Age, 11,000 y a). Subdivided into the Early- or Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2,6 million years ago - c. 250,000 years ago) the Middle Palaeolithic (c. 250,000 years ago - c. 30,000 years ago) and the Late- or Upper Palaeolithic (c. 50,000/40,000 - c. 10,000 years ago

2.58 million - 11,700 years ago - Considered the start of the Quaternary Period, and covers the Pleistocene.

2 m years ago - Earliest Hominids start eating meat.

1.89 m y a - Earliest evidence of Homo Erectus (first to leave Africa and spread across Asia).

1.8 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found on Java.

1.7 m years ago - Mode Two Stone Tools (slicing, butchering, evidence of drilling tools) appear in Kenya and southern Africa.

1.6 m years ago - Mode One Stone Tools found in northern China.

1.6 - 1.5 m y a - Africa, Turkana Boy dies, likely from a tooth cavity infection. He was either 8 or 11-12 years old and 61 inches tall. Brain 880 ccm.

1.5 m y a - Kenya, possible start of Hominids using fire to cook food. (increase in caloric intake, which would lead to evolution however, Paranthropus Boisei is the local species, brain 500-550 ccm, 54 inches tall)

1 million years ago - Likely split between ancestor of Homo Sapiens and proto-Neanderthal-Denisovan species. (Mitochondrial DNA evidence.) South Africa, evidence of fire use for cooking.

1 m - 700,000 y a - Java, Java Man dies, brain 900 ccm. 5' 8" tall.

820,000 - 580,000 y a - Durum Wheat develops out of natural hybridization with Einkorn Wheat (genetic analysis).

800,000? y a - Low world temperatures recorded. Height of Ice Age?

790,000 y a - Levant, oldest Fire hearths found. (Homo Heidelbergensis, 1,250 ccm brain, 69 in tall)

740,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

640,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

550,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

540,000 - 430,000 y a - Art: Sea shell formed into decoration by Homo Erectus. (Could indicate when sea shells began to be used as whistles and horns.)

530,000? y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, high CO2 content in the atmosphere, 524-474,000).

500,000 y a - South Africa, evidence of Spears.

450,000 y a - Earliest evidence of Neanderthal.

450,000 y a - Global temperatures had dropped, stayed that way for thousands of years.

430,000 - 230,000 y a - Durum Wheat cross-breeds with wild Goat Grass (genetic analysis).

400,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 424-374,000).

400,000 y a - Germany, oldest Spears found. France (Terra Amata), possible evidence of manmade shelter using prepared wood.

360,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

310,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 337-300,000).

300,000-200,000 y a - Origin of Male Y-Chromosome that all current males are descended from.

270,000? y a - Height of Ice Age.

240,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 242–230,000).

200,000 y a - France, evidence of Neanderthals fishing. "Mitochondrial Eve," source of all Human Haplo-groups that everyone is descended from, existed at this time.

194,000-135,000 y a - Penultimate Glacial Period.

190,000 y a - Early evidence of Denisovans. (At least three interbreeding events would occur with Homo Sapiens. EPAS1 gene, hemoglobin concentration, Tibetan plateau.)

190,000-50,000 y a - Flores Island, evidence of tool use by the Human Hobbit.

170,000 - 80,000 y a - Body Lice evolve (genetic evidence, feed on human skin, live in clothing evidence of clothing)

140,000 y a - Homo Sapiens found in Europe.

130,000 y a - Evidence of humans in North America. Crete, earliest human settlements found on the island. Art: Neanderthal necklace made of eagle talons. Croatia: Neanderthal teeth show possible dental work.

125,000 y a - Interglacial Peak (between Ice Ages, 130-115,000). Sea levels 4-6 meters (18 feet) higher then today.

110,000-15,000 y a - Last Glacial Period.

100,000-60,000 y a - Flores Island, bone fossil evidence of the Human Hobbit.

100,000 y a - Oldest example of proper human burial. South Africa, pigment (paint) creation kit found.

75,000 years ago - Likely rise of Hunter Genotype in Homo Sapiens.

75,000 y a - Art: Drilled, snail shells found in South African cave.

73,000 y a - South Africa (Blombos Cave), evidence of Red Ochre art on pieces of stone, stone with deliberate lines cut into it possibly representing count marks.

72,000 y a - South Africa, Beads found in cave.

70,000 y a - Mitochondrial DNA suggests this is when the Haplo-group of early humans migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world.

70-60,000 y a - Earliest evidence of bone and stone arrowheads, found in South Africa. 64,000?

70,000 - 35,000 BCE - Neanderthal burials in Europe and Middle East.

67,000 BCE - France, burial shows skulls with trepanation (cutting holes to relieve brain pressure), earliest example of surgery.

65,000 y a - First humans settle Australia.

64,000 y a - Spain, oldest evidence found of cave art (Neanderthal hand).

61,000 y a - South Africa, possible evidence of a Sewing Needle.

60,000? y a - Height of Ice Age?

60,000 y a - Evidence of man/Neanderthal using herbal medicine.

55,000 - 40,000 y a - Italy, evidence of Neanderthal using Pine Tree Resin and Beeswax for hafting tools, in cave.

52,000 y a - Last evidence of Denisovans.

50,000 - 10,000 y a - Mode Four Stone Tools (long blades).

50,000 y a - Austrailia, last evidence of megafauna. Siberia, needle made from bone found with Denisovan cave.

50,000 years ago - End point of development of Gatherer genotype (can survive famine), Teacher (can handle new and different environments, analytical).

45,000 y a - Evidence of Neanderthal and Homo Sapien interbreeding. (Fossil found, DNA tested.)

44,000 y a - Evidence of art found in Indonesia.

44,000-40,000 y a - Europe experiences cold and dry weather, displacing populations.

43-42,000 y a - Germany, oldest musical instruments (flutes) found.

42,000 y a - Australia, skeleton of man suggests Atlatl use, pre-dating earliest evidence earliest example of cremation found. Spain, small amounts of Natural Gold found in a cave.

40,000 y a - Last evidence of Neanderthal. (Inheritance of "STAT2" gene, immune response. HYAL2 gene, helps skin recover from sunburns.) China, test on body found that ate a lot of fresh water fish.

40,000 - 26,000 y a - Studying toe bones, showed they became smaller and weaker, indicating shoes were worn. Prior to this, shoes were likely bags wrapped around feet to protect from cold.

38,000 BC - First appearance of Mode Five ground stone tools on Japan. (rock was quarried thin slivers of flint stone, attached to hafts, man is learning the use of a "handle" for tools and "leverage", create adzes, celts, and axes grinding helps to penetrate trees and was likely discovered when grinding plant matter found buried with owners were traded) Lasted till 14,000 BC. (Would not become popular elsewhere until 10,000 BC?) Germany: clay figurine featuring human with lion like appearance, thought to be earliest representation of a deity.

40,000 y a - (Mankind is at the “Forager” level.) Possible example of oldest petroglyphs. Beads found in Lebanon.

35,000 BCE - Europe, earliest examples of "Venus figurines" found buried in graves (some showing they were deliberately broken or stabbed repeatedly) would later spread to rest of Eurasia. Early examples of skulls and long bones showing red ochre, indicating possible relic worship.

35,000 y a - Germany, flute made from a vulture bone found.

31,000 - 27,000 y a - Evidence of Pit Fire (Earthernware) Pottery developing.

30,000-20,000 years ago - Explorer genotype (Ice Age refugees, idiosyncratic, asymmetrical, contrarian mentality)

30,000 y a - Evidence of starch residue on rocks, indicating where plant matter was pounded and ground. (Would likely be the pre-cursor of developing bread from roots of cattails and ferns. Quern Grinding Stones would spread and gain popularity) Flax used as a textile (harvested, dyed, and knotted) found in Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia. Einkorn wheat harvested in it's wild form in the Fertile Crescent. Evidence of man using the Atlatl. Poland: Boomerang carved from mammoth tusk found.

28,000 y a - Europe, oldest evidence of rope.

25,000 - 15,000 BCE - Blood Type A develops in the Fertile Crescent.

27,000 y a - Australia, oldest example of petroglyphs found. Czech Republic, earliest example of "Weaving" of material together to create baskets and basic cloth.

26,000-13,300 y a - Considered "Glacial Maximum", ice sheets extend to the 45th parallel north. (26,500 considered to be maximum glacial reach.)

23,000 - 12,000 y a - Perforated Batons found, made of antler, assumed to be a form of Atlatl that uses a leather strap or string to wrap around the spear and give it a slight spin, arrow or spear thrower (similar to Swiss Arrow). Right and left handed throwers find preference. Most carved with Horses, have one or two holes (one had 8 holes).

23,000 y a - Israel, Ohalo archaeological site, hunter-gatherer society that grew/harvested barley, millet, and various fruits.

21,000-17,000 y a - France, Atlatl's found in caves.

20,000 y a - Height of the Ice Age, sea levels 120 meters (360 feet) lower. Earliest example of a building/house found. Ukraine, Bullroarer (wood on rope that is swung around to create sound over long distance) found.

19,050? - 13,050 y a - Oldest Dryas Period, stadial, abrupt cooling period. Sea levels rose 10-15 m in 500 years.

17,000 BCE - Mesopotamia, Wild Emmer Wheat harvested.

18,000 - 17,500 y a - Siberia, earliest example of a domesticated dog found frozen. Germany, Bow and Arrows found. Early evidence of Darts used.

18,000 y a - Japan, oldest pottery discovered.

15,100 - 14,000 y a - Morocco, earliest example of a cemetery.

15,000 y a - Southern France, cave art depicting possible Musical Bow, Nose Flute "The Sorcerer," a figure showing human and many animal qualities.

14,500 y a - Oldest example of bread making, Jordan desert.

14,160 - 13,820 y a - Archaeological find: infected tooth partially cleaned out with flint tools.

14,600 - 13,600 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 16-24 m.

14,000? y a - Older Dryas Period, around 200 year cooling period.

13,500 - 8,200 y a - China, wild Rice domestication event occurs.

15-10,000 BCE - Himalayas, development of Blood Type B.

12,000 - 9000 BCE - Mesolithic Era (Middle Stone Age)

11,050 BCE - Syria, attempts at domesticating Rye.

13,000 y a - Greece, evidence of lentils found. Earliest evidence of Amber used in jewelry. Israel, archaeological evidence of beer like gruel for ceremonial purposes found at Haifa. Likely beginning of Slavery.

13,000 - 12,700 y a - Fertile Crescent, archaeological evidence of man corralling and using pigs.

12,900 - 11,700 y a - The Younger Dryas Period, when temperatures went cold instead of warming from the Last Glacial Maximum.

10,000 BCE - Jericho, considered mankind's first town, is established. Buildings of clay and straw, dead buried under homes. (Would reach 70 dwellings by 94,000 BCE.) Chickpeas domesticated. (Mode Five Ground stone tools become popularly used across the Neolithic?) Earliest evidence of the Bottle Gourd being domesticated and used (Africa and Asia variety). Azerbaijan (Caspian Sea), petroglyphs of reed boats. Starting point of Ocarina type flutes.

11,700 y a - Considered the beginning of the Holocene.

9600 BCE - Southern Levant, earliest use of wild Emmer Wheat.

11,500 - 11,000 y a - "Melt Water Pulse," sea levels rose 28 m.

11,400 y a - Cyrpress, archaeological evidence of pigs (indicating they had been domesticated and brought from the mainland).

9400 - 9200 BCE - Jordan Valley, Fig trees found, indicating earliest agriculture since these trees could not reproduce.

9130 - 7370 BCE - SE Turkey, Gobekli Tepe, oldest known worship location.

9000 BCE - Syria, oldest (Saddle) Quern found. Mesopotamia, Copper first used.

9000 - 3300 BCE - Neolithic Era, roughly. Time period of when man has begun herding, before using bronze.

11,000 - 9,000 y a - Mesopotamia, domestication of Sheep Rammed Earth construction technique developed.

11,000-4,000 years ago - Warrior genotype (farmers, soldiers, inventors) Nomad genotype (life upon a horse, can handle different environments, good immune system)

11 or 10,000 y a - Last Ice Age ends.

8800 BCE - Emmer Wheat spreads beyond the Levant.

8700 BCE - Iraq, Copper pendant.

8500 BCE - Domestication of Barley. Domestication of peas occurs around this time. Turkey, Beer production found at Gobekli Tepe. Domestication of Cattle from the Aurochs (two separate populations, one in Mesopotamia, the other Pakistan). Oregon, oldest pair of shoes found made from bark twine. Oats possibly start to be harvested, crop mirrors wheat (is like a weed).

10,300 - 8,700 y a - China, Millet harvested.

10,200 - 9,500 y a - Emmer Wheat domesticated(?).

10,000 - 7,000 y a - Archaeological evidence of boats.

8000 BCE (10,000 years ago) - Palestine, archaeological evidence of pastoralism. Pre-Pottery Neolithic people in the Fertile Crescent form perfectly smooth stone vases. Iran, Goat domestication. Believed to be when primitive dairy-cheese making began. Flax cultivation. China, Quern Grinding Stones.

78-5,000 y a - SE Turkey, Einkorn Wheat grown and domesticated.

9,500 y a - Cyprus, earliest evidence of cat domestication. SE Anatolia, cold-working, annealing, smelting, lost wax casting of Copper.

7500 - 5700 BCE - Anatolia, Catal Hoyuk develops as a spiritual center, found many clay figurines and impressions (feminine, phallic, hunting).

7400 BCE - A monolith ends up submerged in the Straight of Sicily.

7000 BCE - Archaeological evidence for pastoralism in Africa. China: evidence of mead (honey, rice, water fermented) in pottery evidence of musical instruments. India, first archaeological evidence of Dance, cave art evidence of dentistry. Armenian Highlands, art depictions of Cymbals. Durum Wheat made thru artificial selection in Europe and Near East. Greece, earliest evidence of grain silos. Turkey, Catal Hoyuk, art depiction of a Slinger.

7000 - 6600 BCE - China, domestication of Soy beans.

7000 - 6000 BCE - Turkey, domestication of Bitter Vetch. (Too bitter for human consumption without being boiled several times, has been found to be great for cattle feed.)

6500-3800 BCE - Ubaid Period (Mesopotamian citystates rise, evidence of specialized workers, evidence of taxation)

6500 BCE - Turkey, evidence of lead smelting at Catal Hoyuk. (Wrapping the dead in textiles, too.) China, archaeological evidence of Silk. Kosovo, oldest Ocarina found in Europe.

8,200 - 7,600 y a - Sea levels rise rapidly. Linked to North American great fresh water lake (Agassiz, Ojibway) sudden draining into Atlantic Ocean. 8,400 y a?

6050 BCE - Moldova, evidence of man extracting salt from a natural spring.

8,000 y a - Western Europe, white skin first appears. Iran: earliest evidence of irrigation man starts choosing sheep for their wooliness, not just meat and skin (2-3,000 years later, would start wearing wool). Georgia, earliest evidence of wine. Spain, cave painting shows people collecting honey from a wild hive, using a container to hold. China, Buckwheat cultivated (near Tibetan plateau). Earliest evidence of the Ard Plow used. Mediterranean, Broad (Fava) Beans, Broccoli. Portugal: Almendres Cromlech, begins, aligned to equinox and solstice, occupied for 2,000 years, would become largest complex in Iberian peninsula, equal to other large complexes in Europe. Anatolia: Obsidian polished into mirrors. Spelt Wheat appears. First Stone hafted Axes.

6000 - 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Sumer), Poppy domesticated.

7500 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? Lasts for 500 or more years.

7500 y a - Earliest example of chickpeas being used. Poland, archaeological evidence of cheese making. Ukraine, Romania, earliest examples of traps used for hunting.

7,000 y a - Earliest example of Dolmen, single chamber tomb, consists of two stones supporting another on top (table design), found in western Europe, would spread and be common 4000 - 3000 BCE in Europe.

6950 - 6440 y a - Papua New Guinea, cultivation of Taro and Yam.

6,500 y a - Croatia, earliest example of an oven found. Slovenia, dental filling made with beeswax.

5600 BCE - Evidence of The Black Sea Flood, turning the fresh water lake into a salt water sea, rose shorelines and displaced populations (source of flood myths in religions).

5500 BCE - Pakistan, evidence of Cotton found in copper beads. Egypt, earliest Combs found (placing a leaf in the teeth can create a primitive sound instrument).

5500-5000 BCE - Serbia, Copper Smelting.

5200 - 4700 BCE - Iran, earliest evidence of a wheel, for pottery, made of stone or clay.

5000 BCE - Iranian plateau, evidence of Bronze made with naturally occurring arsenic. Tin would replace as the major ingredient (and releasing non-toxic vapors) in the late 3000 BCE period. Iran, evidence of wine found, using sealed containers. China, Hemp domestication (smoking was likely cause for spread, Iron Age would use for production) Rammed Earth construction technique. Egypt, Badarian culture starts farming, used boomerangs. Roundels, circular enclosure often with entrances aligned to solstice, would be constructed in Central Europe (Germany, 120-150 altogether). Siberia, oldest carpet found (likely a funeral gift, from Armenia, featured griffons). Mesopotamia: first use of Stamp Seals for government purposes Rotary Quern milling stones are introduced. Armenia: possible origin of Apricots. Lake Zurich, cultivation of Pear.

4800 BCE - Egypt, early evidence of peas being grown. Cairn of Barnenez, Brittany, England, begins (burial monument and later bronze age use, considered one of the oldest and largest man made structures).

4700 - 4200 BCE - The town of Solnitstata, considered the oldest known settlement in Europe. Built around a salt deposit.

4500 BCE - Indus Valley, irrigation. Wine production reaches Greece. Carnac Stones, Brittany, France would become large complex of standing stones, menhirs, domens, tumuli (burial mounds, with passage tombs), large rectangle formed by stone.

4500-4000 BCE - China, Investment Casting develops.

4200 - 4000 BCE - Mesopotamia develops true, easy to spin pottery wheels.

4000 BCE - (Mankind has achieved “Farmer status.”) Egyptians start building big Brick structures manufacturing Papyrus Gold artifacts. Earliest examples of Kilns. NE Italy, archaeological find of Appleseeds. Sicily, evidence of wine found. Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Horse domestication begins. Thought to be when Cattle were turned into Ox for Draft Animal purposes. Pontic Language Explosion. [People from north of the Caspian and Black Seas migrated around Eurasia, ancestor of western languages. (shared origins with: milk, horses, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, grain, copper, carts, yoke, weaving, mead patrilineal clans)]. Earliest examples of Viticulture (wine making). Levant, earliest examples of harvesting Olives start using grain Silos. Art: Earliest depiction of Shoes, Sandals. China: example of a Loom for Silk production Ramie (similar to flax, requires chemical processing, not as popular, believed to be used for Egyptian mummy wraps). Persia (Iran), Mung Bean domestication?, Chang (precursor to Harp) found on artwork, made with sheep guts. Mesopotamia: Stamp Seals come into use Mirrors made of Copper. Europe, farming reaches northern regions. Anatolia, Silver production.

4000 - 1000 BCE - Ethiopia, Teff is discovered (can feed people and livestock, building material).

6,000 y a - Earth experiences a cold climate period? (Starting maybe 500 years earlier and ending 500 years later.)

3800 - 3500 BCE - Czech Republic, possible evidence of earliest plowed fields.

5,700 y a - Lolland Island, a blue eyed, dark haired, dark skin woman spits out some Birch Bark gum. Oldest complete human genome extracted. Had Mononucleosis ("kissing disease"). Possible archeological evidence of pit traps used for migrating animal hunting.

3630 BCE - Oldest example of silk fabric found.

5,500 - 4,700 y a - Georgia, tomb found had honey remains on pottery. (This culture could identify Linden, Berry, and Meadow-Flower varieties.)

3500 BCE - City of Uruk: (Mesopotamia) begins outward expansion and influence, later first example of organized warfare (would influence Egyptians to start building pyramids) "Cylinder Seals," a type of noble seal, that can be rolled unto wet clay (would be popular until 1000 BCE). Iraq, Kish Tablet, considered to represent the early transition from pictographic to cuneiform. Mesopotamia, earliest Harps and Lyres found Gold artifacts. Modern humans settle the western coast of Europe, hunter-gatherers. Egyptians show Cat domestication Gold Smelting. Iran, Beer made from Barley. Armenia, earliest Leather Shoe found. China, Pottery in shape of silkworm indicates earliest example of Sericulture (silk worm production).

3500 - 3350 BCE - Earliest evidence of wheeled vehicles, Mesopotamia. Indus Valley civilization uses Stamp Seals with a type of script.

3400 BCE (5,400 years ago) - First metal casting. France, Cow skull showing Trepanation found.

5,400 -5,100 y a - Itzi the Iceman dies in the mountains of Northern Italy. Had a copper axe. Earliest evidence of tattoos. Shoes made from two types of animal skin (bear and deer). Arsenic residue in his hair.

3300 BCE - Egypt, tomb paintings show people Dancing.

3200 BCE - Examples of using symbols to represent real life objects (would go to form written language). Ireland, construction begins on Newgrange, largest passage tomb in Europe, aligned to winter solstice. Egypt, Bead made of Meteoric Iron found.

3100 - 2900 BCE - Jemdet Nasr period, following fall of Uruk, would be known as establishing Cuneiform as a proper language.

3100 BCE - Upper and Lower Egypt unified. Mesopotamia, likely evidence of the earliest Lute type device.

3000 BCE - Onset of Bronze. Mesopotamia, Irrigation Glass Beads appear (possible side effect of making metal) possible earliest Iron working. Sumer, Medical text found on tablet, believed oldest ever found. Egypt, first record of a Doctor named, Imhotep Antimony harvested from rock and made into eye makeup earliest evidence of domestic Donkeys in the south. Dromedary Camels likely domesticated in Somalia at this time. (Camel hair can be harvested for shelter and clothing, outer guard hairs make for water proof coats. Camel milk readily turns into yogurt. To turn into butter requires a clarifying agent and extended process.) Chicken reaches Europe from Asia. England, earliest Stone Circles found. Slovakia, Romania, earliest chainmail found. Sheep chosen for wooly coat, not long hair. China, Clay Bells found. India, River Buffalo domesticated (water buffalo) Jute grown for fiber (burlap). Northern Iran, earliest examples of Trumpets. SE Asia, earliest records of Radish.

2800 BCE - Solid evidence of plowed fields. China, Copper smelting discovered.

2700 BCE - Chinese treatise on health. 40 kinds identified.

2650 BCE - Egypt, dental work found.

2630-10 BCE - Egypt, Pyramid of Djoser constructed by Imhotep, considered first.

2600 - 1900 BCE - Indus Valley, Stoneware Pottery (meaning fired at 1000 degrees Celsius), would become a major industry.

2560 BCE - Great Pyramid of Giza completed.

2500 BCE - Evidence of The Amber Road, trade route from the Baltic Sea to Mediterranean Sea. E Iran, Bactrian Camels domesticated. Iraq, "Lyres of Ur," considered world's oldest stringed instruments. Peru, oldest Sling ever found. Egypt, earliest depiction of a Khopesh (sword).

2500 - 2000 BCE - Mali, domestication of Pearl Millet. Turkey, Meteoric Iron dagger.

2400 BCE - Sumer, description of Prostitution and a Brothel-Temple to Fertility Goddess.

2300 BCE - Mesopotamia, Urukagina of Lagash, considered the earliest Law Code. (Widows and orphans exempt from taxes, state pays for funeral expenses, the rich must pay in silver and cannot force the poor against will, checked power of priests, protect from usury, abolished polyandry). Iran, Quince (fruit).

2200 BCE - China, first known tax, using salt.

2200-2000 BCE - Turkey, Iron Smelting.

2100 - 2050 BCE - City of Ur: Earliest written Code of Law discovered. References Butter. (Fines for bodily harm, references murder, robbery, adultery, rape. Two classes of people: free and slave.)

4000 - 3000 y a - Mesopotamia, earliest Scissors (shear, spring type). India, Mung Bean domesticated.

2000 BCE - Murals show horses pulling chariots. Horses become common in western Europe. England, Great Orme Mine started, would become largest copper mine in region (most productive between 1700 - 1400 BCE), used bone and stone tools. China, Bells made out of metal (Bellfounding) domestication of the Swamp Buffalo (water buffalo). Ghana, earliest evidence of Cowpea (black eyed pea). India, Canola/Rapeseed. Egypt, Lupin Beans. Greece, Kale grown.

1800 BCE - Egypt, medical text on gynecological issues Safflower for pigment. India, Iron working.

1754 BCE - Code of Hammurabi (recognized Prostitution and gave women protection and inheritance theorized that a fertility goddess had a temple that offered sex workers).

1700 - 1200 BCE - (Late Bronze Age) 8 societies in Middle East: Aegean, Egyptian, Hittite, Canaanite, Cypriot, Mitanni, Assyrian, Babylonian. Considered a "globalized world system." Next time this would occur is today.

1700 BCE - The "Mari Letters" reference Minoan society, King Hammurabi.

1628 BCE - Island of Thera/Santorini experiences huge volcanic eruption, possibly causing a tsunami thru eastern Europe.

1600-1500 BCE - Greece, Helmet formed of boar tusks found.

1500 BCE - Modern Trumpet design found in eastern Mediterranean. India, Pigeon Pea domesticated. Egypt, Mercury found in tombs.

1400 BCE - Syria, Hurrian Songs, cuneiform music tablet in Ugarit. Greece, oldest body armor found, made of bronze, Dendra Panoply. China, Meteoric Iron axeheads. Art representation of Scale Mail in Egypt. Art: representation of Shields.

1350 BCE - Turkey, Hittites chronicle Egyptian prisoners of war bringing "the plague.”

1300 BCE - Uluburun Shipwreck, off coast of Turkey, had 300 sixty pound copper ingots (10 tons), 1 ton of tin, and tin objects and ingots of colored glass (blue, rose, brown). From Cypress/Minoa.

1300? - 900? BCE - Eastern Mediterranean experiences a 300? year drought. (Could also be: Cypress 1200- 850. Syria 1250-1187. Galilee 1250-1100)

1279 BCE - Battle of Qadesh (Egypt vs Hittites).

1200 BCE (3,200 years ago) - Onset of Iron smelting. Earliest Camel saddles appear. Last appearance of Megaliths. India, earliest evidence of Firewalking.

1200 BCE - Eastern Mediterranean civilization collapse. Drought in Greece. Earthquake series.

1188-1177 BCE - Egypt suffers invasions from "The Sea People."

1185 BCE - Syria, Ugarit Letter, Famine.

1140? BCE - Ramses 6th, mummy found to have small pox. No record of people dying from small pox.

1100 BCE - Phoenicians establish nation. Europe, Iron Age.

1100? BCE - Earth experiences a cold temperature period?

1100-750 BCE - Egypt, Iron Smelting.

1070 BCE - Egyptian mummy found with Silk in hair, earliest evidence of Silk Road.

1000 BCE - Early Cuneiform script (late stages, still pictograph in nature). Bactria, Barbat (primitive lute). Egypt, Kenaf is grown for fibers, leaves can be eaten by animals and humans (similar to Jute and Hemp rope, rough fabric, sails). Mediterranean, Cabbage domesticated. China, Iron Age.

930 BCE - Camel bones found in Arabian peninsula. Jordan, earliest Bloomery for Iron working found.

800 - 600 BCE - Ethiopia, Sorghum Wheat begins to be harvested.

800 BCE - Considered the beginning of Ancient Greece, after the Mycenae Civilization. China, Bloomeries used.

700-500 BCE - The Illiad composed.

700 BCE - Turkey, first Coins in Lydia. Assyria, first equipment recognized as a Saddle for a Horse.

600 BCE - Earliest example of a Steel Sword.

600-400 BCE - Ancient Greece rise of scientific inquiry and philosophy

550 BCE - The Illiad written down.

500 BCE - Camels used in warfare. Persians use kettle drums for military maneuvers, frighten enemies. Greece, Grape Syrup, early form of sweetener and preservative. Blackberries consumed around Europe. Spain, Disk Quern developed.

400 BCE - The "Celts/Gaeil" settle Ireland.

396 BCE - Olympics, horn blowing competitions.

314 BCE - China, first mention of Sweet Orange.

298 BCE - Foot powered Loom.

200 BCE - China starts making paper.

100 CE - Sorghum Wheat domesticated. Mediterranean, Cauliflower.

400 CE - Bellfounding comes to Europe.

800 CE - Start of most recent Interglacial peak period.

1200 CE (800 years ago) - First Cannon foundry. Europe, first Paper mills.


Stonehenge

Stonehenge is now considered one of the official wonders of the world. It is believed to have been constructed 5,000 years ago, although the questions: “who built it, how, and why?” are still left unknown. It consists of several huge stones, each standing around 13 feet, and weighs around 25 tons. There are many speculations regarding why Stonehenge was built.


Over time, it has been used by pagan religions, especially druids, for their rituals and celebrations. Some also suggest that Stonehenge was once used as a sacred place for healing the sick, while others have suggested that it was a celestial observatory.


Despierta al futuro

Sin embargo, el sitio sigue asombrando arqueólogos y visitantes por igual, ya que revela los secretos de los habitantes originales que datan de 9000 aC, incluso después de 25 años de excavación moderna. Sus habilidades eran muy sofisticados para este período a finales de la prehistoria, ya la par con las técnicas de pulido de hoy en día “, informa la Red de Noticias de Arqueología . Sin embargo, los investigadores no ofrecen conclusiones firmes en cuanto a por qué los hombres podrían haber sobrevivido a las mujeres en la solución, ni si el estilo entierro representados estado. Trepanation, o agujeros de perforación en el cráneo en un intento de aliviar o curar las dolencias o enfermedades mentales, se ha encontrado en cráneos en el sitio.

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ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS: 1/28/2019

Posted: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 11:55:00 +0000

ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS – Ancient Digger brings you the latest archaeology news and headlines everyday of the week!

Underwater archaeologists have discovered a huge, centuries-old shipwreck and a destroyed World War II bridge in a river in Poland.

Vesuvius victims died slower than believed

Archaeology news: Archaeologists recreate the voice of 3,000-year-old Egyptian mummy
By 3D printing an electronic larynx which is an exact replica of the mummified priest, experts have been able to recreate the voice of a person who has been dead for 3,000 years. A team from Royal Holloway, University of London, Leeds Museum and the University of York placed the mummified remains of Nesyamun inside a Computed Tomography (CT) scanning machine to analyse whether the structure of the larynx had remained intact.

Witch’s bottle found in US Civil War fort.
A glass bottle filled with rusty nails discovered in Virginia could be a rare ‘witch’ bottle used by soldiers in the US civil war to fend off evil spirits. The bottle stands at a height of five inches (13 centimetres) tall and three inches (eight cm) wide and was discovered near a civil war fort known as Redoubt 9.

ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS-May 30, 2018

Posted: Wed, 30 May 2018 17:55:00 +0000

ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS – Ancient Digger brings you the latest archaeology news and headlines everyday of the week!

How Jesus died: Extremely rare evidence of Roman crucifixion uncovered in Italy

A lesion on the foot of a 2,000-year-old skeleton discovered in a Roman burial site in northern Italy appears to constitute rare tangible evidence of execution by crucifixion, according to an interdisciplinary team of Italian researchers.

Archaeologists find remains of man crushed as he fled Pompeii

The Roman dead: new techniques are revealing just how diverse Roman Britain was

New research has rubbished our perception of it as a region inhabited solely by white Europeans. Roman Britain was actually a highly multicultural society which included newcomers and locals with black African ancestry and dual heritage, as well as people from the Middle East.

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Corinthian helmet discovered in southwest Russia

A grave in southwest Russia dating to the fifth century B.C. has yielded an ancient Corinthian helmet, according to The Greek Reporter. Roman Mimohod of the Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences said this is the first Greek helmet of its kind to be found north of the Black Sea, in the Greek Kingdom of the Bosporus. The bronze helmet, of a type worn by foot soldiers, has slits for the eyes, and a padded interior that would have covered the entire head and neck. When a warrior died, his helmet was buried next to him. To read about another recent discovery in Russia, go to “Nomadic Chic.”

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T US 380 yields new information about prosthetics

A male skeleton unearthed in 1996 and dating from some time in the 6th to 8th century AD showed evidence of a man who not only survived his right hand being chopped off, he attached a large knife in its place. The remarkable specimen, known as T US 380, is described in new research published in the Journal of Anthropological Sciences. T US 380 was recovered from one of 164 tombs excavated from the Longobard necropolis near Verona in northern Italy in the 1980s and 1990s.

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Wild Orangutans at Gunung Palung National Park in Indonesia

Over her two decades of observation, Knott says, orangutan numbers have declined, but the population she studies in Gunung Palung National Park in Indonesia remains a stronghold for the species. Knott’s research project is one of the longest running studies of wild orangutans. She also works to protect them through her organization, the Gunung Palung Orangutan Conservation Program.

Large Sunken Island Existed off Bulgaria’s Black Sea Coast

Large Sunken Island Existed off Bulgaria’s Black Sea Coast till Middle Ages, According to Roman Era Maps, Geomorphology Research. A sizable but now destroyed and/or sunken island – likely the size of Greece’s Aegean island of Thasos – existed in the Black Sea off the southern Black Sea coast of today’s Bulgaria but disappeared as a result of natural calamity sometime in the Middle Ages, a report points out.

Archaeology News: May 23, 2017

Posted: Tue, 23 May 2017 11:00:00 +0000

ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS – Ancient Digger brings you the latest archaeology news and headlines everyday of the week!

Washington's birth site more mysterious than thought

On Popes Creek in Westmoreland County, park rangers tell visitors that “George Washington slept here first.” It’s a riff on that old line encountered at innumerable Mid-Atlantic historic sites, but if any place has bragging rights, it’s here—George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia’s Northern Neck. Here on this acreage, the first U.S. president came into the world.

Stone Age 'cult' henge site and human remains discovered near Stratford

A STONE Age ‘cult’ henge site and human remains – which could belong to some of south Warwickshire’s earliest residents – have been discovered close to Stratford. Archaeologists have found the 4,000 year-old remains at a new housing development in Newbold-on-Stour, on fields at Mansell Farm. Experts say it is an ‘important discovery’.

Medieval brewery used by monks discovered by archaeologists on the outskirts of Lincoln

A medieval brewery has been discovered by archaeologists along the route of Lincoln Eastern Bypass.

Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Carving Found in Looting Hole

Egyptian authorities say they caught looters digging up an ancient stone block carved with an image of a pharaoh. In the city of Abydos, antiquities authorities say they were inspecting an old two-story, mud-brick house when they found that the owner had excavated a hole in the floor.

Archaeologists often spend years digging and hoping they'll find the remnants of ancient civilizations. There's a lot of ground yet to be uncovered. Archaeologist Sarah Parcak says less than 10 percent of the Earth's surface has been explored, so she's leading the way to speed up the search. Parcak uses satellite photos to locate ancient sites and she's finding them -- thousands. It's called space archaeology and it's transforming the field. Sarah Parcak is a professor at The University of Alabama at Birmingham. We met her in Egypt doing what she loves most: digging in the dirt.

Noah’s Ark discovered? Researchers '99.9 per cent certain' of astonishing Biblical find

A team of evangelical Christian explorers found what they claim is “99.9 per cent” certainly evidence of Noah’s Ark beneath snow and volcanic debris on Mount Ararat in Turkey. Noah's Ark Ministries International, a Hong Kong-based documentary team, claim to have found wooden pieces from a structure which carbon dates back 4,800 years and was found around 13,000 feet above sea level.

Archaeology News: August 2, 2016

Posted: Tue, 02 Aug 2016 19:51:00 +0000

ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS (August 2, 2016)– Ancient Digger brings you the latest archaeology news and headlines everyday of the week!

Prehistoric Native American Fishing Camp Found in New Jersey

Ancient hearths and some 1,300 artifacts, including unglazed ceramics and pieces of soapstone, have been found at an industrial construction site along the South Camden waterfront.

Roman Cooking on Display in Restored Pompeii Kitchen

The Local, Italy, reports that cooking equipment, such as metal grills, pots, pans, and earthenware crocks, have been returned to the kitchen in the Fullonica di Stephanus, a three-story launderette where the garments of wealthy Romans were washed some 2,000 years ago. The equipment was discovered in the launderette in 1912, but had been moved to other areas of Pompeii over the years. The grills were placed over troughs where charcoal fires were lit. Meat, fish, and vegetables were then placed on the grills. Soups and stews were cooked in pots and pans on tripods placed in the coals. “We’re delighted the pieces have finally been put back on display where they were found,” said Massimo Osanna, archaeological superintendent of Pompeii. For more on Pompeii, go to "Family History."

Dark Ages royal palace discovered in Cornwall – in area closely linked to the legend of King Arthur

The mysterious origins of the British archaeological site most often associated with the legend of King Arthur have just become even more mysterious. Archaeologists have discovered the impressive remains of a probable Dark Age royal palace at Tintagel in Cornwall. It is likely that the one-metre thick walls being unearthed are those of the main residence of the 6th century rulers of an ancient south-west British kingdom, known as Dumnonia.

1,000-Year-Old Human Remains Uncovered in Northern Ireland

Excavations on the grounds of an eighteenth-century country house known as Hillsborough Castle have uncovered a skeleton thought to have belonged to a young woman who lived 1,000 years ago.

Illegal structure in Mathura to be razed

Acting on the recommendations of the Archaeology Department of Uttar Pradesh, district authorities have directed police to demolish an illegal structure being constructed by a man close to the heritage memorial of the Bharatpur dynasty.

UTSA students and staff make historic discoveries in Belize

Kathryn Brown, associate professor of anthropology, has been directing a team of researchers at the site of Xunantunich since 2008, investigating the site’s origins and political history. One target of those investigations is El Castillo, a 39 meter tall acropolis which served as the site’s royal palace for decades. Team member and UTSA doctoral student Leah McCurdy has focused her dissertation research on El Castillo, examining the architectural history of this impressive acropolis.

More 1066 artefacts found in York


AN EXCAVATION at Fulford, which precedes the 950th anniversary of the 1066 battle, is turning into the "best imaginable" dig, says archaeologist Chas Jones. He said the dig on the Germany Beck site had led to further finds of tools which were he believed to have been used by medieval armourers to repair dents in helmets and shield-bosses.

Mexico finds water tunnel network under tomb of Pakal

© INAH/AFP

Archaeologists at the Mayan ruin site of Palenque said on Monday they have discovered an underground water tunnel built under the Temple of Inscriptions, which houses the tomb of an ancient ruler named Pakal. Archaeologist Arnoldo Gonzalez said researchers believe the tomb and pyramid were purposely built atop a spring between AD 683 and 702. The tunnel led water from under the funeral chamber out into the broad esplanade in front of the temple, thus giving Pakal’s spirit a path to the underworld.

Oldest Known Evidence of Tobacco Use in North America Found in Ice Age Hunting Camp


Oldest Known Evidence of Tobacco Use in North America Found in Ice Age Hunting Camp
An Ice Age Hunting Camp replete with the bird bones and tobacco has been found in Utah, USA. It is the oldest known evidence of tobacco use found so far.

8,000-year-old cave paintings found in Turkey’s Balıkesir


A number of cave paintings dating back some 8,000 years have been found in Baltalıın and İnkaya caves in the Marmara province of Balıkesir during a field study conducted by Associate Prof. Dr. Derya Yalçıklı from Çanakkale (18th March) University, the Arkeofili website has reported.

The paintings, which date back to the Late Neolithic era, were located in two caves five kilometers apart and were said to be 8,000 years old, marking one of the most important archaeological discoveries made in Anatolia in recent years.

Field School Opportunity: Jersey, Channel Islands on Ice Age Island

Posted: Mon, 16 May 2016 12:58:00 +0000

Morning Ancient Diggers. I was contacted about a wonderful opportunity for those of you interested in digs pertaining to prehistory. The archaeological fieldschool in Jersey, Channel Islands is located at Les Varines, a Magdalenian settlement site approximately 15,000 years old. To date, the site has yielded over 5,000 stone artefacts, preserved animal bone, paved areas and, most exceptionally, engraved stones which have recently gained international media coverage and was featured in BBC2’s Digging for Britain.

© Jersey Heritage
This year the field school is available to students from external universities. They have five placements available for the 2016 season, and the deadline is right around the corner, May 25th.

Accommodation is camping but there are modern, clean, indoor WC/showering facilities, dining and socialising spaces. Meals are catered for by their project cook and pick up/ delivery to the airport is included. The total fee is $1,450* (excluding travel costs) covering two weeks of time.

If you are interested in joining the dig on Ice Age Island this summer, please send a brief email providing a bit of information about yourself, your relevant interest/experience and/or a CV to:

Dr Matt Pope (UCL Institute of Archaeology) email: [email protected]

In your email please specify whether you are interested in Field Season 1 (July 10 – July 23) or Field Season 2 (July 24th – August 6th) or whether you are able to do both.

The application deadline is June 25, 2016).

For more information or to sign up, visit the Project Page for La Mancha Prehistoric

22 Archaeology Books every Future Archaeologist should be reading

Posted: Fri, 06 May 2016 12:00:00 +0000

Even before I began my education in anthropology and archaeology, I had read several books on theory and method, as well as researched diverse cultures and multiple religions. However, once I started taking classes, the required course books became some of the most impactful resources and tools I had at my disposable. Granted, Indiana Jones would say "If you want to be a good archaeologist, you have to get out of the library". However, what if you also love the research aspect of this discipline, which does require you to sift through hundreds of good and bad books, trying to decipher what's fact and what's opinion?

These books, all of which I have either read cover to cover for classes, or read out of pure enjoyment, all have something to offer archaeology students looking to get into the field. The book that changed my focus from archaeology to anthropology is the first in my list. The professor that taught from this book attend University of Pennsylvania and had a curious and sometimes confusing way of approaching the class, and yet, I learned more from his class than any other during my graduate work.

22 Archaeology Books every Future Archaeologist should be reading

Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists – I've read this book from cover to cover several times. This book made me love Herbert Spencer, and even today, I still reference the social organism every chance I get. This new edition of Jerry D. Moore's Visions of Culture presents introductory anthropology students with a brief, readable, and balanced treatment of theoretical developments in the field. (Ancient Digger's Top Pick, and favorite anthropology book

Archaeological Theory: An Introduction – Archaeological Theory, 2nd Edition is the most current and comprehensive introduction to the field available. Thoroughly revised and updated, this engaging text offers students an ideal entry point to the major concepts and ongoing debates in archaeological research.

The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts
– In this groundbreaking work that sets apart fact and legend, authors Finkelstein and Silberman use significant archeological discoveries to provide historical information about biblical Israel and its neighbors.

Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First Three Million Years, 5th Edition (Casebooks in Criticism)
– Patterns in Prehistory, Fifth Edition, is a comprehensive and engaging survey of humanity's past three million years ago. It brings together theories and archaeological examples to pose questions about who we are and the means by which humanity evolved into what it is today. Ideal for introductory courses in world prehistory and origins of complex societies, Patterns in Prehistory, Fifth Edition, offers a unified and thematic approach to the four great transformations--or patterns--that characterize humanity's past: the origins and evolution of culture the origins of modern humans and human behaviors the origins of agriculture and the origins of complex societies, civilizations, and pre-industrial states. Integrating theoretical approaches with archaeological data from the Middle East, Mesoamerica, North and South America, Egypt, China, the Indus Valley, and temperate Europe, Patterns in Prehistory, Fifth Edition, reveals how archaeologists decipher the past. It demonstrates how theory and method are combined to derive interpretations and also considers how interpretations evolve as a result of accumulating data, technological advances in recording and analyzing data sets, and newer theoretical perspectives.

Friend by Day, Enemy by Night: Organized Vengeance in a Kohistani Community (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology) – This particular discussion is about the road built to the isolated villages and how it changed the community. Interestingly, you would think with the addition of a new info structure, organized vengeance would fade to some sort of degree. This was not case, as the first highway system actually promoted it, linking villagers with a more modern economy and a new political system. Therefore, this new highway triggered sociocultural transitions in Thull that ultimately resulted in Dushmani.

Life in the Pueblo: Understanding the Past Through Archaeology – Within the effective format of a nontechnical case study, Life in the Pueblo provides an understanding of the basic methodologies in modern archaeology, including the formation of archaeological sites, dating, the role of ethnographic analogy, and analytic techniques like trace element sourcing, use-wear analysis, and carbon isotope determinations of diet. The archaeological interpretations are put into perspective by the inclusion of Hope and Zuni history and myth and the liberal use of ethnographic information from the Hopi and other historic and modern puebloan groups. A short fictional reconstruction of life in the village invites the reader to reflect on the fact that the past was a period occupied by people, not just potsherds. Based on four years of excavation and ten years of analysis of a puebloan site near modern Flagstaff, Arizona, this profusely illustrated volume captures readers' interest and imagination as it explores some of the fundamental principles of archaeology.

Native Religions of North America: The Power of Visions and Fertility – The diversity and continuities in American Indian spirituality! The religious life of Native Americans is a panorama featuring an immense diversity of beliefs, ceremonies, and ways of life. Native Religions of North America reflects this rich tradition as it admirably distills a complex subject in a practical and engaging manner. Through concise expression and careful choice of examples, Hultkrantz identifies the diversity and continuities in American Indian spirituality. He introduces the hunters and farmers, the past and present, and the physical contexts and the sublime speculations of tribal religions, even the subtle shades of meaning within an Indian community.

Ancient Egypt: An Introduction – This book provides an introduction to one of the greatest civilization of all time - ancient Egypt. Beginning with a geographical overview that explains the development of Egyptian belief systems as well as its subsequent political development, it examines methodology, the history of the discipline of Egyptology, religion, social organization, urban and rural life, and death. It also includes a section on how people of all ranks lived. Lavishly illustrated, with many unusual photographs of rarely seen sites that are seldom illustrated, this volume is suitable for use in introductory-level courses on ancient Egypt. It offers a variety of student-friendly features, including a glossary, a bibliography, and a list of sources for those who wish to further their interest in ancient Egypt.

Sexuality in Greek and Roman Culture – "Sexuality in Greek and Roman Culture" is the first comprehensive survey of ancient Greek and Roman sexuality. This title covers a wide range of subjects, including Greek pederasty and the symposium, ancient prostitution, representations of women in Greece and Rome, and the public regulation of sexual behavior. It introduces readers to the bitter theoretical debates that have been fought about gender and sexuality in the classical world. The material is ordered chronologically. This title draws parallels between ancient sexual ideology and contemporary culture. It also draws on literary, artistic and archaeological sources, as well as secondary scholarly sources. It was theoretically sophisticated and skillfully argued, yet accessible.

Lives in Ruins: Archaeologists and the Seductive Lure of Human Rubble – History is recorded in many ways. According to author James Deetz, the past can be seen most fully by studying the small things so often forgotten. Objects such as doorways, gravestones, musical instruments, and even shards of pottery fill in the cracks between large historical events and depict the intricacies of daily life. In his completely revised and expanded edition of In Small Things Forgotten, Deetz has added new sections that more fully acknowledge the presence of women and African Americans in Colonial America. New interpretations of archaeological finds detail how minorities influenced and were affected by the development of the Anglo-American tradition

In Small Things Forgotten: An Archaeology of Early American Life – History is recorded in many ways. According to author James Deetz, the past can be seen most fully by studying the small things so often forgotten. Objects such as doorways, gravestones, musical instruments, and even shards of pottery fill in the cracks between large historical events and depict the intricacies of daily life. In his completely revised and expanded edition of In Small Things Forgotten, Deetz has added new sections that more fully acknowledge the presence of women and African Americans in Colonial America.

A History of Ancient Egypt (Blackwell History of the Ancient World) –Outlining the major political and cultural events, A History of Ancient Egypt is an authoritative and accessible introduction to this fascinating ancient culture. An accessible chronological narrative that draws on a range of historical sources. Offers an up-to-date survey of ancient Egypt’s history from its origins to its domination by the Roman Empire. Considers social and economic life and the rich culture of ancient Egypt
Places Egypt’s history within its regional context, detailing interactions with Asia and Africa. Engages students with various perspectives on a range of critical issues with the Key Debate section included in each chapter. Makes the latest discoveries and scholarship accessible to a wide audience

The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel (Archaeology and Biblical Studies) – Three decades of dialogue, discussion, and debate within the interrelated disciplines of Syro-Palestinian archaeology, ancient Israelite history, and Hebrew Bible over the question of the relevance of the biblical account for reconstructing early Israels history have created the need for a balanced articulation of the issues and their prospective resolutions. This book brings together for the first time and under one cover, a currently emerging centrist paradigm as articulated by two leading figures in the fields of early Israelite archaeology and history. Although Finkelstein and Mazar advocate distinct views of early Israels history, they nevertheless share the position that the material cultural data, the biblical traditions, and the ancient Near Eastern written sources are all significantly relevant to the historical quest for Iron Age Israel. The results of their research are featured in accessible, parallel syntheses of the historical reconstruction of early Israel that facilitate comparison and contrast of their respective interpretations.

Archaeology 6th Edition – This text pairs two of archaeology's most recognized names: Robert L. Kelly and David Hurst Thomas, who together have over seventy years of experience leading excavations. The sixth edition of ARCHAEOLOGY reflects the most recent research and changes in the field, while covering core concepts in an exceptionally student-friendly fashion using personalized examples and high-interest topics. This edition continues a tradition of combining academic rigor with an engaging writing style that has made ARCHAEOLOGY one of the most well-respected and best-selling texts in the discipline. A rich array of supplemental resources is available for purchase, including a book companion website, as well as a CD-ROM developed by the authors entitled DOING FIELDWORK: ARCHAEOLOGICAL DEMONSTRATIONS.

1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed (Turning Points in Ancient History) – A compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to, and ultimately destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age—and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greece.

Archaeology Essentials: Theories, Methods, and Practice – This new brief version of the best-selling textbook was carefully rewritten to provide a readable and compact introduction to archaeology for those new to the field. No other book of this length can match its range of essential information and explanation. The vocabulary and the use of technical terms have been carefully reviewed. The amount of detail has been considerably reduced, and coverage of difficult or cutting-edge topics is made more accessible for students in courses that treat such subjects briefly. In particular, the coverage of archaeological theory and science has been substantially rewritten to provide a convenient overview without overwhelming the student. 220 black-and-white illustrations

The Complete Pompeii (The Complete Series) – With its lavish illustrations, covering monumental architecture and inscriptions, shops, graffiti, wall-paintings, and mosaics, plus its numerous box features ranging from theatrical entertainments to water supply, The Complete Pompeii is the ultimate resource and inspirational guide to this iconic ancient town.

The Last Days of the Incas–The epic story of the fall of the Inca Empire to Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro in the aftermath of a bloody civil war, and the recent discovery of the lost guerrilla capital of the Incas, Vilcabamba, by three American explorers.

Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists – I've read this book from cover to cover several times. This book made me love Herbert Spencer, and even today, I still reference the social organism every chance I get. This new edition of Jerry D. Moore's Visions of Culture presents introductory anthropology students with a brief, readable, and balanced treatment of theoretical developments in the field. (Ancient Digger's Top Pick, and favorite anthropology book

Archaeology for Dummies – This is the perfect archaeology for beginners book. Archaeology For Dummies offers a fascinating look at this intriguing field, taking readers on-site and revealing little-known details about some of the world's greatest archaeological discoveries. It explores how archaeology attempts to uncover the lives of our ancestors, examining historical dig sites around the world and explaining theories about ancient human societies. The guide also offers helpful information for readers who want to participate in an excavation themselves, as well as tips for getting the best training and where to look for jobs.

The Archaeology Book (Wonders of Creation) – Developed with three educational levels in mind, The Archaeology Book takes you on an exciting exploration of history and ancient cultures. You'll learn both the techniques of the archaeologist and the accounts of some of the richest discoveries of the Middle East that demonstrate the accuracy and historicity of the Bible.

Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice (Sixth Edition) – Since its first edition, Renfrew and Bahn’s Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice has been the leading academic source on what archaeologists do and how they do it. This indispensable resource is a comprehensive introduction to archaeology’s theories, methods, and practices in the field, the laboratory, and the library.

Gods, Graves & Scholars: The Story of Archaeology – C.W. Ceram visualized archeology as a wonderful combination of high adventure, romance, history and scholarship, and this book, a chronicle of man's search for his past, reads like a dramatic narrative. We travel with Heinrich Schliemann as, defying the ridicule of the learned world, he actually unearths the remains of the ancient city of Troy. We share the excitement of Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter as they first glimpse the riches of Tutankhamen's tomb, of George Smith when he found the ancient clay tablets that contained the records of the Biblical Flood. We rediscover the ruined splendors of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the wonders of the ancient wold of Chichen Itza, the abandoned pyramids of the Maya: and the legendary Labyrinth of tile Minotaur in Crete. Here is much of the history of civilization and the stories of the men who rediscovered it.

Archaeology and Anthropology Internships, Scholarships, Books, Tools and Resources

Posted: Fri, 29 Apr 2016 12:00:00 +0000

The Archaeology and Anthropology Internships, Scholarships, Books, Tools and Resources page was created to provide you with helpful resources before and during your archaeological career. I have included the popular Top Archaeology and Anthropology Schools, Universities, and Colleges page, US Archaeology and Anthropology Schools and their Disciplines, as well as several other guides and resources.

Archaeology and Anthropology Guides (Ancient Digger's Most Popular Help Articles)

US Archaeology and Anthropology Schools and their Disciplines –I created this comprehensive list of Archaeology and Anthropology Schools in the United States and their Disciplines to assist students looking into the fields of anthropology and archaeology. When I first started looking for schools I quickly figured out, it was overwhelming. I had to visit dozens of websites just to gather the information I needed, to determine whether the college or university had the archaeology discipline I was interested in.

Best Graduate and Undergraduate Schools, Universities, and Colleges for Archaeology and Anthropology – I have compiled several lists in order to help you determine the top colleges and universities with the best anthropology and archaeology undergraduate and graduate programs and schools.

Best Schools for Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology and Archaeology – These schools for Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology and Archaeology are not ranked in any specific order, as I believe they contribute to these fields in their own unique ways. I have put the main area of focus next to the college name, but please remember, many of the biological and evolutionary programs are combined into one department at some schools.

Best Graduate Schools for Linguistics – Many students find phonics, semantics, and pragmatics of linguistics programs far too fascinating to pass up as a degree goal. Studying linguistics provides a scientific foundation for broad-based study of human communication that is usually broken into three main subfields, including language meaning, language context, and language form. Within these subfields, graduate schools for linguistics offer students study possibilities involving evolutionary, social, and historical aspects.

Best Graduate Schools for Classical Archaeology – Classical archaeology is a deeply interesting subject that has enchanted researchers and students for ages. Quite simply, it is the study of archaeological excavations from Ancient Greece and Rome. However, some only consider it to be the study of the Roman and Athenian civilizations, but it can include other subjects such as Minoan and Crete civilizations. This field involves not only excavations in the Mediterranean, but the analysis and research into the artifacts, deciphering the ancient texts, and learning about the history of the region. Completion of graduate programs for classical archaeology can mean careers in teaching and writing at major research universities, working at a museum as a curator, or even doing research and excavations.

Guide To Archaeology and Anthropology Graduate School 101 – I recently attended a seminar featuring Dr. John Walker, Professor Peter Sinelli, and Dr.John Schultz from the University of Central Florida. The seminar focused on the Do's and Don'ts of applying to graduate school for archaeology and anthropology and was organized by Hominids Anonymous Anthropology Club.

Beginner's Guide To A Career in Anthropology and Archeology – Are you interested in human history? Do you wonder where we came from and how we got here? If so, you might want to consider a career in either archaeology or anthropology. This article will give a detailed look at these career fields and help you decide if one of them is right for you.

Field Schools

AFOB Field schools – The Archaeological Institute of America offers a plethora of choices for field schools. Whether you're a high school student looking for your first dig, a retired individual just looking for an interesting and educational experience, or an archaeologist or professor working in your field, there's something for everyone.

Fieldwork Directory – Past Horizons World Projects has an extensive list of field work opportunities. They are one of the largest online databases of fieldwork opportunities in the world, featuring hundreds of listings for archaeological projects. The database contains details about the site, with links, project information, dates, costs and much more.

Archaeology and Anthropology Scholarships and Funding

Archaeology school can come with a cost, and so can research. For those students who continue their studies, and require additional funding to research a certain area or discipline, there are numerous funding opportunities available.

Scholarship Search Database – I have used Fastweb's services for years for my own students. The application process can get a little lengthy, but they have so many opportunities that often go unclaimed.

Jane C. Waldbaum Archaeological Field School Scholarship – Established in honor of AIA Honorary President Jane Waldbaum, this scholarship is intended to help students who are planning to participate in archaeological field work for the first time. Students majoring in archaeology or related disciplines are especially encouraged to apply. The Scholarship Fund provides $1000 each to help pay expenses associated with participation in an archaeological field work project (minimum stay one month/4 weeks).

Archaeolink Archaeology, Anthropology, History Scholarships – This page is designed to be a starting point for your research by providing examples of the wide range of scholarships offered in archaeology, anthropology and history. Keep checking back. This section gets updated regularly.

Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) – The Field Museum REU program will train a cohort of at least eight students in biodiversity-related research in a 10-week summer program. Each participant will undertake an independent research project supervised by a museum scientist in a discipline such as taxonomy and systematics, phylo/ biogeography, paleontology, molecular phylogenetics, or conservation.

Research Scholarships and Grants – The Field Museum recognizes the need to support basic research on its collections by interested students and scholars throughout the world. To this end, the Museum offers a modest number of grants and fellowships to visiting scientists and students for research and training in our scientific collections and state-of-the-art laboratories. Grants to examine specimens in our collections are open on a competitive basis to all individuals in the national and international scholarly community working on problems related to natural history. Eligibility for undergraduate research (REU) internships, high school internships and science educators vary, please consult the description for each program.

Scholarships.com – I've used this site since 2009 for myself and for my students. You can teach virtually any discipline and find something that meets your qualifications.

ZONTA Women in Science Scholarship – Application Deadlines: June 15, Annually Founded in 1919, Zonta International is a leading global organization of professionals empowering women worldwide through service and advocacy. With more than 30,000 members belonging to more than 1,200 Zonta Clubs in 67 countries and geographic areas, Zontians all over the world volunteer their time, talents and support to local and international service projects, as well as scholarship programs [. ]More

East Asia and Pacific Summer Institutes for U.S. Graduate Students (EAPSI) – Application Deadlines: November 12, 2016 NSF and selected foreign counterpart science and technology agencies sponsor international research institutes for U.S. graduate students in seven East Asia and Pacific locations at times set by the counterpart agencies between June and August each year. The Summer Institutes (EAPSI) operate similarly and the research visits to a particular location take place at the same time. Although applicants apply individually to participate in a Summer Institute, awardees become part of the cohort for each location. Applicants must propose a location, host scientist, and research project that is appropriate for the host site and duration of the international visit. More

Advancing Women in STEM Scholarship
Application Deadlines: December 31, Annually
Women earn almost 60% of all bachelor's degrees in the United States, but they earn only 20% of computer science degrees, 20% of physics degrees, and 18% of engineering degrees. And estimates show that by 2018, the U.S. will face a shortage of more than one million STEM workers.

AWMF & Loreen Arbus Foundation Focus on Disability Scholarship
Application Deadlines: March 31, Annually
Our mission is to utilize the media to create positive change. The Alliance for Women in Media Foundation supports educational programs, charitable activities, public service campaigns and scholarships to benefit the public, the media and allied fields. This journalist scholarship program consists of one scholarship, made payable directly to the winning student's educational institute.

Bache Renshaw Fellowship
Application Deadlines: January 16, Annually
The Renshaw Fellowship supports the study and shaping of school curricula by providing grants to those seeking to become superintendents curriculum developers or influential scholars teaching, writing, and lecturing on educational issues. The Renshaw Fellowship is granted to current doctoral students or applicants to doctoral programs in education.

Beulah Frey Environmental Scholarship
Application Deadlines: March 31, Annually
The Beulah Frey Environmental Scholarship - ASWP awards scholarships to graduating high school seniors from our service area of Allegheny, Armstrong, south Butler, Beaver, North Fayette, Northeast Washington, and Westmoreland counties. Students who are applying to two or four-year colleges to further their studies in an environmentally-related field are eligible to apply.

Boston University Robert Noyce Scholarship Programs
Application Deadlines: February 05, Annually
Boston University is excited to announce the Noyce Scholarship Program in Mathematics, a new initiative to prepare middle school and high school mathematics teachers. With funding from the National Science Foundation and the School of Education and in collaboration with six local school districts and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Noyce Program will train up to 13 graduate students.

Cleveland State University Robert J. Noyce Scholarship Program
Application Deadlines: Varies
Full tuition fellowships awarded to highly qualified applicants committed to addressing social justice and change in Urban School and Communities.

Cognizant Making the Future Scholarship
Application Deadlines: March 31, Annually
The Cognizant Making the Future scholarship program recognizes today's inspiration as tomorrow’s innovation. The goal of the scholarship program is to expand the pool of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields who are encouraged "to be makers of things, not just consumers of things".

Elms College STEM Scholarships
Application Deadlines: February 01, Annually
The Elms College ElmSTEM program, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, awards scholarship funds to students who major in STEM fields and attend Elms College full-time. First-year students interested in majoring in biology, computer information technology, chemistry, or mathematics are invited to apply to the ElmSTEM program.

Environmental Studies/Natural Science Scholarship Program
Application Deadlines: March 31, Annually
Each year, the Friends of Volo Bog offers a scholarship for Environmental Studies/Natural Science college students. Eligibility: Be a High School Senior applying to an accredited college/university to study environmental or natural science Be a College/University Student intending to continue studies of environmental or natural science at an accredited college

EPP Undergraduate Scholarship Program
Application Deadlines: January 29, Annually
The goal of the EPP Undergraduate Scholars Program is to increase the number of students who undertake course work and graduate with degrees in targeted academic fields integral to NOAA's mission. This program targets students who have completed their sophomore year, attending minority serving institutions (MSIs), and have recently declared, or about to declare a major in atmospheric, oceanic, etc.

Fontana Transport Inc Scholars Program
Application Deadlines: March 15, Annually
Fontana Transport Inc. is a family owned trucking company based out of Southern California whose owners are passionate about higher education and to be able to help future leaders in their community pursue a higher education degree.

Gladys Carol Scholarship
Application Deadlines: March 31, Annually
The Gladys Carol Scholarship Program is open to high school seniors, high school graduates, current postsecondary undergraduates, and graduate level students who are United States citizens or permanent residents. They must be pursuing a full-time STEM (science, technology, engineering or math) degree at an accredited, non-profit public or private four-year college or university in the United States.

Gloria Barron Wilderness Society Scholarship
Application Deadlines: March 31, Annually
Graduate students meeting the eligibility requirements noted below may apply directly to The Wilderness Society. Eligibility: Be enrolled in an accredited graduate institution in North America Have strong academic qualifications Have academic and/or career goals focused on making a significant positive difference in the long-term protection of wilderness in the United States.

Go Abroad – Extensive list of international fellowships, grants, and scholarships. The ending is available to high school students, graduate and undergraduate students, and also students working on certifications.

ISI Henry Salvatori Fellowship
Application Deadlines: January 16, Annually
The ISI Salvatori Fellowship seeks to further an understanding and appreciation of the principles held by the American Founding Fathers and the culture that formed their values and views.The Salvatori Fellowship is granted to current graduate students in a field related to the American Founding.

JASC-Nielsen STEM Scholarship
Application Deadlines: November 20, Annually
In recognition of the community's achievements and its enduring values, Nielsen supports the next generation of Asian American leaders in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics with these two scholarships.

MIT Inspire Competition
Application Deadlines: Varies
MIT INSPIRE is the first national research competition for high school students in the arts, humanities, and social sciences. The competition is organized by MIT undergraduates. Participating high school students, as individuals or teams of two will submit research reports in one of 13 fields, such as: history, economics, or philosophy.

National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Center
Application Deadlines: Varies
The National Science Foundation's Graduate Research Fellowship Program helps ensure the vitality of the human resource base of science and engineering in the United States and reinforces its diversity. The program recognizes and supports outstanding graduate students in NSF-supported science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines who are pursuing research-based master's and [. ] More

National Space Club Keynote Scholarships
Application Deadlines: December 02, Annually
Provided to a high school senior, undergraduate or graduate student with definite plans to pursue a career in the Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics (STEM) fields.

Nellie Martin Carman Scholarship Fund
Application Deadlines: March 01, Annually
Founded in 1949, the Nellie Martin Carman Scholarship is available to graduating seniors from public high schools in King, Pierce, and Snohomish counties in Washington state. Application forms are only available through these high schools and candidates for the scholarship are nominated by their school each year by March 1st. Awards range from $500 to $2,000 a year.

Out To Innovate Scholarships for LGBTQ STEM Students
Application Deadlines: June 06, Annually
NOGLSTP established the Out To Innovate Scholarships for LGBTQ STEM Students, following NOGLSTP's inaugural Out to Innovate Career Summit for LGBTQ People in STEM. These scholarships are intended for undergraduate and graduate students pursuing degrees in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) programs who are either lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.

PG & E NuEnergy Scholarship
Application Deadlines: February 09, Annually
The NuEnergy scholarship program targets top-performing college students who have an interest and desire to pursue a career in the energy sector.

Scarlett Family Foundation Scholarship
Application Deadlines: December 15, Annually
Scarlett Family Foundation Scholarships are open to high school seniors and college freshmen, sophomores, and juniors who will graduate or have graduated from high school in one of the following Middle Tennessee counties: Bedford, Cannon, Cheatham, Clay, Coffee, Cumberland, Davidson, Dekalb, Dickson, Fentress, Franklin, Giles, Hickman, Houston, Humphreys, Jackson, Lawrence, Lewis, Lincoln, Macon, [. ] More

The Antonio J. Waring, Jr. Scholarship Fund Endowment
Application Deadlines: Varies
In accordance with the primary mission of the fund, The Antonio J. Waring, Jr. Scholarship Fund Endowment awards the Antonio J. Waring, Jr. Anthropology Endowment Scholarship to Anthropology majors at the University of West Georgia. These awards offset the cost of education for students, taking into account the costs of tuition, fees, books, and room and board.

The Hispanic Scholarship Fund College Scholarships
Application Deadlines: April 02, Annually
HSF/ General College Scholarships are designed to assist students of Hispanic heritage obtain a college degree. Scholarships are available on a competitive basis to graduating high school seniors, community college transfer students, undergraduate students and graduate students.

-Must be of Hispanic Heritage
-Minimum of 3.0 GPA on a 4.0 scale (or equivalent) for high school [. ] More

The LAGRANT Foundation Undergraduate Scholarships
Application Deadlines: February 28, Annually
Scholarship recipients will receive a trip to Atlanta where they will participate in career building activities including a welcome dinner with a keynote speaker, two daylong career & professional development workshops and a scholarship & donor recognition reception.

The Saul Kagan Claims Conference Fellowship for Advanced Shoah Studies
Application Deadlines: January 04, Annually
The Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany (Claims Conference) is offering a limited number of fellowships for Ph.D. and postdoctoral candidates conducting research on the Holocaust. The Saul Kagan Claims Conference Fellowship for Advanced Shoah Studies aims to strengthen Shoah studies and Holocaust memory throughout the world.

Theodore Gordon Flyfishers, Inc. Founders Fund Scholarship
Application Deadlines: April 01, Annually
This merit scholarship is offered annually in the name of the TGF founders, to a single recipient who has demonstrated excellence and outstanding dedication in a field of study that falls within an environmental field of a school or department.

Washington State Opportunity Scholarship
Application Deadlines: February 28, Annually
The Washington State Opportunity Scholarship (WSOS) supports low- and middle-income students pursuing eligible high-demand majors in science, technology, engineering, math (STEM) or health care and encourages recipients to work in Washington state once they complete their degrees.

Archaeology and Anthropology Internships and Fellowships

Field Museum Women in Science Internships – The internships are hosted in many departments throughout the Museum and aim to give young individuals the opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in the sciences. The FMWIS Internship Program is hosting five high school and five undergraduate paid interns for 6 weeks in summer 2016. Applicants are welcome to apply to more than one project.

Smithsonian Internships and Fellowships – The National Anthropological Archives periodicially offers paid and unpaid internships for graduate and undergraduate students interested in exploring a career in archives or anthropology. Intern projects are carried out under the direct supervision of a professional anthropologist, archivist or imaging specialist. Intern projects vary depending on the background and experience of the student, but when available focus on digital imaging, manuscript and photograph collections, and reference services. Please check the Smithsonian Office of Fellowships and Internships page for more information on NAA internships. Please email any inquiries to [email protected]

Saltz Internship Program – (High School Students)Participating in the Saltz Internship Program is an opportunity for you to meet Museum personnel, explore scientific content, learn valuable skills for working with and teaching learners of all ages, and have an impact on the experiences of thousands of Museum visitors.

National Endowment for the Humanities – ARIT Advanced Fellowships for Research in Turkey. ARIT directly supports and administers a variety of programs of fellowships for scholarly research and for language study in Turkey.

Paleobiology Internships – The National Museum of Natural History offers internships in the Paleobiology Department with emphasis on the current research initiatives of the staff. An internship at Natural History is a prearranged, structured learning experience scheduled within a specific time frame. The experience must be relevant to the intern's academic goals, and matched to to the Paleobiology Department's research and museum activities. An internship is performed under the direct supervision of Smithsonian staff. Internship appointments should be for at least six weeks and require a minimum commitment of 16 hour per week.

Grants

Samuel H. Kress Grants for Research and Publication in Classical Art and Architecture – These grants fund publication preparation, or research leading to publication, undertaken by professional members of the AIA.

The AIA Publication Subvention Program – This program offers subventions from the AIA's von Bothmer Publication Fund in support of new book-length publications in the field of Greek, Roman, and Etruscan archaeology and art history.

INSTAP Grants – The goal of INSTAP's grant program is to promote knowledge of the Aegean region, and to support archaeological fieldwork and research in that area in the chronological span of the Paleolithic through to the 8th century B.C.

AIA Site Preservation Grant – This grant is intended to fund projects that uphold the AIA's mission to preserve and promote the world's archaeological heritage for future generations. The goal of the grant, which carries a maximum value of $25,000 to be awarded over the course of one to three years, is to maximize global preservation efforts and awareness through AIA support.

Cotsen Excavation Grants – The Cotsen Excavation Grant Program provides two grants per year of up to $25,000 each. One will be for a first time director launching a new project One will be open to all professionals working in the field. Applicants must be AIA members in good standing and must have a Ph.D. in archaeology or related field.

Society Outreach Grant Program – The Outreach and Education Grant is to encourage societies to undertake activities such as a teachers' workshop, a kids' archaeology fair, a symposium or event in a local library, or other project promotes archaeology and the AIA's objectives for local community outreach.

AIA/DAI Fellowships – AIA Fellowship and Grant Application Form

Helen M. Woodruff Fellowship – Deadline: November 1, annually (Application must be sent to American Academy in Rome)

Olivia James Traveling Fellowship – Deadline: November 1, annually Announced February 1 Amount: $25,000

The Archaeology of Portugal Fellowship – Deadline: November 1, annually – To support projects relating to the archaeology of Portugal

Harriet and Leon Pomerance Fellowship – Deadline: November 1, annually To support a project relating to Aegean Bronze Age archaeology.

Anna C. and Oliver C. Coburn Fellowship – Deadline: January 15, annually To support study at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Tools

Ground Penetrating Radar– US Radar is a technological leader in the design and innovation of ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems. If you need to see what is on the other side of a surface, the high-profile Quantum Imager technology can safely help you define what you can’t see with the bare eye.

Bon 84-948 Archaeologist's Starter Tool Kit – Whether you are new to archaeology or have been involved with this art for years, this is one kit you will want to have on every dig you go on. Includes 250'neon line, 3/8" leaf and square, a line level, Lufkin metric rule, 15" canvas bag for all your findings, a 5" x 2" margin trowel, a 7" x 3" pointing trowel and a five piece set of detail brushes.

Bon 12-309 Superlight Molded Rubber Foam Waterproof Knee Pads – Bon's superlight molded rubber foam knee pads with entrapped air provide maximum cushion and comfort. Flexible rubber straps are slotted to fit over buttons. Waterproof to keep you dry. Sold in pairs. Lightweight.

SE 8399-RH-ROCK 11-Inch Rock Hammer, 20 Oz.– 20-oz. Rock Hammer—created especially with prospectors, rock hounds, contractors, and the everyday user in mind. This heavy, well-balanced, 20-oz. rock hammer is fully polished and forged of one piece of steel. It has a comfortable grip handle and comes with a reusable heavy-duty plastic tip cover.

MARSHALLTOWN The Premier Line ATH114S 4-Inch Heavy Duty London Style Pointing Trowel with Archaeology Holster–Forged from a single piece of high carbon steel Good for cutting compacted sediment and compressed soils Tempered, ground, and polished Extra Stiff blade Holster made of rugged construction with long-wearing protective insert and riveted belt loop.

MARSHALLTOWN The Premier Line ATH54 Archaeology Margin Trowel with Holster–Forged from a single piece of highest grade tool steel this trowel is good for cutting compacted sediment and compressed soils.

Estwing E32H 30-Ounce Carpenter's Hatchet with Nylon Vinyl Grip Handle, Smooth Face–Estwing's carpenter's hatchet has a 3-5/8-Inch curring edge and a nylon vinyl grip handle. 30-Ounce size

Snap-on 870338 Kneeling Pad, 9-Inch x 20-Inch– Snap-On Kneeling Pad features a black/red nylon webbing handle and is made from waterproof 600D polyester on the bottom and neoprene material on the top. Bottom is red and top is black. Material inside is a 1-1/2 inch closed cell polyethylene foam. Dimensions: 20" x 9" x 1-1/2".

Folding Excavation Square– Use this handy tool to layout your dig site and grid lines. Folds for easy storage. A nylone carrying case is included.

Gammon Reel 012 12-Feet Surveyors with Orange Line– Quickly attaches to plumb bob. Eliminates string troubles and provides an instant rewind of plumb bob.

Bon 22-369 5-Liter Plastic Measuring Pitcher– Bon's plastic measuring pitcher is used to measure viscous materials. Measurement markings for both metric volume in liters and milliliters.

Estwing E6048E Engineer's Hammer, 48-Ounce– Estwing's 16-inch engineer's hammer has a shock reduction grip which offers both comfort and durability, the head and handle are forged in one piece and have an attractive blue UV coating, both faces are fully polished.

Archaeology for Kids

Archaeology for Kids: Uncovering the Mysteries of Our Past, 25 Activities (For Kids series)
– This activity book features 25 projects such as making a surface survey of a site, building a screen for sifting dirt and debris at a dig, tracking soil age by color, and counting tree rings to date a find, teaches kids the techniques that unearthed Neanderthal caves, Tutankhamun’s tomb, the city of Pompeii, and Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec empire. Kids will delight in fashioning a stone-age tool, playing a seriation game with old photographs of cars, “reading” objects excavated in their own backyards, and using patent numbers to date modern artifacts as they gain an overview of human history and the science that brings it back to life.

Hands-On Archaeology: Real-Life Activities for Kids
– Hands-On Archaeology shows teachers everything they will need to help students conduct real-life archaeological digs. Packed with activities, this book first offers small-scale activities that can easily be conducted in the classroom using everyday materials. Then, the author takes kids out if the school to an empty lot in the community. Students will not just learn about archaeology they will be archaeologists!

Grafix Dig and Discover Stegosaurus Excavation Kit – This dig and discover stegosaurus excavation kit is a perfect gift for the dinosaur lover! Enjoy the process of digging for dinosaur bones. Do you have a future archaeologist in your midst? Watch them discover the excitement of uncovering their very first specimen! Hours of fun! Kit Contains: 1 Dinosaur Fossil, 1 Clay Block, 1 Brush, 1 Digging Tool, 1 Instruction Sheet

Pirate Treasure Chest Dig Excavation Kit – Kids dig this extraordinary excavation project. Use the digging tool to chip away at the gypsum sand block to ultimate find a the pirate treasure. Each set in colorful printed box. Of course, this will be a toy treasure.

Dig! Discover Indian Relics – Unearth collection of 10 Indian inches relics inches cast from authentic finds, (embedded in 9 inches x6 inches frame). Find replicas of an Indian spearhead, arrowheads, pottery sherds, and an ancient stone knife. Restore and paint these treasures of the past. Contents: excavating block, brushes, tool, paint tablets, booklet inches How to become an Archaeologist inches instructions.

Books

Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists – I've read this book from cover to cover several times. This book made me love Herbert Spencer, and even today, I still reference the social organism every chance I get. This new edition of Jerry D. Moore's Visions of Culture presents introductory anthropology students with a brief, readable, and balanced treatment of theoretical developments in the field. (Ancient Digger's Top Pick, and favorite anthropology book

The Archaeology Book (Wonders of Creation) – Developed with three educational levels in mind, The Archaeology Book takes you on an exciting exploration of history and ancient cultures. You'll learn both the techniques of the archaeologist and the accounts of some of the richest discoveries of the Middle East that demonstrate the accuracy and historicity of the Bible.

Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice (Sixth Edition) – Since its first edition, Renfrew and Bahn’s Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice has been the leading academic source on what archaeologists do and how they do it. This indispensable resource is a comprehensive introduction to archaeology’s theories, methods, and practices in the field, the laboratory, and the library.

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